||The Knots and Bolts of Telecollaboration: Research and Challenges in Tasks Design Faced by a Public Primary EFL Teacher in Taipei
||Department of Educational Technology
||Marie Li-Chen Tai
Information and Communication Technologies
Computer Mediated Communication
In this paper the researcher examines how English Foreign Language (EFL) teachers and partners make decisions about task design in telecollaboration and the factors that influence these decisions during the actual implementation of the tasks. The researcher begins with a search from review of the recent literature of lesson design for global intercultural communication projects, to identify the typology of different types of tasks and structures; and sequences to a telecollaboration lesson template. Next, illustration through two case studies - both primary telecollaborative exchanges; first between learners of EFL Chinese (Taiwan) and English as a Second Language (ESL) Chinese (Hong Kong) and second between English (Australian) and Chinese (Taiwan) - how such decisions about task design are reached by partner teachers prior to an exchange, and how that task design is negotiated throughout the exchange with different consequences on the learning outcomes. Finally, based on this two-step analysis, we make recommendations about factors that teachers and researchers should consider when designing and implementing tasks for their telecollaborative exchanges based in a public primary English as a Foreign Language virtual learning classroom in Taipei.
||TABLE OF CONTENTS
摘 要 I
TABLE OF CONTENTS III
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURES VIII
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Statement of the Purpose 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Definition of Terms 5
1.5.1 Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) 5
1.5.2 Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) in multimodal environment 6
1.5.3 Telecollaboration 6
1.5.4 Telecollaborative projects 6
1.6 Significance of Study 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9
2.1 Telecollaboration 9
2.1.1 What is telecollaboration? 9
2.1.2 Why telecollaboration? 10
2.1.3 Models and Categories of Telecollaboration 13
2.1.4 Steps to telecollaboration 29
2.1.5 Conclusion 36
2.2 Information and Communication Technologies 36
2.2.1 Telecollaboration in Multimodal Environments 40
2.3 Conclusion 43
2.3.1 Telecollaborative language learning tasks and design 44
2.3.2 Instructional Design 47
2.3.3 Select Framework for designing Tasks by collaboration with partners 63
2.3.4 Teacher’s Role in Telecollaboration 64
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 71
3.1 Research Design and Procedure 71
3.1.1 The Rationale for Action Research Adoption 71
3.1.2 An Action Research 72
3.1.3 Research Procedure 75
3.2 Pilot Study and Reflection 81
3.2.1 Pilot Time Frame 82
3.2.2 Pilot Setting 82
3.2.3 Pilot Subjects 82
3.2.4 Researcher 83
3.2.5 Homeroom Teacher 83
3.2.6 Pilot Materials 84
3.2.7 Pilot Instruments 87
3.2.8 Teaching process for the Telecollaborative Project in the Pilot Study 89
3.3 The Main Study 111
3.3.1 Time Frame 111
3.3.2 Setting 111
3.3.3 Subjects 111
3.3.4 Partner Teacher 115
3.3.5 Materials 115
3.3.6 Instruments 120
3.3.7 Study Procedure 123
3.4 Data Analysis 131
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 133
4.1 Effects of Telecollaboration 133
4.1.1 Effect on Learning 133
4.1.2 Effect on ICT technical components 137
4.1.3 Effect on Affective Domain 138
4.1.4 Effect of Teacher Role and Facilitation 140
4.2 Researcher’s Challenges and Professional Development 140
4.2.1 Understanding the challenges in telecollaboration 141
4.2.2 Reflection on Lessons learned 142
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION 149
5.1 Pedagogical Implications 149
5.1.1 The Model of Implementation of Telecollaboration in a public elementary EFL classroom 149
5.2 Limitations 151
5.3 Suggestions 151
5.3.1 Suggestions for English Teachers 151
5.3.2 Suggestions for Administration 152
5.3.3 Suggestions for Further Studies 152
Appendix A 162
Appendix B 163
Appendix C 164
Appendix D 168
Appendix E 178
Appendix F 179
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Harris’ Categories of Telecollaborative Structures and Activities: - Summary of Interpersonal Exchange adapted from Dawson & Harris, 1999, p. 2………………………………………………………………………………………17
Table 2.2 Harris’ Categories of Telecollaborative Structures and Activities: - Summary of Information Collections and Analysis adapted from Dawson & Harris, 1999, p. 2 18
Table 2.3 Harris’ Categories of Telecollaborative Structures and Activities: - Summary of Problem-Solving adapted from Dawson & Harris, 1999, p. 2 19
Table 2.4 Telecollaborative Tasks: Category (1) Information Exchange adapted from O’Dowd and Waire, 2007, p176 21
Table 2.5 Telecollaborative Tasks: Category (2) Comparison and analysis adapted from O’Dowd and Waire, 2007, p176 24
Table 2.6 Telecollaborative Tasks: Category (3) Collaboration and product creation adapted from O’Dowd and Waire, 2007, p176 26
Table 2.7 The SCMC ICT equipment check list for CCDL at TKU (Distance Education Development Section, 2010e) 39
Table 2.8 Functions available on Moodle http://marie.learning.tku.edu.tw/ 42
