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系統識別號 U0002-2706201211544500
中文論文名稱 歐洲聯盟氣候變遷政策之研究
英文論文名稱 A Study of the European Union Policy on Climate Change
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 陳世杰
研究生英文姓名 Shih-jey Chen
學號 894030054
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-06-05
論文頁數 378頁
口試委員 指導教授-鄒忠科
委員-張四立
委員-羅致政
委員-郭秋慶
委員-張福昌
中文關鍵字 歐洲聯盟  氣候變遷  歷史制度主義  雙層賽局  關鍵時刻  贏集, 
英文關鍵字 Historical institutionalism  Two-level games  Critical junctures  Win-set 
學科別分類
中文摘要 歐洲聯盟氣候變遷政策所要實現的低碳排放目標,與其內部氣候變遷政策與對外氣候典則談判具有循環與相互影響的關係。歐盟經由協調整合形成內部的氣候變遷政策,透過政策措施執行成果,一方面邁向低碳經濟,另一方面藉由國際談判,將內部氣候變遷政策目標轉為國際典則內容,以實現減緩氣候變遷的全球共同願景。相對地,國際典則談判結果會影響歐盟內部氣候變遷政策,使其政策措施行動依國際典則規範而變動。而隨著歐盟氣候變遷政策的深化,低碳經濟成為其內部氣候變遷政策與對外典則談判的共同目標,在此一目標下,內外氣候變遷政策不斷發展演變、相互影響。因此如何透過適當理論途徑,分析闡釋歐盟氣候變遷政策中的內外因素及兩者之間的互動影響,確是一值得研究的議題。
本論文針對歐盟對抗氣候變遷政策中內部氣候變遷政策脈絡以及歐盟在國際氣候典則議題談判表現兩個面向,採取雙研究途徑,其中內部氣候變遷政策的研究採用歷史制度主義理論概念,分析評估歐盟內部氣候變遷政策自形成至今的發展過程;就歐盟對外國際氣候典則談判的分析,則以Robert D. Putnam 雙層賽局理論作為研究途徑,透過賽局層次二「贏集大小」及「談判者角色」概念,探討歐盟就國際氣候典則談判制度的利弊以及未來在談判制度面改革的選項。主要採取的研究方法為歷史文獻的檢閱分析,透過對文獻的解讀,瞭解歐盟氣候變遷政策的歷史脈絡、決策過程、政策內涵以及內外互動,並透過理論加以檢證。
本論文共八章,第一章導論、第二章國際氣候變遷議題的發展脈絡與典則規範、第三章歐盟氣候變遷議題源起與政策發展脈絡、第四章歐盟在能源使用領域的主要減緩措施、第五章歐盟在非能源使用領域的主要減緩措施、第六章歐盟在國際氣候典則談判的結果與表現、第七章自歷史制度主義概念與雙層賽局理論觀點,檢視歐盟內部氣候變遷政策與對外典則談判的表現、第八章結論。
經由相關理論概念的運用,作者認為確實有助於深入瞭解歐盟氣候變遷政策從形成、延續與演變的整體脈絡,以及分析氣候變遷政策的未來走向;在政策實質推動面,作者認為,自1980 年代下半以來迄今,歐盟內部氣候變遷政策與對外氣候議題談判的關係,為一持續進行且相互影響的良性動態過程,歐盟經由在國際環境政治舞台的角色扮演而驅動內部氣候變遷政策的整合,以及透過內部氣候變遷政策措施推動成果而引導制定國際氣候典則方向,都是歐盟氣候變遷政策中相輔相成、不能偏廢的兩個面向。
英文摘要 The low-carbon emission goal which the European Union sets to reach has an interactive relationship with its internal climate change policy and external negotiations for climate change agreements. The EU hammers out its internal climate change policy through coordination and integration among member states. The implementation result through internal policy measures helps it to pursue more ambitious low carbon economy and to reach an EU-favored international climate change agreement conducive to the mitigation of climate change on the negotiation table. However, the outcome of international negotiations would function to influence the EU internal policy on climate change and would result in different policy actions if it tends to comply with the international code. As the EU policy on climate change evolves deeper and deeper, the need to finalize the low-carbon economy pursued by both internal and external climate change policies will lead the triangle relations to more entangled and interactive ones. It’s an intriguing issue to interpret, by exploiting appropriate theory approaches, what kinds of internal and external policy factors matter and how both interact when we discuss the EU policy on climate change.
