淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-2706201611150400
中文論文名稱 歐巴馬政府時期的美國南海政策
英文論文名稱 U.S POLICY TOWARDS SOUTH CHINA SEA DISPUTES UNDER THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生中文姓名 西蒙恩
研究生英文姓名 Timon Uatioa
學號 603330316
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2016-06-16
論文頁數 104頁
口試委員 指導教授-李大中
委員-盧業中
委員-林穎佑
中文關鍵字 美國南海政策  歐巴馬政府時期  中國政策 
英文關鍵字 U.S policy under Obama  South China Sea disputes  China's policy 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 這份報告主要是探討美國總統歐巴馬的南海策略。其中美國和中國是扮演著最關鍵的角色,而問題的主因是針對中國在南海地區與相鄰國家的領土爭議;這份報告會探討的是從過去到現在歐巴馬及中國的南海政策對兩國國際關係及南海地區的局勢的影響衝擊。
這份論述當中可以看出美國從1975年後就一直以來扮演著「中立國」的角色,直到2009歐巴馬的主張改變了原有的現況,他根據不同的國際局勢和中國的行為舉止而做出應變及回應。
此論述中也看得出歐巴馬政府不時對於中國的南海侵略行動提出自我堅定的立場,但大致上還是小心翼翼處理,以不造成相互經濟利益衝突為主。然而,有許多的例子可證明中國的南海侵略行動依舊在持續上演中並未停止。總兒言之,美國與中國之間在南海議題上小衝突是無可避免的,但起碼在歐巴馬的主張之下,現階段南海議題不至於造成美國與中國的武力衝突!
英文摘要 This paper examines U.S foreign policy in South China Sea disputes under the Obama administration. The two major actors involved are the U.S and China together with littoral States in Asia whom together with China have territorial disputes in South China Sea. The paper generally examines and analyzes Obama policy towards the disputes together with China’s policy and how the former and the latter respective policies impact their bilateral relations and the situation (stability) of the region (South China Sea).
The study shows that U.S policy in South China Sea of ‘neutral position’ remained ever since it introduced in 1975 until Obama came into office in 2009. However the study shows that eventually under the Obama administration different elements of the policy appear and the depth varies depending on the situation especially on China’s behavior.
The study also shows that Obama policy though took a tough stance at times in the wake of Chinese aggression, Obama generally tend to be more cautious of the consequences that could disrupt and destroy mutual economic interest. Likewise China though continues with aggression as in their land reclamation, there are instances which show cooperation on their part. As such, this study suggests that U.S and China would not fight or militarily confront each other in South China Sea at least under the Obama administration. Minor conflict is expected at times as mentioned but would not escalate into military confrontation at least under the Obama administration.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I
ABSTRACT II
CONTENTS V
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES IX

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.1.1 Pivot to Asia 2
1.1.2 General Origins of South China Sea Disputes 3
1.1.3 Nature of South China Sea disputes 3
1.1.4 Governments Position of US and China in South China Sea disputes 5
1.1.5 Developments in South China Sea disputes since 2009 6
1.2 Research Motives 8
1.3 Research Objectives 9
1.4 Research Methodology 9
1.5 Research Scope 10
1.6 Research Structure 10

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 13
2.1 U.S Position in South China Sea 13
2.2 U.S Interest in South China Sea 14
2.3 Obama’s Pivot to Asia 16
2.4 China’s Position in South China Sea 17
2.5 China’s core Interest and Policy 17
2.6 Debate and Discussion: United Nations Conventions on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and Sovereignty issue in South China Sea 18
2.7 Debate and Discussion: International Relations Theories and South China Sea disputes 21
2.8 The Effectiveness and Constraints of Obama’s policy towards South China Sea disputes 22

