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系統識別號 U0002-2706201217105900
中文論文名稱 東協與災害管理:2004年印度洋災害之回應與影響
英文論文名稱 ASEAN and Disaster Management in the New Century: Response and Implications of the 2004 Indian Ocean Disaster
第三語言論文名稱 ASEAN y el Manejo de Desastres en el Siglo XXI: Respuesta e Implicancias del Desastre en el Oceano Indico del 2004
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 古立鷗
研究生英文姓名 Agustin A. Julio Bulling
電子信箱 ajuliob@gmail.com
學號 699330519
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2012-06-05
論文頁數 172頁
口試委員 指導教授-李大中
中文關鍵字 東南亞  東協  非傳統安全  集體認同  東協災害管理  2004年南亞海嘯 
英文關鍵字 Southeast Asia  ASEAN  Non-Traditional Security  Security Community  Collective Identity  ASEAN Disaster Management  2004 Indian Ocean Disaster 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 本篇論文以東南亞國家在區域合作為主題,尤其是21世紀東南亞國協在災害管理方面,在所採取的措施與行動。以2004年南亞大海嘯所造成的災難為例,當時各國所採取的行動,其經驗可減少該地區在未來面臨風險時所造成的危害。本篇論文主要針對災害(自然和人為)的概念和災害管理做出探討,並且將以安全共同體的概念,作為整個研究的概念框架所使用的概念框架。非傳統安全問題與國際關係之間的聯結,將能為2015年東協共同體的建立提出批評和挑戰。
根據分析,東南亞國家的災害管理機制的建立,源於2004年南亞大海嘯。災難所造成的重大損失,是東協國家決心建立有效的災害管理機構的契機,目的在於整合東協地區的內部/跨界災害的預防和應對。筆者所要回答的最後也最重要的一個問題就是:東協國家的災害管理機制仍然有效的運行與發展嗎?是的,筆者認為它仍然是一個進展中的工作。但是這迫切需要進行詳細的評估,以確保該地區的發展,穩定與安全,從而達到建立一個鞏固的安全共同體的目的。
英文摘要 This thesis examines the response and regional cooperation in Southeast Asia, specifically by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in the context of Disaster Management in the 21st century, having as an example the damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami in the Indian Ocean in 2004, and its actions taken until today in order to reduce the risks of future hazards in the region. It explores the concept of disaster (natural and man-made) and disaster management. The conceptual framework used, Security Community, guides the entire research and makes the connection between Non-Traditional Security issues and International Relations and it also serves to propose criticisms and challenges to the final construction of a desired ASEAN Community by 2015.