To address these issues, this dissertation conducts duo approaches with historical institutionalism and Robert D. Putnam’s two-level games theory aiming for explaining the internal and external climate change policy respectively. The author uses the former to analyze and evaluate the evolution of the EU internal policy on climate change in the past 20 or so years while the latter’s key concepts such as win-set and negotiator’s role in the game level 2 serve to pinpoint the EU’s strength and weakness when facing its bargaining counterparts and thus build a basis for further reform options on its negotiation system. The author intends to accurately figure out the EU climate change policy’s historical context, decision-making process, contents and internal-external interactions by ways of historical research, information analysis, and cause-and-effect narrative. The theory concepts are used for further illustration of the EU policy on climate change.
The dissertation consists of eight chapters. Chapter one is the introduction. Chapter two explores the historical context of climate change issue evolution in the international political arena and legal regimes up-to-date. Chapter three describes the genesis of the EU policy on climate change and its evolving context in the last two decades. Chapter four probes main mitigation measures in the energy consumption field to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Chapter five examines main mitigation measures in non-energy consumption sectors to reduce other non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. Chapter six compares the EU’s gains and losses when it bargained with its counterparts regarding international agreements on climate change issues in the past 20 years. Chapter seven reviews the EU internal policy on climate change and its performance in the external negotiations from the perspectives of historical institutionalism and two-level games theory, respectively. Chapter eight makes a conclusion.
Through the lens of both theories, the author strongly believes it conducive to have clear picture of the whole context of EU policy on climate change from its formation to continuation to evolution, and helpful to foretell the policy orientation in the future. Regarding the substantial policy subject matter, the author argues that the relationship between internal climate change policy and external negotiations on international climate change agreements is an ongoing positively interactive dynamic process which binds those two policies together. On the one hand, the EU drives forward the integration of its internal climate change policy by way of playing a leading role in the global environmental politics. On the other hand, it always tries to lead the way by example, which shows significant results of its internal climate change policy measures, to enact more ambitious international climate change agreements. Both policies are mutually-dependent sides of the same coin that benefits each other.
