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系統識別號 U0002-2707200718260500
中文論文名稱 通往詭辯之路:論美國法律中平等觀念之轉變
英文論文名稱 The Road to Sophistry: The Recent Transformation of the Legal Precept of Equality In American Jurisprudence
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 汝明麗
研究生英文姓名 Elma Ming-li Ju
電子信箱 elma.ju@gmail.com
學號 887220019
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2007-06-22
論文頁數 252頁
口試委員 指導教授-崔馬吉
委員-魏良才
委員-趙國材
委員-黃介正
委員-徐鵬飛
中文關鍵字 平等  文化辯護  自由放任主義  種族優待措施 
英文關鍵字 Equality  Cultural Defense  Libertarianism  Affirmative Action 
學科別分類
中文摘要 美國於內戰結束後,通過憲法第14條修正案,其中之平等保護條款將平等概念首度納入美國憲法,而美國司法部門則自此承擔起詮釋平等作為一法律概念之責任。本篇論文從自由放任主義的角度,檢視美國法庭是否做到對個人法律權利之保障,確使個人的平等權利免於遭受其他個人、團體或政府之不當干預。
本篇論文認為美國法庭在此方面之判決與論述前後不一,充斥詭辯狡詞。舉例而言,美國最高法院堅持所謂政治/公民與社會平等之分野,對於非裔美人之天賦人權於19世紀末至20世紀上半頁遭受侵害之情事視若無睹。而自Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)樹立之「隔離但平等」的法律原則,更是直到Brown v. Board of Education (1954) 才被判定違反憲法平等保護的原則。
美國司法部門在做出反隔離判決後,終於回歸前述自由放任主義所認定之平等原則。惟最高法院旋即在處理種族優待措施案件時,再度展開言詞詭辯。在只問目的,不論手段的情況下,美國法庭以平等之名,核可了種族差別待遇。
然而平等做為一法律概念之轉變,係於1980年代開始邁向另一巔峰。若干美國法庭開始接受刑事案件中被告援引「文化辯護」之概念,強調個人行為深受其文化背景形塑的影響,故於外國文化中成長之個人即便在美國境內違反美國法律,亦不應要求其擔負全責。「文化辯護」支持者認為,依據平等保護原則,法庭於審理此等案件時,應將個人隸屬之特定文化族群視為關鍵因素,列入考量。
本篇論文藉由對平等保護判例與「文化辯護」案件之審視與分析,證明了美國法律中的平等觀念確實已經出現轉變,且對於美國民族特性與凝聚力帶來深遠之負面衝擊。
英文摘要 The rhetoric of equality was formally incorporated into the United States Constitution following the end of the Civil War (1861-1865), specifically manifested in the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The judiciary has since then taken up the responsibility of interpreting the concept of equality as a legal precept. This dissertation has chosen to examine the American judiciary’s performance in this regard through a libertarian lens. The inquiry focuses on whether the American courts have protected individual rights guaranteed by law, and ensured that such equality for individuals remain free from undue interferences from other individuals, groups, or government.
The dissertation has found American courts’ performance to be marked by inconsistency and sophistry. For example, by insisting on the distinction between political/civil, and social equality, the Federal Supreme Court turned a blind eye to violations of black Americans’ rights to life, liberty and property during the late 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. The doctrine of separate but equal, set forth in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), stood effective until Brown v. Board of Education (1954) ruled that racial segregation was a denial of the equal protection of the laws.
The desegregation decision put the American judiciary back to the right track of promoting the aforesaid libertarian conception of equality, but before long the Supreme Court deviated again to exercises of sophistry when dealing with affirmative action cases. In the name of equality, the judiciary endorsed racial classifications, believing that the noble end justified the suspect means.
However, the transformation of the legal precept of equality was not completely consummated until some of the American courts began to accept the invocation of cultural defense in the 1980s. Cultural defense claims that a person’s behavior is dictated by his or her cultural background to such an extent that those brought up in a foreign culture should not be held fully accountable for their actions which are found to violate American laws. Such group membership is seen as a critical factor that must be taken into consideration if the principles of equality and individualized justice are to be honored.
This dissertation, through reviews and analyses of equal protection jurisprudence and cultural defense cases, has demonstrated that the transformation, subtle as it is, has indeed been taking place, and has already brought about adverse, far-reaching impact on both American character and American unity.

論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CASES
INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………........1
I. BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM……………………………..........1
II. STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM………………………………….......6
III. SINGIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM………………………………....14
IV. LIMITATIONS AND DELIMITATIONS………………………………………….......17
V. SYNOPSES OF CHAPTERS……………………………………………………….....21
CHAPTER ONE EQUAL PROTECTION AND CULTURAL RIGHTS……………....26
I. THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE………………………………………....28
II. THE U.S. CONSTITUTION.......................................................................................... 30
III. THE FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT............................................................................31
IV. CULTURE AND RIGHTS..............................................................................................49
V. LIBERTARIAN CRITIQUES OF EQUAL PROTECTION AND
CULTURAL RIGHTS.....................................................................................................67
CHAPTER TWO THE BATTLE IN THE COURTROOM………………………….........80
I. EQUAL PROTECTION JURISPRUDENCE..................................................................81
II. BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION (1954)...............................................................110
III. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION IN HIGHER EDUCATION................................................121
IV. A PROGRESSION OF CHANGE.................................................................................133
CHAPTER THREE CULTURAL DEFENSE IN AMERICAN CRIMINAL LAW….139
I. CULTURAL DEFENSE IN CRIMINAL CASES.........................................................143
II. RATIONALE FOR CULTURAL DEFENSE................................................................145
III. CULTURAL DEFENSE CASES INVOLING FOREIGNERS OR IMMIGRANTS...151
IV. CULTURAL DEFENSE CASES INVOLVING NON-IMMIGRANTS.......................161
V. INCREASING UBIQUITY OF CULTURAL DEFENSE.............................................167
VI. IMPLICATIONS OF CULTURAL DEFENSE CASES................................................170
CHAPTER FOUR SHIFTING WIND………………………………………………….........180
I. SOCIAL/CULTURAL EQUALITY OF GROUP RIGHTS OVER LEGAL EQUALITY OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS..........................................................................................189
II. THE END JUSTIFIES THE MEANS...........................................................................195
III. IMPLICATIONS OF THE LEGAL TRANSFORMATION.........................................198
IV. ANY HOPE?.................................................................................................................211
V. SUMMARY...................................................................................................................216
CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………………….....220
BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………………………………235
INDEX................................................................................................................................................247
參考文獻 BIBLIOGRAPHY

ENGLISH PART
A. Public Documents
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C. Theses/Dissertations
Ho, Edward Tze-Lu. Libertarian Natural Autonomy As Justice. Ph.D. diss. Tamkang University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2003.
Song, Sarah Seong-Sim. Culture, Gender and Equality. Ph.D. diss. Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States of America, 2004.

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CHINESE PART
王玉葉[Wang, Lydia Yu-yeh],〈美國高等教育優惠待遇何去何從 -- 美國最高法院 拒絕審理Hopwood v. Texas〉 [“What is the Future of the Affirmative Action Programs in U.S. Higher Education? -- The Impact of the U.S. Supreme Court’s Certiorari Denial of Hopwood v. Texas”],收錄於歐美研究第34卷第3期 [EurAmerica: A Journal of European and American Studies, Vol. 34, No. 3]。台北:中央研究院歐美研究所,民國93年9月[Taipei: Institute of European and American Studies, Academia Sinica, September, 2004]: 457-509.

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