CHAPTER THREE: U.S SOUTH CHINA SEA POLICY: PRIOR & DURING OBAMA’S TERM 24
3.1 The Underlying and fundamental of U.S national interest and policies 24
3.2 The Origins and Evolution 26
3.2.1 The United States prior formulation of South China Sea Policy since the 17th Century 26
3.2.2 U.S in South China Sea after the Cold War 27
3.2.3 The U.S formulation of initial elements of South China Sea policy
in 1975 29
3.2.4 The adjustments of U.S policy statements in 2010 30
3.2.5 The re-adjustment of US policy statements in 2012 31
3.2.6 The U.S policy most comprehensive statement in 2014 32
3.3 United States policy measures in South China Sea 34
3.3.1 U.S stronger engagements and enhanced support in Asia 34
3.3.2 U.S recent development of policy measures 40
3.4 Summary 44

CHAPTER FOUR: CHINA’S SOUTH CHINA SEA POLICY 47
4.1 China’s policy origin and evolution in South China Sea 47
4.1.1 Discovery and essence of South China Sea from Chinese perspective 47
4.1.2 Beijing’s delaying strategy since the founding of the PRC in 1949 48
4.1.3 Policy elements since the 1970s 49
4.1.4 Beijing’s cycle of Escalation and Delaying Strategy since the 1980s 50
4.1.5 Policy adjustments since 2000 51
4.1.6 Policy re-adjustments since 2009 51
4.2 China’s causes of policy change in South China Sea 53
4.2.1 Drivers of change in China’s policy 53
4.3 China’s Strategy in South China Sea 54
4.3.1 Diplomatic and Administrative Components 54
4.3.2 Military Components 55
4.4 China’s current policy in South China Sea 55
4.5 Summary 57

CHAPTER FIVE: THE U.S-CHINA RELATIONS AND INTERACTION IN SOUTH CHINA SEA 59
5.1 The Foundation of US-China relations 59
5.1.1 Historical aspects of US-China Relation 59
5.1.2 The US-China after World War II 60
5.2 US-China ‘Distrust’ as a fundamental cause of instability in South China Sea 61
5.3 The US-China Interactions in South China Sea 63
5.3.1 Contradictions and frictions: Declaration on Code of Conduct 63
5.3.2 Contradictions and frictions: Freedom of Navigation 64
(i) United States side 64
(ii) China’s side 65
5.3.3 Contradictions and frictions: Freedom of Navigation within 12 nautical miles 67
5.3.4 Contradictions and frictions: Exploration of resources 68
5.3.5 Contradictions and frictions: Arbitration Case of Philippines vs. China 68
5.3.6 Misunderstanding of policies and actions in South China Sea 72
5.3.7 Confrontation: Incidences of Stand-Off 74
5.4 US-China future interaction scenarios in South China Sea 76
5.5 Summary 78

CHAPTER SIX: THE EFFECTIVENESS AND CONSTRAINTS OF OBAMA’S POLICY IN SOUTH CHINA SEA 79
6.1 The Effectiveness of Obama’s Policy against China in South China Sea 79
6.1.1 Policy Effectiveness over China’s Assertiveness 79
6.1.2 Drivers of policy effectiveness 80
6.1.3 Factors contributing to the Effectiveness of ‘Rebalance’ 81
6.1.4 U.S activities contributing to Obama’s policy effectiveness 83
6.2 Constraints to Obama’s Policy in South China Sea 84
6.3 Risks and Consequences 88
6.4 Summary 90

CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSION 91
7.1 Findings of U.S policies under the Obama Administration in South China Sea 91
7.2 Findings on China’s Foreign Policy in South China Sea 92
7.3 Findings on U.S-China relation and Interaction 93
7.4 Findings on Obama’s Policy effectiveness and constraints 94

BIBLIOGRAPHY 96


LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
Table 1: U.S Secretaries of States number of States Visits in the first three years 40
Table 2: U.S freedom of navigation within 12 nautical miles since 2015 67
Figure 1: South China Sea and six claimants territorial claim 4
Figure 2: China’s Dashed Lines (1947) and (2009) 20
Figure 3: Timeline of Major Rebalance Statements and Events 33
Figure 4: U.S current and future plan deployment in Asia-Pacific 44
Figure 5: South China Sea Map with China’s nine dash line map 48
參考文獻 Association of Southeast Asian Nations. ASEAN Statistical Yearbook 2008, ASEAN Publication. No. 7 (2008).133. Accessed October 20, 2015. http://www.asean.org/resources/publications/asean-publications/item/asean-statistical-yearbook-2008-2
Channer Hayley, “Steadying the U.S. rebalance to Asia: The role of Australia, Japan and S.Korea”, In Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI), 2014, p.2.
Chu Shulong, “Perspectives on the South China Sea: China’s view on US Policy in South China Sea”, Center for Strategic and International Studies CSIS, September, (2014) p.16-17.

