||An Investigation on the Use of Formulaic Language in Task-based Activities by EFL Learners in Taiwan
||Department of English
Formulaic language adoption
Task-based language teaching
||本研究旨在探討以英語為外語的學習者在任務導向教學法中使用語塊之偏好與方法。本研究以一百零六名北台灣地區大學生為研 究對象。本研究包含兩篇 email 寫作任務,並由學生的任務中分析學 生們使用語塊的情形。研究者以隨機方式從中抽樣出十四名學生參 與訪談。主要的研究結果有四項: (一)、學生們選擇使用語塊的最主 要原因是語塊之相關性和對語塊之熟悉度。(二)、寫作的目的在學生 使用全部採用或部分採用語塊時,扮演著重要的角色。(三)、學生的 英文程度與英語語塊使用情形沒有明顯的相關性。(四)、參與研究的 學生普遍對於語塊教學與任務導向教學方式有正面的態度。總之, 本研究希望藉由分析學生使用語塊的方式以及對語塊學習的看法提 供老師在語塊教學上之建議與參考。
||This study attempts to shed some light on the composing processes of and preferences for formulaic language adoption under a TBLT approach by EFL learners. A total of 106 Taiwanese EFL learners from a university in northern Taiwan participated in this study while fourteen of them were randomly selected to attend the follow-up interviews. This study involved two email writing tasks, which provided data for the analysis of the participants’ formulaic language adoption. Results of this study showed that the participants chose to adopt formulaic structures if these ready-made chunks were familiar to them and relevant to their writing purposes. Second, task type plays a vital role in the participants’ tendency to adopt formulaic language fully or partially. Third, no significance was uncovered between the relationship between English proficiency and formulaic language adoption. Last, generally speaking, the participants have a positive attitude toward both TBLT approach and formulaic language instruction. In conclusion, the study may be of importance in providing language teachers with insight on formulaic language instruction and students’ perceptions and feelings toward it.
||Table of Contents
Chinese Abstract ii
English Abstract iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables vii
List of Figures viii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation of the Study 3
1.2 Purpose of the Study 3
1.3 Research Questions 4
1.4 Significance of the Study 5
1.5 Definitions of Terms 5
1.5.1 Formulaic Language 6
1.5.2 Partial Adoption 7
1.5.3 Full Adoption 7
1.5.4 No Adoption 8
1.6 Organization of the Study 9
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 Task-based Language Teaching 10
2.1.1 Definitions of Task 10
2.1.2 Theoretical Background of TBLT 13
2.1.3 Characteristics and Principles of TBLT 14
2.1.4 Task Type 16
2.1.5 The Sequencing and Framework of TBLT 16
2.1.6 TBLT in Asia and Taiwan 18
2.2 Formulaic Language 21
2.2.1 The Nature of Formulaic Language 21
2.2.2 Types of Formulaic Language 23
2.2.3 The Function of Formulaic Language 24
2.2.4 Formulaic Language and Second Language Learning and Teaching 25
2.2.5 Formulaic Language and L2 Learner Advantages and Benefits 26
2.2.6 Formulaic Language and L2 Learner Difficulties 28
2.2.7 Formulaic Language in EFL Settings 30
2.3 E-mail Writing and SLA Research 31
2.3.1 Advantages and Benefits of E-mail Writing Instruction 32
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 35
3.1 Participants 35
3.2 Instruments 36
3.3 Treatment 39
3.3.1 Pre-task and Task One: Cover Letter 40
3.3.2 Pre-task and Task Three: Responding to Interview Invitation 41
3.4 Data Collection Procedure 41
3.4.1 Proficiency Test 42
3.4.2 Writing Tasks 42
3.4.3 Retrospective Semi-structured Interview 42
3.5 Data Analysis 43
3.5.1 Task 43
3.5.2 Full No Error 44
3.5.3 Full with Grammar Error 44
3.5.4 Full with Context Error 44
3.5.5 Partial No Error 45
3.5.6 Partial with Grammar Error 45
3.5.7 Partial with Context Error 45
3.5.8 Retrospective Semi-structured Interview 45
CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 46
4.1 Formulaic Language Adoption Task 1 46
4.1.1 Full Adoption in Task 1 48
4.1.2 Partial Adoption in Task 1 48
4.2 Formulaic Language Adoption in Task 2 49
4.2.1 Full Adoption in Task 2 50
4.2.2 Partial Adoption in Task 2 50
4.3 Overall Adoption of Formulaic Language 51
4.3.1 Familiarity 52
4.3.2. Relevance and Coherence 54
4.3.3 Syntactic and Lexical Complexity 55
4.3.4 Socio-interactional Communication 55
4.3.5 Input for Syntactic Analysis 57
4.4 Partial Adoption of Formulaic Language in Task 1 58
4.4.1 Creativity 59
4.4.2 Ownership 61
4.5 Full Adoption of Formulaic Language in Task 2 62
4.5.1 Purpose of Writing 62
4.5.2 Avoidance of Error 64
4.5.3 Avoidance of Writing 66
4.6 Students’ Thoughts on Formulaic Language 66
4.7 Students’ Reactions to TBLT 67
4.8 English Proficiency and Formulaic Language Adoption 69
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS 72
5.1 Conclusions 72
5.2 Pedagogical Implications 75
5.3 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Future Research 77
List of Tables
Table 1 A Framework for Designing Task-based Lessons 18
Table 2 Task Time Frame 43
Table 3 Adoptions for Task 1 and 2 51
Table 4 Descriptive Statistics of Proficiency Test Scores and Number of Formulaic Language Adoptions for Task 1 and Task 2 70
List of Figures
Figure 1 Interview Question Flowchart 39
Figure 2 Full and Partial Adoption of Formulaic Language in Task1 47
Figure 3 Full and Partial Adoption of Formulaic Language in Task 2 49
Figure 4 Spearman rank correlation between proficiency test scores and number of formulaic language adoptions for Task 1 70
Figure 5 Spearman rank correlation between proficiency test scores and number of formulaic language adoptions for Task 2 71
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