淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-2707201817500100
中文論文名稱 科技輔助混能大班之影響:以英語口說課為例
英文論文名稱 Students’ perceptions of Technology Enhanced Language Learning: A Case Study of an English Mixed Ability Conversation Class
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 高郁絜
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Jay Kao
學號 602110412
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2018-06-15
論文頁數 107頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃月貴
委員-范瑞玲
委員-王藹玲
中文關鍵字 科技輔助語言學習(TELL)  英語口說  大班  混能 
英文關鍵字 Technology Enhanced Language Learning (TELL)  English speaking  large class  mixed ability 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 英語已經是世界共通言語,在台灣教育之下,經常性的練習英語聽、說、讀,卻缺少學習英語口說的環境。為了因應這樣的學習環境和教育制度,目前已有大量的一般性文獻研究有效提升英語口說之教學法,儘管許多文獻廣泛討論過科技對語言學習的效益,但是特定針對學習對象為大班級和語言程度落差的研究卻很少,例如:大學英語口說課。
  因此,本論文旨在探討大學英語口說課在班級人數多且程度不同之情況下,科技學習對學生學習經驗之影響。本課程為一學期18週,共有178位來自各學院且擁有不同英語程度的大一至大四學生參與課程。研究者針對科技輔助英語口說課對學生態度之影響呈現統計數值,其影響因素包括:學習動機、學習自信、學習焦慮、自我效能、課程參與度。此外,本研究亦採用質性分析,以面談訪問與課堂文字回饋來探究受試者對科技輔助學習的經歷感受。
  量化結果顯示,參與本課程學生之學習動機、學習自信、自我效能、課程參與度皆有明顯提升,而學習焦慮並無顯著下降。此外,質性研究結果顯示學生對於科技輔助提升學習動機、自信、焦慮、自我效能、參與度皆表示有助於大幅提升學習經歷。然而,本研究聚焦在學生學習經歷之感受,未將英語口說能力成就納入研究範疇,專業領域研究仍可將本研究發現應用於教學法與科技輔助結合之發展。
英文摘要 English is a lingua franca of the world, and many students need to learn how to communicate in English. In Taiwan’s EFL setting, students lack facilitative environment for practicing spoken English. While technologies assisted language learning as a topic has been extensively investigated, few studies have focused on students in large, mixed-ability class.
The purpose of the study is to explore the efficacy of Technology Enhanced Language Learning (TELL) from the perspective of students in a large mixed-ability class. The research focuses on students’ learning experience in terms of perceived changes in motivation, confidence, anxiety, engagement and self-efficacy. These factors are qualified and quantified in order to investigate students’ perception towards the TELL learning process. One hundred and seventy-eight students from different departments with different language proficiency enrolled in a one-semester conversation class participated in the present study.
178 undergraduate students filled in a questionnaire which ask about their learning attitude. The participants’ learning attitude before and after the instruction was investigated using both quantitative and qualitative inquiries. The quantitative results show participants made significant improvement with regard to learning motivation, confidence, engagement and self-efficacy, while learning anxiety remains the same. The qualitative results indicate that participants strongly agreed with the beneficial effects of TELL.
The present study showed the feasibility of using various technologies to support the teaching of large size English classes in the EFL setting. Future studies may be conducted with a broader scope to include evaluating students’ proficiency gain under TELL.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I
CHINESE ABSTRACT II
ABSTRACT IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS VI
LIST OF TABLES IX
LIST OF FIGURES XI
LIST OF APPENDICES XI
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 3
1.3 Purpose of the study 4
1.4 Research questions 5
1.5 Significant of the study 5
1.6 Definition of terms 6
CHAPTER TWO LITERTURE REVIEW 8
2.1 Introduction 8
2.2 Computer Assisted Language Learning 8
2.3 Technology Enhanced Language Learning 10
2.3.1 Technology enhanced Motivation in Language Learning 13
2.3.2 Technology enhanced self-efficacy in learning experience 15
2.3.3 Factors of confidence and anxiety in TELL 17
2.3.4 Factors of engagement in TELL 18
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 20
3.1 Introduction 20
3.2 Participants 20
3.3 Course description 21
3.4 Material 22
3.5 Instrument and data collection procedure 24
3.5.1 The pilot study 24
3.5.2 Results of the pilot study 24
3.5.3 Learning experience questionnaire: Pre-instruction and Post-instruction 26
3.5.3.1 Reliability analysis of language learning questionnaire 27
3.6 Data collection and analysis 28
3.6.1 Interview 28
3.6.2 Written data of course reflection 29
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 30
4.1 Introduction 30
4.2 Quantitative results of learning experience questionnaire 30
4.2.1 Discussion of TELL and quantitative results 33
4.3 Qualitative results of interviews and written reflection 34
4.3.1 The frequently used technologies for uploading recording assignments by interviewees, and their difficulties and assistance. 35
4.3.2 Interviewees’ perceptions toward the motivation enhanced of TELL in conversation class. 36