Congressional Research Service. Pivot to the Pacific? The Obama Administration’s Rebalancing toward Asia, by Manyin Mark E, Daggett Stephen, Dolven Ben,Lawrence Susan V, Martin Michael F, O'Rourke Ronald and Vaughn Bruce.R42448.2012.

Congressional Research Service. U.S Strategic and Defense relationships in the Asia-Pacific Region, by Bruce Vaughn. RL33821. January 22nd, 2007, p.18.
Conley Heather A., Mina James and Nguyen Phuong, “A Rebalance Transatlantic Policy toward the Asia Pacific Region”, A report of the CSIS Europe program and chair for Southeast Asia Studies, May 2016, p.13.
Dean Cheng, “The Complicated History of U.S. Relations with China”, The Heritage Foundation, October 11, 2012. http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2012/10/the-complicated-history-of-us-relations-with-china

Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in Canada. China’s Position on the Territorial Disputes in the South China Sea between China and the Phillippines.ca.chineseembassy.org. April 4, 2014. Accessed October 20, 2015. http://ca.chine.seembassy.org/eng/zt/cpot/t1144139.htm
Evgeny Kanaev, “Security and Cooperation in the South China Sea: China’s and the US’ Approaches to the South China Sea Issue: Changing Patterns and Strategic Implications”, Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Oriental Studies, 2014, p.204.

Fravel M. Taylor, “The U.S and China in regional security: Implication for Europe and Asia”, 6th Conference on Asian Security (BCAS), Berlin, June 18-19, 2012, p.7.

Gill Bates, “From peaceful rise to assertiveness? Explaining changes in China’s foreign and security policy under Hu Jintao” Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), April 18-19, 2013, p.2.

Glosserman Brad, “The U.S. rebalance and the U.S – Japan alliance”, Analysis of the Institute for International Political Studies (ISPI), Analysis No. 189, July 2013, p.4-5.

Green Michael J, “US Defense policy issues pertaining to the Asia Pacific Theatre” Center for Strategic and International Studies, CSIS Statement before the Senate Armed Services Committee (2015) p.1-2.
International Institute of Strategic Studies, “Meeting Asia’s Security Challenges”, Remarks by Ashton Carter, 15th Asia Security Summit, Shangri-La Dialogue 4th June, 2016.
IIDA Masafumi “New Developments in China’s policy in South China Sea” National Institute for Defense Studies (NIDS) Security Reports, 6. http://www.nids.go.jp/english/publication/kiyo/pdf/2008/bulletin_e2008_2.pdf

International Crisis Group. Stirring up the South China Sea (III): A fleeting opportunity for calm, Asia Report No. 267, May 7th 2015, 9. http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/north-east-asia/267-stirring-up-the-south-china-sea-iii-a-fleeting-opportunity-for-calm.pdf

Janine Davidson, “Retrench or Rebalance?:America’s Evolving Defense Strategy”, The Royal Institute of International Affairs, U.S Project, September, 2014, p.3.

Kelsey Broderick, “Chinese Activities in the South China Sea: Implications for the American Pivot to Asia”, Project 20149 Institute, May, 2015, p.1.

Kenneth Lieberthal and Wang Jisi, “Addressing US-China Strategic Distrust”, John L. Thornton China Center Monograph Series, No. 4, March, 2012, vi.


Kim Shee Poon, “Future Scenario of South China Sea Maritime Dispute”, Center for Risk Research, Shiga University, Discussion Paper Series No. A-12, October, 2014, p.4.

