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中文論文名稱 國家民主化之國際社會化研究:台灣、貝南與保加利亞的比較分析
英文論文名稱 Democratic Socialization of State: A Comparative Analysis of Taiwan, Benin and Bulgaria
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 徐子軒
研究生英文姓名 Lucian, T. H. Hsu
學號 896330064
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-06-06
論文頁數 214頁
口試委員 指導教授-王高成
委員-嚴震生
委員-袁易
委員-郭秋慶
委員-陳一新
委員-王高成
中文關鍵字 民主化  社會化  國際關係理論  比較政治  科際整合 
英文關鍵字 Democratization  Socialization  IR theory  Comparative politics  Interdisciplinary Integration 
學科別分類
中文摘要 社會化是國際關係理論中逐漸興起且成長迅速的概念,也是建構主義理論的中心思維。本研究將民主化視為是一種複合的社會化過程:在所謂民主轉型的階段,觸發民主化的機制多是菁英之間的策略評估,以工具理性計算;而在民主鞏固的階段,推動民主化的機制則屬於角色扮演或是規範說服。

本研究所提出之民主社會化,乃是一個外因(國際力量主導的全球化)和內因(國內力量主導的政治變革)互動的過程。內在機制的發育主要與國家的政治文化傳統、經濟發展和社會結構的變遷相適應;而國際因素主要扮演一國政治民主化的塑造者和推動者的角色。通過對一國民主化的動因分析,本研究認為,外因在許多時候(甚至是關鍵時候)起了重要作用,同時也要注意,內因對外因有傳導、過濾作用。外因主要包括霸權因素、區域整合以及各種非國家行為體等,這些外部因素通過一定的管道作用於一國國內政治結構,推動國內公民社會、政黨體制以及民主政治文化的變遷,由此使得改革不斷發展,達到民主鞏固與民主深化。

最後,本研究發現台灣、貝南與保加利亞仍處於民主轉型的後期階段,這是由於國家/社會的行為邏輯,並未從後果邏輯轉向適當邏輯所致。進一步來說,是三國內部的公民社會發展尚嫌稚嫩,台灣未來需轉向規範遵循與身分認同,民主才能得到真正的鞏固。
英文摘要 Socialization, the central core of constructivism, is a growing and flourishing concept in the field of international relations theory. In this plan, democratization is viewed as a complex socialization process. Hence, in the phase of democratic transition, democratization is often manipulated by political elites for preserving national interests as well as maintaining their personal interests. Namely, the trigger mechanism is called strategic calculation. On the other hand, in phase of democracy consolidation, democratization is based on the internalization of norms and values. Generally, trigger mechanisms should include either role playing or normative suasion there.

In the study of democratization, both democratic transition and consolidation scholars often ignore the impact of international aspect. But in the globalization era, every force, such as state actors, international organizations or regimes, global culture, transnational advocacy networks and NGO, are very important to the new wave of democratization. This study therefore uses the new approach called democratic socialization, which combine the theories of compliance and socialization and democratization, to analyze how Taiwan could entry the period of democratic transition and consolidation. The approach view democratic institution as an international norm so that a country follows this norm, then democracy will be happened. To compare with Taiwan, Benin and Bulgaria are democratizing as the control group. According to this study, Benin is forced by the material persuasion of external force; Bulgaria is persuaded of the conditionality of EU and Taiwan is acculturated by the global culture and social learning from the persuasion of external force.

Although the three governments sought to improve the development of democracy in the past two decades, they still stay between the stages of democracy transition and democracy consolidation on nowadays. The current political situation in the three counties could attribute to the fact that the action of the state did not follow the logic of consequence. Therefore, in order to advance their political situation, it is necessary for the three governments to relocate national policies and emphasize the function of norms and identity by as the logic of appropriateness.
論文目次 第一章 緒論-----------------------------------------------------------------------1
第一節 研究動機與目的-------------------------------------------------1
第二節 相關文獻評述-----------------------------------------------------7
第三節 研究方法---------------------------------------------------------12
第四節 研究架構與章節安排------------------------------------------14
第五節 研究範圍與限制------------------------------------------------17
第二章 民主社會化------------------------------------------------------------19
第一節 民主化之內涵與進程------------------------------------------20
第二節 社會化與國家順從之定義------------------------------------28
第三節 融合的途徑:民主社會化------------------------------------48
第四節 小結---------------------------------------------------------------65
第三章 民主轉型期的社會化進程------------------------------------------67
第一節 三國民主轉型過程---------------------------------------------67
第二節 民主轉型的外力與內因---------------------------------------87
第三節 小結--------------------------------------------------------------107
第四章 民主鞏固期的社會化進程-----------------------------------------113
第一節 三國民主鞏固過程--------------------------------------------113
第二節 民主鞏固的外力與內因--------------------------------------131
第三節 小結--------------------------------------------------------------161
第五章 結論--------------------------------------------------------------------167
第一節 研究發現--------------------------------------------------------168
第二節 未來展望--------------------------------------------------------171
參考書目------------------------------------------------------------------------178

圖目錄
圖1-1、研究架構圖--------------------------------------------------------------16
圖2-1、Checkel 的社會化因果機制-----------------------------------------36
圖2-2、國家順從行為的機制--------------------------------------------------40
圖2-3、民主社會化之因果機制-----------------------------------------------50
圖3-1、三國民主轉型機制---------------------------------------------------106
圖4-1、三國治理指數之比較------------------------------------------------133
圖4-2、三國民主鞏固機制---------------------------------------------------160

表目錄
表 1-1、Pridham 的聯結模式---------------------------------------------------8
表1-2、Schmitter 的4C 矩陣---------------------------------------------------9
表1-3、組合式比較研究之矩陣----------------------------------------------13
表2-1、民主社會化之途徑-----------------------------------------------------56
表3-1、臺灣民主轉型期大事記-----------------------------------------------73
表3-2、貝南民主轉型期大事記-----------------------------------------------79
表3-3、保加利亞民主轉型期大事記-----------------------------------------86
表3-4、三國政經社指數一覽--------------------------------------------------89
表3-5、美國國會關於促進臺灣民主化之聽證會--------------------------93
表3-6、外力在民主轉型期對貝南的金援-----------------------------------97
表4-1、臺灣民主鞏固期大事記---------------------------------------------118
表4-2、貝南民主鞏固期大事記---------------------------------------------124
表4-3、保加利亞民主鞏固期大事記---------------------------------------130
表4-4、臺灣國內外NGO/NPO 之互動-------------------------------------138
表4-5、外力在民主鞏固期對貝南的金援---------------------------------142
表4-6、EU 基金對保加利亞的分配(2007-2009 年)----------------------150
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