It is analyzed the most important disaster management mechanisms before, during and after the 2004 Indian Ocean Disaster. The response for that particular event resulted to be a turning point for ASEAN, encouraging it to implement solid institutions with the aim of preventing and coping internal/transboundary disasters in the ASEAN region. That entire purpose is answered throughout one final question: is the ASEAN Disaster Management still a work in progress? Yes, it is still a work in progress that it needs to be assessed urgently to ensure the stability and security of the region with the purpose of development, key aim of a proper Security Community.
論文目次 Table of Contents
ABSTRACT (CHINESE)………………………………………………………………………………………. …….II
ABSTRACT (ENGLISH)……………………………………………………………………………………………..III
LIST OF MAPS AND TABLES……………………………………………………………………………………..VI
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS………………………………………………………………….. …….VII
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS IX
INTRODUCTION 1
I. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES: 8
A. MAIN OBJECTIVE: 8
B. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: 8
II. RESEARCH SCOPE: 8
III. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: 9
IV. HYPOTHESIS: 10
V. METHODOLOGY: 10
VI. LITERATURE REVIEW: 11
1. REGIONALISM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA. 11
2. SECURITY ISSUES IN SOUTH EAST ASIA. 13
3. DISASTER MANAGEMENT. 14
VII. CHAPTER ARRANGEMENT: 16
CHAPTER 1: UNVEILING DISASTER MANAGEMENT 20
1.1. DEFINITIONS OF DISASTER. 21
1.2. DISASTERS VS. HAZARDS, RISKS, EMERGENCIES, CATASTROPHES AND CATACLYSMS. 24
1.3. CLASSIFICATIONS. 27
1.3.1. Natural Disasters. 27
1.3.2. Man-made Disasters. 30
1. 4. DISASTER MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS. 34
1.5. PHASES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT. 35
1.5.1. Mitigation. 36
1.5.2. Preparedness. 36
1.5.3. Response. 37
1.5.4. Recovery. 38
1.6. THE CONCEPT OF VULNERABILITY. 39
1.7. SUMMARY. 41
CHAPTER II: SECURITY COMMUNITIES: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 42
2.1. A CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH TO SECURITY COMMUNITIES. 43
2.2. DEFINITION, ORIGINS AND RENAISSANCE OF THE CONCEPT. 46
2.3. HOW ARE SECURITY COMMUNITIES BORN? 48
2.4. CLASSIFICATION OF PLURALISTIC SECURITY COMMUNITIES. 49
2.5. FEATURES / CHARACTERISTICS OF A SECURITY COMMUNITY. 51
2.6. LIMITATIONS AND DISINTEGRATION OF A SECURITY COMMUNITY. 53
2.7. SUMMARY. 55
CHAPTER 3: ASEAN AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT 57
3.1. ASEAN. 57
3.1.1. What is ASEAN? 58
3.2. ASEAN COMMUNITY. 61
3.2.1. Collective Identity in ASEAN. 62
3.2.2. Building an ASEAN Community. 66
3.2.3. Limitations for the development of an ASEAN Community. 73
3.3. ASEAN AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT. 75
3.3.1. The ASEAN Experts Group on Disaster Management (AEGDM). 76
3.3.2. “ASEAN Declaration on Mutual Assistance on Natural Disasters”. 78
3.3.3. ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM). 79
3.4.4. ASEAN Regional Programme on Disaster Management (ARPDM). 81
3.3.5. The ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Disaster Management (AMMDM). 87
3.4. SUMMARY. 88
CHAPTER 4: THE 2004 DISASTER AND ASEAN RESPONSE. 90
4.1. BACKGROUND OF THE 2004 INDIAN OCEAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI. 91
4.2. THE ASEAN RESPONSE. 94
4.3. THE INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE. 98
4.3.1. The European Union Response. 99
4.3.2. Other Actors Response. 106
4.4. IMPLICATIONS AND CRITICS TO ASEAN’S RESPONSE. 108
4.5. SUMMARY. 116
CHAPTER 5: DEVELOPING A HOLISTIC ASEAN D.M. BODY 117
5.1. THE ASEAN CHARTER AND DISASTERS. 117
5.2. ASEAN DISASTER MANAGEMENT NEW IMPLEMENTATIONS: 120
5.2.1. The ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER). 120
5.2.2. ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance (AHA Centre). 124
5.2.3. ASEAN Disaster Information Sharing and Communication Network (ASEAN DISCNET). 128
5.2.4 ASEAN Disaster Management Partnerships with Relevant Organizations and NGOs. 130
5.2.5 ASEAN Cooperation Fund for Disaster Assistance. 133
5.3 EXCERCISES AND PREVENTION 134
5.3.1. ASEAN Regional Disaster Response Simulation Exercises (ARDEX). 134
5.3.2. ASEAN Day for Disaster Management. 136
5.3.3. The ASEAN Emergency Rapid Assessment Team (ASEAN-ERAT). 138
5.4. DISASTERS AFTER 2004 AND ASEAN’S RESPONSE. 139
5.4.1. Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar (2008). 140
5.4.2. Thailand Floods (2011). 144
5.4.3. Earthquake in Indonesia and Tsunami alert (2012). 148
5.5. SUMMARY. 150
CONCLUSION 152
1. EVALUATIONS: IS ASEAN DISASTER MANAGEMENT STILL A WORK IN 152
PROGRESS? 152
2. MAJOR RESEARCH FINDINGS. 159
3. LIMITATIONS. 161
4. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. 162
BIBLIOGRAPHY 164
A. BOOKS. 164
B. JOURNALS AND MAGAZINES. 167
C. PRESENTATIONS AND SPEECHES. 170
D. ELECTRONIC RESOURCES. 170
E. WEBSITES. 172
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- Countries Disaster Risks Assessment. December 2010. for the United States”. The Washington Quarterly, 30 (3) (2007): 67‐77.


c. Presentations and Speeches.