McDevitt, Michael. “The South China Sea: Assessing U.S. Policy and Options for the Future.” A Center for Naval Analysis (CNA) occasional paper (2014) vi.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the people’s republic of China. Remarks of Wang Yi on the South China Sea Issue at the ASEAN Regional Forum, 2015. Available from: http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1287277.shtml
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China. Set aside dispute and pursue joint development.http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/ziliao_665539/3602_665543/3604_665547/t18023.shtml
Poling Gregory B. “Clarifying the dispute: The South China Sea in focus, Clarifying the limits of Maritime dispute” A report of the CSIS Sumitro Chair for Southeast Asia Studies, (2013) p.18-19.
Poling Gregory B. “Recent trends in South China Sea and US policy” A report of the CSIS Sumitro Chair for Southeast Asia Studies, (2014) p.7-8.

Robert G. Sutter, Michael E. Brown, and Timothy J. A. Adamson, Mike M. Mochizuki and Deepa Ollapally, “Balancing Acts: The U.S. Rebalance and Asia-Pacific Stability”, Sigur Center for Asian Studies, The George Washington University, August, 2013, p.7-8.

Rudd Kevin, “The future of US-China relations under Xi-JinPing”,Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, April, 2015, p.18.

Scheer, Robert. “President Obama’s Inauguration 2013 Speech.”truthdigreport. January 21, 2013. Accessed October 20, 2015.http://www.truthdig.com/report/page2/president_obamas_inauguration_2013_speech_full_text_20130121
Schwartz, Laura. "Competing Claims in the South China Sea: Potential Path Forward and Implications for the United States." Political and Security Affairs Round Table Reports (2014): n. pg. Available from: Www.nbr.org. National Bureau of Asian Research. Web. 16 Oct. 2015
Seth Cropsey, “The Rebalance to Asia: What Are Its Security Aims and What Is Required of U.S. Policy?”,Hudson Institute Briefing Paper, June 2014, p.9-10.

Shelton, Henry H. “America’s Security in 21st Century.”Quadrennial Defense Review Report (2001).p.4.

Shinji Yamaguchi “Briefing Memo: The foreign policy of Xi Jinping’s Administration and the Establishment of China’s Air Defense Identification Zone” The National Institute for Defense Studies News, Issue 190, September, 2014, p.2-3.
Sutter Robert, “China and America: The Great Divergence?”, Foreign Policy Research Institute, May 25, 2014, p.375.

Tran Truoy Thuy, “Territorial issues in Asia, Drivers, Instruments and Way forward” 7th Berlin Conference on Asian Security, Berlin July 1-2, 2013, p.5-6.

U.S Congress. Senate. Committee on resolution. Resolution: Hearings before the Committee on Resolution. 114th Cong, 1st sess, 2013. Available from: http://www.schatz.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/Spratly%20Islands%20Resolution.pdf
U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Korea Alexander Vershbow, Department of State, “The U.S. Republic of Korea Alliance: A History of Cooperation,” Remarks to the Korean Military Academy Association of Graduates, March 22, 2006.

United Nations. Oceans & Law of the Seas. A United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas: A historical perspective, Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs, 2012. http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_historical_perspective.htm

United States. Department of Defense. Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments involving People’s Republic of China. Office of the Secretary of Defense, 2015.
United States. Department of Defense. Quadrennial Defense Review 2014, March 4, 2014. http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/2014_Quadrennial_Defense_Review.pdf
United States. Department of State. Limits in the Seas: Maritime claim in South China Sea, Bureau of oceans and International Environment and Scientific Affairs, No.143 (2014) p.1-2.
United States. Department of State. Scot Marciel Congress Testimony: Maritime Issues and Sovereignty Disputes in East Asia, Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Testimony, July 15th, 2009. http://www.state.gov/p/eap/rls/rm/2009/07/126076.htm

United States. Department of States. Clinton’s remarks at ASEAN regional forum, Bureau of International Information Programs, July 23rd, 2010. http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/texttrans/2010/07/20100723164658su0.4912989.html#axzz3yprxaj00