Table 2.9 From focus on form to meaning (adapted from Littlewood,2000, p.43) 45
Table 2.10 From focus on form to meaning (adapted from Littlewood, 2000, p.44) 46
Table 2.11 Adapted from Gruba the Guidelines for Online Collaborative Task Design (Gruba, 2004) 46
Table 2.12 Telecollaboration Lesson Template Adapted from SDSU and the Instructional Model ASSURE 47
Table 2.13 Comparison of O’Dowd & Waire’s Categories and Harris’ Activity Structure 50
Table 2.14 Guidelines for Online Collaborative Task Design (Gruba, 2004) 51
Table 2.15 Select Instructional Approach adapted from Gruba,2004 51
Table 2.16 Framework for designing telecollaborative task 53
Table 2.17 Desicions made together adapt by O’Dowd (2008) 54
Table 2.18 Example collaborative task: You and Me 58
Table 2.19 Generated Assessment Rubric Star: http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php) 62
Table 2.20 Framework for designing telecollaborative tasks adapted from O’Dowd, 2008 63
Table 2.21 Key approaches to online instruction adapted from Gruba, 2004, p73 65
Table 2.22 Adapted from O’Dowd on how design decisions reached (O' Dowd, 2008). 69
Table 3.1 Research Procedure Timeline 80
Table 3.2 Researcher as observer in Model course in a game base telecollaborative Chinese writing project 82
Table 3.3 Dates to the Pilot Lunch Meetings 82
Table 3.4 The Three tasks aligned to Harris’ Activity Structures and O’Dowd and Waire’s Categories and Task Types 85
Table 3.5 Task I: You & Me Guidelines for Online Collaborative Task Design 85
Table 3.6 List of Equipment and Systems used in the pilot study 87
Table 3.7 List of modules and pluggins made available on Moodle in the Pilot study 87
Table 3.8 Procedure for the implementation of the Pilot projects 89
Table 3.9 Explanation of the Coding System 92
Table 3.10 Basic Information of Subjects in Taipei 112
Table 3.11 Background on students’ computer accessibility at home 114
Table 3.12 SKYPE Task I: You & Me Guidelines for Online Collaborative Task Design with Australian Partners 116
Table 3.13 SKYPE Task II: You & Me Hot Task Guidelines for Online Collaborative Task Design with Australian Partners 118
Table 3.14 Instruments in multimodal environment 120
Table 3.15 Telecollaboration Project You and Me (http://elearning.mcps.tp.edu.tw/) 121
Table 3.16 Desicions with regards tothe predominant educational cultures in the participating partner institutions (Belz & Muller-Hartmann, 2003) 124
Table 3.17 Explanation of the Coding System 131
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 General phases of telecollaboration adapted from Muller-Hartmann (2007, p.173) 35
Figure 2.2 & 2.3 Photographs of SCMC activities with the University of Nice, France (Distance Education Development Section, 2010c) 38
Figure 2.4 & 2.5 Photographs of SCMC activities with Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, and Waseda University(Distance Education Development Section, 2010d) 38
Figure 2.6 & 2.7 Photographs of SCMC activities with four concurrent universities (Distance Education Development Section, 2010b) 39
Figure 2.8 & 2.9 Photographs of Reitaku University and oral defense of an undergraduate student in the English department(Distance Education Development Section, 2010a) 39
Figure 2.10 Nunan’s approach to planning and structuring TBLL (as cited in Muller-Hartmann & Ditfurth, 2010, p.171) 44
Figure 2.11 Photograph of possible layout 61
Figure 3.1 Carr & Kemmis’ Action Research Cycle adapted from Riding et al., 1995, p.1 72
Figure 3.2 Research Procedures 76
Figure 3.3 Research design highlights adapted from Harris’ step one to five for telecollaboration 78
Figure 3.4 Screenshot of LV (Centre for the Advancement of Information Technology in Education, 2010) 96
Figure 3.5 Screen Shot of Students playing cards during welcome party (Tai, 2010d) 99
Figure 3.6 Screen shot of Learning Villages and ‘M’ primary school (Tai, 2010d, 2011i) 101
Figure 3.7 Screen shot of forwarding email of the topic choices (Tai, 2010c) 101
Figure 3.8 Screen shot of elearning Moodle where topics are structured in layers (Tai, 2010b) 104
Figure 3.9 Screen shots of the Two Moodle homepage (Tai, 2011g) 105
Figure 3.10 Screen shots of the three tasks-based projects (Tai, 2011f) 106
Figure 3.11 Screen Shot Before Pilot Study for Task “You &Me” (Tai, 2011d) 110
Figure 3.12 Screen Shot of Changes After Pilot Study for Task “You &Me” (Tai, 2010a) 111
Figure 3.13 Students Telecollaboration SKYPE Task Cycle adapted from Guth, 2011, p.3 116
Figure 3.14 The “You & Me” SKYPE Tasks I power point template is as follows: Screenshot of SKYPE Tasks I “You & Me” Power Point (Tai, 2011h) 118
Figure 3.15 Screen Shot of “You & Me” SKYPE Task II Hot Task Sheet (Tai, 2011j) 120
Figure 3.16 Sreenshot of Moodle http://marie.learning.tku.edu.tw/ (Tai, 2011a) 127
Figure 3.17 Photograph of Our First SKYPE Encounter (Tai, 2011b) 129
Figure 3.18 Photograph of Our Second SKYPE Session (Tai, 2011c) 129
Figure 3.19 Main Study Telecollaboration Procedure with Australian Partner 130
Figure 4.1 Screen shot of S5’s posting on Moodle (Tai, 2011e) 134
Figure 4.2 Photograph of Our Mock Performance 144
Figure 4.3 Screen shot of Students “hot task” postings on Moodle 145
Figure 4.4 Screen Shot of Moodle of Two teachers collaborating 147
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