論文目次 目次 i
圖次 v
圖1-1:歐洲聯盟27國1990-2009年溫室氣體排放趨勢 4
圖1-2:歐盟氣候變遷政策內部整合與對外典則談判循環關係 18
圖1-3:關鍵時刻之關鍵性大小計算方程式 26
圖1-4:各種制度變遷模式 30
圖1-5:歐盟氣候變遷政策研究架構 35
圖1-6:歐盟內部氣候變遷政策分析架構3
圖1-7:歐洲聯盟減緩氣候變遷主要政策措施 36
圖2-1:0-2005年大氣層二氧化碳、甲烷、氧化亞氮濃度變化 40
圖2-2:過去150年以來全球平均氣溫變化 40
圖2-3:1957年至1988年全球關注氣候議題重要活動演進 46
圖2-4:1988年至1990年全球關注氣候議題重要活動演進 49
圖3-1:歐洲氣候變遷計畫組織結構 105
圖3-2:歐盟內部溫室氣體排放減量80%路徑 114
圖4-1:1971-2005年歐盟初級能源需求及節能發展 128
圖4-2:歐盟2001-2010年電力、運輸與供熱部門及整體再生能源表現 160
圖4-3:歐盟2010-2020年電力部門再生能源發展 165
圖4-4:歐盟2010-2020年供熱空調部門再生能源發展 165
圖4-5:歐盟2010-2020年運輸部門再生能源發展 165
圖4-6:歐盟27國2008年初級能源產量比例 168
圖4-7:歐盟27國以2009年為基期預估2030年初級能源需求量 168
圖4-8:2005年至2011年歐洲氣候交易所每年排放交易量及價格變化 188
圖5-1:2007年歐盟農業溫室氣體排放在整體部門排放比例 204
圖5-2:2007年歐盟27國農業部門溫室氣體排放來源比例 204
圖5-3:歐盟15及27國1990-2006年農業及總附加價值排放情況 204
圖6-1:1800-2000年世界不同地區碳排放量 236
圖6-2:世界不同地區及主要國家1990-2030年二氧化碳預估排放量 236
圖7-1:歐盟氣候變遷政策醞釀形成階段重要事件脈絡 289
圖7-2:歐盟會員國2020年溫室氣體排放目標 302
圖7-3:歐盟負向排放目標會員國2013-2020年的減量路徑 302
圖7-4:歐盟正向排放目標會員國2013-2020年的減量路徑 302
圖7-5:歐盟溫室氣體排放監督機制 308
圖8-1:歐盟27國1990-2009年溫室氣體排放增減變化 333
表次 vii
表1-1:制度複製與制度變遷可能發生的情境 28
表2-1:「聯合國氣候變化綱要公約京都議定書」附件B 57
表2-2:「氣候公約」第四屆締約方會議迄今歷次會議主要決議 61
表3-1:歐盟2020年不適用交易體系溫室氣體排放及再生能源使用目標 112
表3-2:2005-2050年歐盟部門別溫室氣體減量表 115
表4-1:1990年歐盟15國及27國溫室氣體排放/吸收源二氧化碳當量 118
表4-2:歐盟1998-2010年部門別節省能源潛力 120
表4-3:歐盟2020年部門別使用端節能潛力預估 129
表4-4:1990及1995年歐盟再生能源占能源總消耗比例 143
表4-5:歐盟實現2010年再生能源占總能源消耗12%各部門產出預估值 144
表4-6:歐盟實現2010年再生能源占總能源消耗12%投資成本效益預估 146
表4-7:1995-1998年歐盟15國再生能源在能源整體指標表現 149
表4-8:1989-1998年歐盟15國再生能源部門別能源生產情況 150
表4-9:1998-2010再生能源行動計畫/立法情況 151
表4-10:歐盟15國訂定再生能源發電指標比例的參考值 156
表4-11:歐盟運輸部門最樂觀情況下替代燃料的使用比例 157
表4-12:歐盟27國再生能源指標表現情況 159
表4-13:歐盟27國2020年再生能源占其能源總消耗量比例 162
表4-14:歐盟會員國依據「京都議定書」第四條排放量限制或減少的承諾 181
表4-15:歐盟 2013年以後部門別排放配額拍賣比例 186
表4-16:國際間運作中或倡議的排放交易制度比較 189
表5-1:歐盟15國部門別含氟溫室氣體基準年排放及2010年排放預測 221
表5-2:歐盟「部分含氟溫室氣體規則」規範種類 223
表5-3:歐盟含氟溫室氣體市場投入禁止時程 226
表5-4:歐盟15國及27國1995年及2006-2009年含氟溫室氣體排放量 232
表7-1:「京都議定書」前後歐盟部長理事會決議會員國溫室氣體排放減量責任分擔 300
表7-2:歐盟推動SAVE及ALTENER計畫預估經費 306
表7-3:歐盟27國1990與2009年溫室氣體排放量 317
表7-4:歐盟對外氣候典則談判勝利組合與談判者角色分析 322
縮寫字ix
第一章 導論 1
第一節 研究動機、問題與目的 1
第二節 文獻探討 7
第三節 研究理論與架構17
第四節 研究範圍與限制 35
第五節 章節安排37
第二章 國際氣候典則的發展脈絡與規範39
第一節 從科學到政治:菲拉赫會議的意涵41
第二節 劃時代的開端:聯合國氣候變化綱要公約 47
第三節 拘束性的減碳目標:京都議書54
第四節 分歧的難題:京都議定書時期與後續展 59
第五節 小結 68
第三章 歐洲聯盟氣候變遷議題的源起與政策發展69
第一節 歐盟環境政策發展脈絡下的氣候變遷議題69
第二節 歐盟氣候變遷政策的源起87
第三節 歐盟氣候變遷政策的發展94
第四節 小結115
第四章 歐洲聯盟在能源使用領域的減緩措施117
第一節 提升能源使用效率119
第二節 增加再生能源比例140
第三節 發展碳封存管理制度166
第四節 推動排放交易制度174
第五節 嘗試課徵能源/碳稅193
第六節 小結199