United States. Department of States. Daniel R Russel Congress Testimony: Maritime Dispute in East Asia, Bureau East Asian and Pacific Affairs, February 5th, 2014. http://www.state.gov/p/eap/rls/rm/2014/02/221293.htm

United States. Department of States. Declaration on China’s Territorial Sea 1958, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Office of the Geographer, No. 43, January 7th , (1978). http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/58832.pdf

United States. Department of States. Limits in the Seas: China Maritime claim in South China Sea by Kevin Baumert and Brian Melchior, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Office of Ocean and Polar Affairs, December 5, 2014, p.17.
United States. Department of States. Remarks by Secretary Hagel and Gen. Dempsey on the fiscal year 2015 budget preview in the Pentagon Briefing Room, Februay 24, 2014. http://archive.defense.gov/Transcripts/Transcript.aspx?TranscriptID=5377
United States. Department of States. Remarks by Secretary of State John Kerry with Philippines Foreign Secretary Albert del Rosario, Department of Foreign Affairs Manilla, Phillippines, December 17th, 2013. http://www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2013/12/218835.htm

United States. Department of States. Secretary Colin L. Powell remarks following meeting with King Abdullah of Jordan, April 4, 2001.

United States. The White House. Remarks by President Obama and President Benigno Aquino III of the Philippines in Joint Press Conference. Office of the Press Secretary, April 28th, 2014. https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/04/28/remarks-president-obama-and-president-benigno-aquino-iii-philippines-joi

United States.The White House. Remarks by President Obama and President Xi of the People's Republic of China in Joint Press Conference. Office of the Press Secretary, September 15th, 2015. https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/09/25/remarks-president-obama-and-president-xi-peoples-republic-china-joint

Wang Yamei. “White Paper on China’s peaceful development”. Xinhuanet. September, 2011. Accessed October 20, 2015. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/china/2011-09/06/c_131102329.htm
Xenia Dormandy, “The Next Chapter: President Obama’s Second Term Foreign Policy”, The Royal Institute of International Affairs, Great Britain, January, 2013.
Yuan-Kang Wang “China’s Grand Strategy and U.S Primacy: Is China balancing China’s power?” The Brooking Institution, Center for Northeast Asian Studies Center, 2006, p.9.

Zhao Suisheng. “China’s New Foreign Policy Assertiveness. Motivations and Implications”, ISPI Analysis, No.54, May 4th, 2011. http://www.ispionline.it/en/pubblicazione/chinas-new-foreign-policy-assertiveness-motivations-and-implications-0

Books
Dorothy and Hoobler Thomas.US-China Relations since World War II: China and The United States, 1784-1945.United States: Frankin Watts, 1981. p.3-19.
Emmers Ralf. Cooperative Security and the Balance of Power in ASEAN and the ARF. Taylor & UK: Francis e-Library, 2004, p.112.
Lee, Lai To. The Setting for China's Dialogues with ASEAN: China and the South China Sea Dialogues. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999. p.9-19.
Michael D. Swaine and Ashley J. Tellis. Interpreting China’s Grand Strategy: Past, Present, and Future. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2000, p.201.
Robert G. Sutter, “Convergence and Conflicts in US-China Policy, 1996-1997”, In U.S Policy Toward China, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Boston, 1998, p.82.

Slutter, Robert G. U.S-China Relations. 2nd ed. UK: Rowman & Littlefield, 2013.
Viotti, Paul R. Introduction: American Foreign Policy. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2010. xi-16.



Chapters
Buszynski Leszek. “The development of South China Sea maritime disputes” In The South China Sea and Australia Regional Security Environment, Lby Leszek Buszynski and Christopher Roberts, 3-7. Australia Acton:National Security College, 2013.
Cheng Yongnian. “The Maoist Legacy.” In Contemporary China: A History since 1978, Lby Keith Robbins, 1-15. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2014.

Emmers, Ralf. “The U.S rebalancing Strategy: Impacts on the South China Sea” In South China Sea and Australia Regional Security Environment, Lby Leszek Buszynski and Christopher Roberts, 41-44. Australia Acton:National Security College, 2013.