- Caballero, Anthony Mely. “Nontraditional Security and Multilateralism in Asia: Reshaping the Contours of Regional Security Architecture?” Policy Analysis Brief. The Stanley Foundation, June 2007.
- Chau, Andrew. “Security Community and Southeast Asia: Australia, the U.S. and ASEAN’s Counter-terror Strategy”, 2008.
- Harvey, R. “Aceh Looks for a New Political Future”. BBC News Online, 21 March 2005.
- Leifer, Michael. ASEAN’s Search for Regional Order. National University of Singapore, 1987.
- Lin, Chin Ming. “The Role of Mid‐power Countries in Asia‐Pacific Regional Integration”. Paper prepared for the 2011 Annual conference on Taiwan’s Southeast Asian Studies, Tamsui, New Taipei, April 29‐30, 2011.
- McDonald, B, and Gaulin T. “Environmental Change, Conflict, and Adaptation: Evidence from Cases”. University of California, Irvine, March 2002.
- McEntire, David A. “The Status of Emergency Management Theory: Issues, Barriers, and Recommendations for Improved Scholarship”. Paper Presented at the FEMA Higher Education Conference June 8, 2004, Emmitsburg, MD
- Michel, Louis. “Post-tsunami Relief Effort: The Commission’s Humanitarian Response and the Need for Sound Aid Management”, SPEECH/05/177, 15 March 2005.
- Mitchell, Derek J, ed. “The United States and Southeast Asia: Toward a Strategy for
- Pelling, M and Dill K. ‘Natural’ Disasters as Catalysts of Political Action. Briefing Paper 06/01, Chatham House ISP/NSC, Kings College.
- Soderbaum, Fredrik. “Consolidating Comparative Regionalism: From Euro-centrism to Global Comparison”. Paper for the GARNET 2008 Annual Conference, Sciences Po Bordeaux, University of Bordeaux 17-19 September.
- Solano, Javier. “Graduation Ceremony ESDC High Level Training Course”, Stockholm, March 17, 2006, page 4.
- Thayer, Carlyle A. “Revitalizing U.S. Engagement in Asia: The Obama Administration and the Challenge of NonTraditional Security Issues”.
- The Stanley Foundation. “Nontraditional Security Threats in Southeast Asia”, 44th Strategy for Peace Conference. Airlie Center, Warrenton, VA. October 16-18, 2003.
Enhanced Engagement”. A Conference Report of the CSIS Southeast Asia Initiative.
Washington D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, December 2008.

d. Electronic Resources.