第五章 歐洲聯盟在非能源使用領域的減緩措施 201
第一節 在農業部門方面 201
第二節 在廢棄物掩埋管理方面213
第三節 在產品與設備使用管理方面219
第四節 小結232
第六章 歐洲聯盟氣候變遷政策與對外談判235
第一節 排放穩定化的折衷:聯合國氣候變化綱要公約談判 240
第二節 減量目標的訂定:京都議定書談判244
第三節 京都彈性機制的轉折:從海牙會議到波昂與瑪拉喀什協議 250
第四節 新典則制定的挑戰:自峇里行動計畫至哥本哈根與坎昆協議260
第五節 小結278
第七章 理論檢視281
第一節 檢視歐盟內部氣候變遷政策282
第二節 檢視歐盟對外就國際氣候典則談判的表現318
第八章 結論327
參考文獻335
附錄365
附錄一 國際氣候變遷典則制定大事記365
附錄二 歐洲聯盟氣候變遷政策發展大事記367
附錄三 1993-2010 年歐洲聯盟減少溫室氣體排放立法措施369
參考文獻 參考文獻
壹、中文部分
一、中文專書
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鄒忠科、沈娟娟、蔡裕鎮(2010),《歐洲聯盟史》。台北市:五南圖書。
二、中文期刊
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貳、西文部分
一、西文文獻
(一)歐盟執委會文獻
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European Commission (1976), Continuation and implementation of a European Community policy and action programme on the environment, COM (76) 80 final, 24/3/1976.
European Commission (1981), Draft Action Programme of the European Communities on the environment (1982-1986), COM (81) 626 final, 4/11/1981.
European Commission (1986), Draft for a Resolution of the Council of the European Communities on the continuation and implementation of an European Community policy and action program in the environment ( 1987-1992 ), COM (86) 485
final, 9/10/1986.
European Commission (1988), Communication on the greenhouse effect and the Community, COM(88) 656 final, 16/11/1988.
European Commission (1990), Communication on Community policy targets on the greenhouse issue, SEC(90) 496 final, 16/3/1990.
European Commission (1991), Communication on a Community strategy to limit carbon dioxide emission and to improve energy efficiency, SEC (91)1744 final, 14/10/1991.
European Commission (1992a), Proposal for a Resolution of the Council of the European Communities on a Community programme of policy and action in relation to the environment and sustainable development, COM (92) 23 final, Vol.I, 27/3/1992.
European Commission (1992b), Proposal for a Council Decision concerning the promotion of renewable energy sources in the Community (ALTENER programme), COM (92)180 final, 29/6/1992.
European Commission (1992c), Proposal for a Council Decision for a monitoring mechanism of Community CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions, COM(92) 181 final, 1/6/1992.
European Commission (1992d), Proposal for a Council Directive to limit carbon dioxide emissions by improving energy efficiency (SAVE programme), COM(92)182 final, 26/6/1992.
European Commission (1992e), Proposal for a Council Directive introducing a tax on carbon dioxide emissions and energy, COM(92)226 final, 30/6/92.
European Commission (1992f), Communication: A community Strategy to limit carbon dioxide emissions and to improve energy efficiency, COM(92)246 final, 1/6/1992.