4.3.3 Interviewees’ perceptions toward TELL in decreasing learning anxiety and increasing confidence. 39
4.3.4 Interviewees’ perceptions towards online resources as learning materials 41
4.3.5 Interviewees’ perceptions toward the benefits and disadvantages of submitting audio assignments through Google-Drive and Moodle. 46
4.3.6 Students’ perceptions toward the differences between the TELL conversation class and traditional classroom 49
4.3.7 Results of the course reflection of the TELL conversation class 51
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 54
5.1 Conclusion of the major findings 54
5.2 Limitation of the study 55
5.3 Suggestion for future research 56
REFERENCES 58
APPENDICES 67

LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Participants’ gender distribution 21
Table 3.2 Participants’ background information 21
Table 3.3 Report of item analysis on Pearson’s correlations 25
Table 3.4 Reliability analysis results by Cronbach’s Alpha 26
Table 3.5 Reliability analysis results of the subscales by Cronbach’s Alpha 27
Table 4.1 Descriptive statistical results of the SPSS 31
Table 4.2 Paired sample t tests for the scores of the pre- and post-instruction in the SPSS 32
Table 4.3 Descriptive statistics for the mean scores of the Pre- and Post-instruction 32
Table 4.4 Paired sample t test for the mean scores of participants’ language learning experience in Pre- and Post-instruction 33
Table 4.5 Interviewees’ background information 35
Table 3.1.1 Descriptive of Group Statistics results 99
Table 3.1.2 Critical value (CR value) results of independent-sample t-test 100

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 The Moodle’s homepage 23
Figure 2 Course Google-Drive page 23
參考文獻 Adair-Hauck, B., Willingham-McLain, L., & Youngs, B. E. (2000). Evaluating the integration of technology and second language learning. CALICO journal, 269-306.
Ahn, T. Y., & Lee, S. M. (2015). User experience of a mobile speaking application with automatic speech recognition on for EFL learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(4), 778–786.
Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Beauvois, M. H. (1992). Computer‐assisted classroom discussion in the foreign language classroom: Conversation in slow motion. Foreign Language Annals, 25(5), 455-464.
Beauvois, M. H. (1998). Conversations in slow motion: Computer-mediated communication in the foreign language classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review, 54(2), 198-217.
Bikowski, D., & Kessler, G. (2002). Making the most of discussion boards in ESL classrooms. TESOL Journal, 11(3), 27–30.
Blake, W.C. (2009). Potential of text-based internet chats for improving oral fluency in a second language. Modern Language Journal, 93, 227–240.
Bloch, J. (2007). Abdullah’s blogging: A generation 1.5 student enters the blogosphere. Language Learning & Technology, 11(2), 128–141.
Bradley, T., & Lomicka, L. (2000). A case study of learner interaction in technology-enhanced language learning environment. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 22(3), 247–368.
Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (5th ed). New York, NY: Longman
Butler-Pascoe, M. E., & Wiburg, K. M. (2003). Technology and teaching English language learners. Allyn and Bacon.
Carey, M. (2004). CALL visual feedback for pronunciation of vowels: Kay Sona-Match. CALICO Journal, 571-601.
Chang, M. M., & Lehman, J. D. (2002). Learning foreign language through an interactive multimedia program: An experimental study on the effects of the relevance component of the ARCS model. CALICO journal, 81-98.
Chapelle, C. A. (2008). Computer assisted language learning. MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Chartrand, R. (2012). Social networking for language learners: Creating meaningful output with Web 2.0 tools. Knowledge Management & E-Learning, 4(1), 97–101.
Chen, J.J., & Yang, S.C. (2016). Promoting cross-cultural understanding and language use in research-oriented Internet-mediated intercultural exchange. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(2), 262–288.
Chinnery, G. M. (2006). Emerging technologies. Going to the mall: mobile assisted language learning. Language learning & technology, 10(1), 9-16.
Chun, D. M. (1994). Using computer networking to facilitate the acquisition of interactive competence. System, 22(1), 17-31.
Darhower, M. (2002). Interactional features of synchronous computer-mediated communication in the intermediate L2 class: A sociocultural case study. CALICO journal, 249-277.
Doherty, K. M. (2002). Students speak out. Education Week, 11(35), 19-23.