Michael Barnett. "Social Constructivism" In The Globalisation of World Politics, Lby Baylis, Smith and Owens, 162 4th ed. Oxford University Press, 2008.

Robert G. Sutter, “Rising Influence after the Cold War: Post Cold War Debate in U.S Foreign Policy”, In U.S Policy Toward China, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, Boston, 1998.

Rothwell, Donald R. “The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea and its relevance to maritime disputes in South China Sea” In The South China Sea and Australia’s regional Security Environment, Lby Leszek Buszynski and Christopher Roberts, 14-15. Australia Acton: National Security College, 2013.
Zhao Suisheng.“Shaping the Regional Context of China’s Rise: how the Obama administration brought back hedge in its engagement with China” In The Rise of China and Transformation of the US-China Relationship, Lby Suisheng Zhao, 55-75. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Journals & Articles
Andika Putra, “Obama’s Legacy of Unfinished Businesses: Coercive Rhetoric and the Defiance of American Exceptionalism”, Journal of International Relations and Foreign Policy, December, 2015, Vol. 3, No. 2, p.17.

Beckley, Michael. "China's Century? Why America's Edge Will Endure."International Security 36.3 (2012): p.41-78.
Carlyle A. Thayer, “The United States and Chinese Assertiveness in South China Sea”, Security Challenges, Vol. 6, No. 2 (Winter 2010), p.75.
Chin Lin Kun and Villar Gertner Andrés. “Maritime and the Asia Pacific region: China and the emerging order in East and South China Seas” Research Paper, Asia Programme (2015) p.21-22.
Diane K. Mauzy and Brian L. Job, “US policy in Southeast Asia: limited engagement after years of benign neglect” Asian Survey, 2007, Vol. 47, Issue 4, p.627.
Dutton Peter, “Three Disputes and Three Objectives: China and the South China Sea,” Naval War College Review 64, no. 4 (Autumn 2011): p.54.

Evgeny Kanaev, “Security and Cooperation in the South China Sea” Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Oriental Studies, (2014), p.201-202.

Fravel, M. Taylor."China’s Strategy in the South China Sea." Cs Contemporary Southeast Asia 33.3 (2011): p.292-294.
Friedberg, Aaron L. "The Future of U.S.-China Relations: Is Conflict Inevitable?" International Security 30.2 (2005): p.7-45.
Iosif Sorokin, “The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: Why the U.S. Hasn’t Ratified It and Where It Stands Today”, The Berkely Journal of International law. Available from http://berkeleytravaux.com/un-convention-law-sea-u-s-hasnt-ratified-stands-today/

Kim, Shee Poon. “The Anatomy of China’s String of Pearls Strategy” The Hikone Ronso, no. 387 (2011). p.26-31.

Leon Whyte and Richard Weitz, “Enough to Go Around? Money Matters Complicate U.S. Strategic Rebalance to Asia-Pacific”, Fletcher Security Review Vol.2 no.1, January 29, 2015, p.8.

Mearshmeir, John. “The Gathering Storm: China’s challenge to U.S in Asia.” The Chinese Journal of International Politics, Vol. 3, (2010), p.381–384.

Mingjiang Li. “Reconciling Assertiveness and Cooperation? China’s changing approach to the South China Sea dispute” Security Challenges, Vol. 6, No. 2 (Winter 2010), p.57.
Ming-Te, Hung and Mei-Hsien Lee. “An analysis of Obama Administration foreign policy in Southeast Asia” Paper prepared for International Studies Association Annual Convention (2011) 1-24. http://research.nchu.edu.tw/upfiles/adupload/oc_downmul2373106861.pdf


Shen, J. "China's Sovereignty over the South China Sea Islands: A Historical Perspective." Chinese Journal of International Law 1.1 (2002): p.97-107.
Yong Deng.“The Chinese Conception of National Interests in International Relations,” The China Quarterly, No.154 (June 1998), p.308-329.

Zhiming Chen and Dominique Caouette, “China’s South China Sea policy and its implications for Canada: Claims, strategies and consequences” Canadian Foreign Policy Journal Vol. 18, No. 3, September 2012, p.304-305.