European Commission (1992g), Proposal for Council Decision concerning the conclusion of the Framework Convention on Climate Change, COM(92)508 final,15/12/1992.
European Commission (1995), Amended Proposal for a Council Directive introducing a tax on carbon dioxide emissions and energy, COM (1995)172 final, 10/5/1995.
European Commission (1995a), Commission Working Paper on the EU climate change strategy: a set of options, SEC(95)288 final, 1/3/1995.
European Commission (1995b), The EC Communication under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, SEC(95)451 final, 30/3/1995.
European Commission (1995c), White Paper - An energy policy for the European
Union, COM(1995)682 final, 13/12/1995.
European Commission (1995d), Communication-A community strategy to reduce
CO2 emissions from passenger cars and improve fuel economy, COM (95) 689
final, 20/12/1995.
European Commission (1996), Communication: Strategy paper for reducing methane
emissions, COM (96) 557 final, 15/11/1996.
European Commission (1996a), Green Paper for a Community Strategy–Energy for
the future: Renewable sources of energy, COM (1996)576 final, 20/11/1996.
European Commission (1996b), Proposal for a Council Regulation (EC) on a revised
Community eco-label award scheme, COM(96)603 final, 11/12/1996.
European Commission (1997), Proposal for a Council Directive restructuring the
Community Framework for the taxation of energy products, COM (1997)30 final,
12/3/1997.
European Commission (1997-1), Proposal for Council Directive on the landfill of
waste, COM(97)105 final, 5/3/1997.
European Commission (1997a), Report from the Commission on the results of the
Altener Programme, COM(1997)122, final, 12/3/1997.
339
European Commission (1997b), Proposal for a Council Decision concerning a
multiannual programme for the promotion of renewable energy sources in the
Community (Altener II), COM(1997)87 final, 12/3/1997.
European Commission (1997c), Amended proposal for a Council Decision concerning
the organisation of cooperation around Community energy objectives, COM
(1997) 436 final, 26/8/1997.
European Commission (1997d), Climate Change-The EU Approach for Kyoto, COM
(97)481 final, 1/10/1997.
European Commission (1997e), Proposal for a Council Decision establishing a
multiannual framework programme for actions in the energy sector(1998-2002),
COM (1997) 550, 18/11/1997.
European Commission (1997f), Communication-Energy for the future: renewable
sources of energy-White Paper for a Community strategy and action plan, COM
(1997)599 final, 26/11/1997.
European Commission (1998a), Communication on Energy Efficiency in the
European Community- Towards a Strategy for the rational use of energy COM
(1998) 246 final, 29/4/1998.
European Commission (1998b), Communication- Climate change- Towards an EU
post-Kyoto strategy, COM(98)353 final, 3/6/1998.
European Commission (1998c), Communication Implementing the Community
strategy to reduce CO2 emissions from cars: an environmental agreement with the
European automobile industry, COM(98)495 final, 29/7/1998.
European Commission (2000), Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament
and of the Council on a Community Energy Efficiency Labelling Programme For
Office and Communication Technology Equipment, COM ( 2000 ) 18
final, 28/1/2000.
European Commission (2000a), Green Paper on greenhouse gas emissions trading
within the European Union COM (2000) 87 final, 8/2/2000.
340
European Commission (2000b), Communication on EU policies and measures to
reduce greenhouse gas emissions: towards a European Climate Change
Programme (ECCP), COM(2000)88 final, 8/3/2000.
European Commission (2000c), Communication on Action Plan to Improve Energy
Efficiency in the European Community, COM (2000) 247 final, 26/4/2000.
European Commission (2000d), Green Paper - Towards a European strategy for the
security of energy supply, COM(2000)769 final, 29/11/2000.
European Commission (2001a), Proposal for a Decision of the European Parliament
and of the Council Laying down the Community Environment Action Programme
2001-2010, COM(2001)31 final, 24/1/2001.