Ewa, M. Golonka, Anita, R. Bowles, Victor, M. Frank, Dorna, L. Richardson & S., Freynik. (2014). Technologies for foreign language learning: a review of technology types and their effectiveness. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 27(1), 70-105.
Exeter, D. J., Ameratunga, S., Ratima, M., Morton, S., Dickson, M., Hsu, D., & Jackson, R. (2010). Student engagement in very large classes: The teachers’ perspective. Studies in Higher Education, 35(7), 761-775.
Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of educational research, 74(1), 59-109.
Gale, L. E. (1991). Macario, Montevidisco, and interactive digame; Developing interactive video for language instruction. In W. F. Smith (Ed.), Modern technology in foreign language education: Applications and projects (pp. 235 – 249). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company.
Gardner, M. P. (1985). Does attitude toward the ad affect brand attitude under a brand evaluation set? Journal of Marketing Research, 192-198.
Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
Garrett, P., & Young, R. F. (2009). Theorizing affect in foreign language learning: an analysis of one learner’s responses to a communicative Portuguese course. The Modern Language Journal, 93(2), 209–226.
Gruber-Miller, J., & Benton, C. (2001). How Do You Say" MOO" in Latin? Assessing Student Learning and Motivation in Beginning Latin. CALICO Journal, 305-338.
Hardison, D. M. (2004). Generalization of computer assisted prosody training: Quantitative and qualitative findings. Language Learning & Technology, 8(1), 34-52.
Henry, M., Carroll, F., Cunliffe, D., & Kop, R. (2017). Learning a minority language through authentic conversation using an online social learning method. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-25.
Hirata, Y. (2004). Computer assisted pronunciation training for native English speakers learning Japanese pitch and durational contrasts. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 17(3-4), 357-376.
Horwitz, E.K., Horwitz, M.B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125.
Hsieh, Y. C. (2017). A case study of the dynamics of scaffolding among ESL learners and online resources in collaborative learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(1-2), 115-132.
Hsu, H. C. (2016). Voice blogging and L2 speaking performance. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(5), 968-983.
Hsu, H. Y., Wang, S.-K, & Comac, L. (2008). Using audioblogs to assist English-language learning: An investigation into student perception. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 21(2), 181–198.
Huang, H. C. (2015). From web-based readers to voice bloggers: EFL learners’ perspectives. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(2), 145-170.
Hwang, W. Y., & Chen, H. S. (2013). Users’ familiar situational contexts facilitate the practice of EFL in elementary schools with mobile devices. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 26(2), 101-125.
Hwang, W-Y., Huang, Y-M., Shadiev, R., Wu, S-Y., & Chen, S-L. (2014). Effects of using mobile devices on English listening diversity and speaking for EFL elementary students. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 30(5), 503–516.
Hwang, W. Y., Shih, T. K., Ma, Z. H., Shadiev, R., & Chen, S. Y. (2016). Evaluating listening and speaking skills in a mobile game-based learning environment with situational contexts. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(4), 639-657.
Jeng, Y. L., Wu, T. T., Huang, Y. M., Tan, Q., & Yang, S. J. (2010). The add-on impact of mobile applications in learning strategies: A review study. Educational Technology & Society, 13(3), 3-11.
Jogan, M. K., Ana, H. H., & Gladys, A. M. (2001). Cross‐cultural e‐mail: Providing cultural input for the advanced foreign language student. Foreign Language Annals, 34(4), 341-346.
Kabilan, M. K., Ahmad, N., & Abidin, M. J. Z. (2010). Facebook: An online environment for learning of English in institutions of higher education? The Internet and higher education, 13(4), 179-187.
Kelm, O. R. (1992). The use of synchronous computer networks in second language instruction: A preliminary report. Foreign Language Annals, 25(5), 441-454.
Kelm, O. R. (1996). The application of computer networking in foreign language education: Focusing on principles of second language acquisition. Telecollaboration in foreign language learning, 19-28.
Kern, R. G. (1995). Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers: Effects on quantity and characteristics of language production. The Modern language journal, 79(4), 457-476.
Kessler, G. (2010). Fluency and anxiety in self-access speaking tasks: The influence of environment. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 23(4), 361–375.
Kiernan, P. J., & Aizawa, K. (2004). Cell phones in task based learning-Are cell phones useful language learning tools?. ReCALL, 16(1), 71-84.
Kiesler, S., Siegal, J., & McGuire, T.W. (1984). Social psychological aspects of computer mediated communication. American Psychologist, 39, 1123–1134.
Kim, D., Rueckert, D., Kim, D. J., & Seo, D. (2013). Students’ perceptions and experiences of mobile learning. Language Learning & Technology, 17(3), 52-73.