- ASEAN. “ACDM Joint Statement on the Occasion of the 4th Ministerial Conference for Disaster Risk Reduction”, Incheon, Republic of Korea, October 25-28, 2010, http://www.asean.org/19644.htm
- ASEAN. “Announcement by the ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM): ASEAN to Test Regional Emergency Response and Humanitarian Assistance Capacities in a Simulated Flood Disaster in Cambodia”, September 6, 2006, http://www.asean.org/23166.htm
- ASEAN. “Announcement by the ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM): ASEAN’s Regional Emergency Response and Humanitarian Assistance Capacities Put to the Test in Simulated Typhoon Disaster Scenario”, August 22, 2008, http://www.asean.org/23169.htm
- ASEAN. “ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response”. Vientiane, July 26, 2005, http://www.asean.org/17579.htm
- ASEAN. “ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response”. Work Programme 2010-2015. Adopted by the 15th Meeting of the ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM), 11-12 March 2010, Singapore.
- ASEAN. “ASEAN Declaration on Mutual Assistance on Natural Disasters”. Manila, June 26, 1976, http://www.asean.org/17455.htm
- ASEAN. “ASEAN Standby Arrangements for Disaster Relief and Emergency Response”, http://standby.aseansec.org/
- ASEAN. “Development of the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response”, http://www.asean.org/18441.htm
- ASEAN. “Leadership in Asia After Tsunami”, Remarks Delivered by H.E. Ong Keng Yong, Secretary-General of ASEAN at the Asia Leadership Conference 2005”, Seoul, March 3, 2005, http://www.asean.org/17302.htm
- ASEAN. “Press Release of the ASEAN Mounts First Regional Disaster Emergency Response Simulation Exercise”. September 16, 2005, http://www.asean.org/17734.htm
- ASEAN. “PRESS RELEASE ASEAN in Action: Coordinated Emergency Response for Earthquake Victims in Indonesia”. 7 June 2006. http://www.asean.org/18465.htm
- ASEAN. “Second Announcement by the ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM). Fourth ASEAN Regional Disaster Emergency Response Simulation Exercise Kicks off in Thailand”, August 27, 2008, http://www.asean.org/19644.htm
- ASEAN. “Seven Cardinal Rules of Regional Partnership: Lessons from Tsunami 2004”, by H.E. Ong Keng Yong, Secretary-General, Association of Southeast Asian Nations at the Third Asia-Pacific Homeland Security Summit and Exposition”, Honolulu, USA, September 23, 2005, http://www.asean.org/17767.htm
- ASEAN. “Special ASEAN Leaders Meeting on Aftermath of Earthquake and Tsunami”. Jakarta, January 6, 2005, http://www.asean.org/17066.htm
- ASEAN. “Statement from the Chairman of the ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management”. http://www.asean.org/18465.htm
- CNN. “Asia quake death toll tops 13,000”, December 27, 2004, http://edition.cnn.com/
- Focus on the Global South Official Website. Revisiting South East Asian Regionalism. Edited by Focus on the Global South. December 2006. Available online at: http://www.focusweb.org/pdf/ASEAN%20dossier2006-full.pdf
- Glasius, Marlies. “The EU response to the Asian tsunami and the need for a human security approach” in The European Union and Human Security - External Interventions and Missions, ed. Mary Martin et.al. USA:Routledge, 2009.
- Pacific Disaster Center. “Mega Disasters – a Global “Tipping Point” in Natural Disaster Policy, Planning and Development”, Maui, Hawaii, August 15-16, 2006, http://www.asean.org/23163.htm
- Schulze, Kirsten (2005) Between Conflict and Peace: Tsunami Aid and Reconstruction in Aceh, 18 November 2005, available at http://www.lse.ac.uk/Depts/global/humansectsunami.htm
- Terra Daily. “Sumatra quake fifth-largest since 1900: USGS”, December 26, 2004, http://www.terradaily.com/
- What on Earth. “Example from Indonesian Islands, Plate Tectonics”, http://whatonearth.olehnielsen.dk/Tectonics.asp
http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/discours/88870.pdf

e. Websites.

- ASEAN Official website, http://www.asean.org/
- Multi-Donor Trust Funds Office website, http://mdtf.undp.org/overview/funds
- ASEAN Blogger, http://aseanblogger.com/
- ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Disaster Management (AMMDM) website, http://www.asean.org/19599.htm
- British Broadcasting Channel (BBC) website, http://www.bbc.com/
- Centre for Non-traditional Security Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, http://www.rsis.edu.sg/nts/resources.asp?selsubcat=publications
- CNN website, http://edition.cnn.com/
- Council on Foreign Relations, http://www.cfr.org/
- European Investment Bank (EIB) website, http://www.eib.org/
- Focus on the Global South website, http://www.focusweb.org/
- Foreign Affairs website, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/
- Human Security Gateway, http://www.humansecuritygateway.com/index.php
- International Relations and Security Network, http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/
- ISDR, Draft Framework to Guide and Monitor Disaster Risk Reduction, http://www.unisdr.org/dialogue/
- Terra Daily website, http://www.terradaily.com/
- The ASEAN Regional Programme on Disaster Management, http://www.asean.org/18455.htm
- The European Commission Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (ECHO) website, http://ec.europa.eu/echo/index_en.htm
- The Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System website, http://www.gdacs.org/
- The International Crisis Group website, http://www.crisisgroup.org/en.aspx
- The International Development Research Centre, Gender and Disaster Sourcebook,
- The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), http://www.ifrc.org/en/
- The Jamestown Foundation website, http://www.jamestown.org/
- The Prevention Web, http://www.preventionweb.net/english/?logotext
- The United Nations University - Comparative Regional Integration Studies (UNU-CRIS), http://www.cris.unu.edu/
- The World Bank website, http://www.worldbank.org/
- United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) website, http://www.unisdr.org/
- What on Earth website, http://whatonearth.olehnielsen.dk/Tectonics.asp
www.gdnonline.org/sourcebook.htm
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