Magazines & Newspapers
Avaneesh Pandey. “War On ISIS In Iraq, Syria Has Cost US $1.1B Since June: Pentagon.” International Business Times, October 7, 2014. Available from http://www.ibtimes.com/war-isis-iraq-syria-has-cost-us-11b-june-pentagon-1700256

Dan De Luce and Paul Mcleary. “In South China Sea, a tougher U.S stance”.” The Foreign Policy, October 2015. Available from http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/10/02/in-south-china-sea-a-tougher-u-s-stance/

Panda, Ankit. “China Issues 8 Warnings to US Surveillance Plane in South China Sea.” The Diplomat, March 21, 2015.

Shannon Tiezzi.“US, Japan Put South China Sea at the Forefront of Asia Summits.” The Diplomat, November 18th, 2015. Available from http://thediplomat.com/2015/11/us-japan-put-south-china-sea-at-the-forefront-of-asia-summits/

Smith, Jeff M. "Let's Be Real: The South China Sea Is a US-China Issue The South China Sea Is Increasingly Central to the Overall State of U.S.-China Relations." The Diplomat, June 24 2015.

Sydney J. and Freedberg Jnr. “US Hasn’t Challenged Chinese ‘Islands’ Since 2012.” Breaking Defense, September,2015. Available from: http://breakingdefense.com/2015/09/us-has-steered-clear-of-chinese-artificial-islands-in-south-china-sea/

Internet Source

Andrew Beatty and Agence France-Presse, “APEC 2015: Obama up pressure on China at Asia-Pacific Summit”, 2015 available from http://www.interaksyon.com/article/120389/apec2015--obama-ups-pressure-on-china-at-asia-pacific-summit


BBC News, Asia Pacific.“Vietnam accuses China in Seas disputes” 30th May, 2011. Accessed November 10, 2015.http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-13592508

BBC News.“China must stop land reclamation in South China Sea – Obama” November 18th, 2015.Accessed November 20, 2015. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34853878

Berg B L. “Qualitative research methods for the social sciences”, 2001, [database online] – [cited 8 October 2015]; retrieved from https://mthoyibi.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/qualitative-research-methods-for-the-social-sciences__bruce-l-berg
Chen Jimin.“The Prospects of Asia-Pacific Rebalance Strategy”, China US Focus, December 3, 2013. Accessed May 5, 2016. Available from http://www.chinausfocus.com/foreign-policy/the-prospects-of-the-u-s-asia-pacific-rebalance-strategy/

CNN reports. “Pentagon says Chinese vessels harassed U.S. ship” cnn.com. March 9, 2009. Accessed November 20, 2015. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/03/09/us.navy.china/index.html?iref=24hours

Fox News, Politics. “Pentagon: Chinese Ships Harassed Unarmed Navy Craft in International Waters” March 9, 2009. Accessed November 10, 2015.http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/03/09/pentagon-chinese-ships-harassed-unarmed-navy-craft-international-waters.html

Mackenzie C. Babb, ‘Panetta Presents $614 Billion Defense Budget Request to Congress’, US Embassy IIP Digital, 14 February 2012, Accessed May 5, 2016. http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/article/2012/02/20120214171301eiznekcam0.8771631.html#axzz2EBwbKXj7

Nelson Brad. “US Policy on the South and East China Seas: Is Under-balancing the Future’s Wave?” E-International Relation, July 20th 2015. Accessed November 10, 2015.http://www.e-ir.info/2015/07/20/us-policy-on-the-south-and-east-china-seas-is-underbalancing-the-futures-wave/

Trang Pham and Truong-Minh Vu. “From Clash of Vision to Power Struggle: The US, China, and Freedom of Navigation”, E-International Relations, October 31, 2014. Accessed http://www.e-ir.info/2014/10/31/from-clash-of-vision-to-power-struggle-the-us-china-and-freedom-of-navigation/

Yale Law School: Lillian Goldman Law Library. “President Woodrow Wilson’s fourteen points, 8 January 1918”. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/wilson14.asp
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2016-06-28公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2016-06-28起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2486 或 來信