Kim, J. Y. (2012). A study on learners’ perceptional typology and relationships among the learner’s types, characteristics, and academic achievement in a blended e-Education environment. Computers & Education, 59(2), 304-315.
Koch, A. S., & Terrell, T. D. (1991). Affective reactions of foreign language students to natural approach activities and teaching techniques. In E. K. Horwitz & D. J. Young (Eds.), Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 109–126). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Lee, C., Yeung, A. S., & Ip, T. (2016). Use of computer technology for English language learning: do learning styles, gender, and age matter? Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(5), 1035-1051.
Lin, C.-H., Warschauer, M., & Blake, R. (2016). Language learning through social networks: Perceptions and reality. Language Learning & Technology, 20, 124–147.
Liu, M., & Jackson, J. (2008). An exploration of Chinese EFL learners’ unwillingness to communicate and foreign language anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 92(1), 71–86.
Liu, P. L., & Chen, C. J. (2015). Learning English through actions: A study of mobile-assisted language learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 23(2), 158–171.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991). Investigating language class anxiety using the focused essay technique. The Modern Language Journal, 75(3), 296-304.
MacIntyre, P., & Gregersen, T. (2012). Affect: The role of language anxiety and other emotions in language learning. In Psychology for language learning (pp. 103-118). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Matheson, K., & Zanna, M.P. (1988). The impact of computer-mediated communication on self-awareness. Computers in Human Behavior, 4, 221–233.
Murday, K., & Ushida, E. (2002). Student experiences in the language online project. In Paper presented at CALICO 2002.
Nadkarni, A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2012). Why do people use Facebook?. Personality and individual differences, 52(3), 243-249.
Omar, H., Embi, M.A, & Yunus, M.Md. (2012). Learners’ use of communication strategies in an online discussion via Facebook. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 64, 535–544.
Patel, D. S. (2004). Significance of Technology Enhanced Language Learning (TELL) in Language Classes. Journal of Technology for ELT, 4(2).
Riordan, M. A., & Kreuz, R. J. (2010). Emotion encoding and interpretation in computer-mediated communication: Reasons for use. Computers in human behavior, 26(6), 1667-1673.
Stockwell, G., & Harrington, M. (2003). The incidental development of L2 proficiency in NS-NNS email interactions. CALICO journal, 337-359.
Sullivan, N., & Pratt, E. (1996). A comparative study of two ESL writing environments: A computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom. System, 24(4), 491-501.
Sun, Y. C. (2009). Voice blog: An exploratory study of language learning. Language Learning & Technology, 13(2), 88-103.
Sun, Y. C. (2012). Examining the effectiveness of extensive speaking practice via voice blogs in a foreign language learning context. CALICO journal, 29(3), 494.
Sun, Y. C., & Yang, F. Y. (2015). I help, therefore, I learn: service learning on Web 2.0 in an EFL speaking class. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(3), 202-219.
Warschauer, M. (1996a). Comparing face-to-face and electronic discussion in the second language classroom. CALICO Journal, 13 (2/3), 7-26.
Warschauer, M. (1996b). Computer-assisted language learning: An introduction. Multimedia language teaching, 3-20.
Watts, M., & Lloyd, C. (2001). Evaluating a classroom multimedia programme in the teaching of literacy. Educational Research and Evaluation, 7(1), 35 – 52.
Xu, Q., Dong, X., & Jiang, L. (2017). EFL Learners' Perceptions of Mobile‐Assisted Feedback on Oral Production. TESOL Quarterly, 51(2), 408-417.
Xu, Q., & Peng, H. (2017). Investigating mobile-assisted oral feedback in teaching Chinese as a second language. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(3-4), 173-182.
Yang, Y. F. (2011). Engaging students in an online situated language learning environment. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24(2), 181-198.
Yen, Y. C., Hou, H. T., & Chang, K. E. (2015). Applying role-playing strategy to enhance learners’ writing and speaking skills in EFL courses using Facebook and Skype as learning tools: A case study in Taiwan. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(5), 383-406.
Young, D. J. (1990). An investigation of students' perspectives on anxiety and speaking. Foreign Language Annals, 23(6), 539-553.
Yu, P., Pan, Y., Li, C., Zhang, Z., Shi, Q., Chu, Chu, W., Liu, M. & Zhu, Z. (2016). User-centred design for Chinese-oriented spoken English learning system. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(5), 984-1000.
Zeng, G., & Takatsuka, S. (2009). Text-based peer–peer collaborative dialogue in a computer-mediated learning environment in the EFL context. System, 37(3), 434-446.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary educational psychology, 25(1), 82-91.
Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Self-motivation for academic attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American educational research journal, 29(3), 663-676.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2018-07-31公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2018-07-31起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2486 或 來信