European Commission (2001b), Communication on the implementation of the
Community Strategy and Action Plan on Renewable Energy Sources (1998-2000),
COM(2001)69 final, 16/2/2001.
European Commission (2001c), Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament
and of the Council on the energy performance of buildings, COM(2001)226 final,
11/5/2001.
European Commission (2001d), Communication on alternative fuels for road
transportation and on a set of measures to promote the use of biofuels, Proposal
for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of
the use of biofuels for transport and Proposal for a Council Directive amending
Directive 92/81/EEC with regard to the possibility of applying a reduced rate of
excise duty on certain mineral oils containing biofuels and on biofuels, COM
(2001)547 final, 7/11/2001.
European Commission (2001e), Proposal for a Council Decision concerning the
approval, on behalf of the European Community, of the Kyoto Protocol to the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the joint
fulfilment of commitments thereunder, COM(2001)579 final, 23/10/2001.
European Commission (2001f), Communication on the implementation of the first
341
phase of the European Climate Change Programme, COM(2001)580 final,
23/10/2001.
European Commission (2001g), Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament
and of the Council establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance
trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC, COM
(2001)581 final, 23/10/2001.
European Commission (2002), Proposal for a Decision of the European Parliament
and of the Council adopting a multiannual programme for action in the field of
energy: "Intelligent Energy for Europe" Programme (2003-2006), COM(2002)
162 final, 9/4/2002.
European Commission (2003), Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament
and of the Council on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases, COM(2003)492 final,
11/8/2003.
European Commission (2003a), Communication on guidance to assist Member States
in the implementation of the criteria listed in Annex III to Directive 2003/87/EC
establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the
Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC, and on the circumstances
under which force majeure is demonstrated, COM (2003) 830 final, 7/1/2004.
European Commission (2004a), Commission Decision 2004/156/EC establishing
guidelines for the monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions pursuant
to Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council.
European Commission (2004b), Commission staff working document: The share of
renewable energy in the EU Country Profiles, Overview of Renewable Energy
Sources in the Enlarged European Union, SEC (2004) 547, 26/5/2004.
European Commission (2005a), Communication- Winning the Battle against Global
Climate Change, COM(2005)35 final, 9/2/2005.
European Commission (2005b), Proposal for a Council Directive on passenger car
related taxes, COM(2005)261 final, 5/7/2005.
342
European Commission (2005c), Communication-Outcome of the screening of
legislative proposals pending before the Legislator, COM(2005)462 final,
27/9/2005.
European Commission (2005d), Communication-Reducing the Climate Change
Impact of Aviation, COM (2005) 459 final, 27/9/2005.
European Commission (2006), Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament
and of the Council establishing a framework for the protection of soil and
amending Directive 2004/35/EC, COM (2006) 232 final, 22/9/2006.
European Commission (2006-1), Report from the Commission on implementation of
the Community waste legislation Directive 75/442/EEC on waste, Directive
91/689/EEC on hazardous waste, Directive 75/439/EEC on waste oils, Directive
86/278/EEC on sewage sludge, Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging
waste and Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste for the period 2001-2003,
COM (2006) 406 final, 19/7/2006.
European Commission (2006a), Communication-Action Plan for Energy Efficiency:
Realising the Potential, COM(2006)545 final, 19/10/2006.
European Commission (2006b), Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament
and of the Council on a Community energy-efficiency labelling programme for
office equipment (Recast), COM(2006)576 final, 4/10/2006.
European Commission (2006c), Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament
and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation
activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the
Community, COM(2006)818 final, 20/12/2006.
European Commission (2006d), Communication- Sustainable power generation from
fossil fuels: aiming for near-zero emissions from coal after 2020, COM(2006)843
final, 10/1/2007.
European Commission (2006e), Communication- Renewable energy road map -
Renewable energies in the 21st century: building a more sustainable future, COM
343
(2006)848 final, 10/1/2007.
European Commission (2006f), Commission Decision 2006/944/EC determining the
respective emission levels allocated to the Community and each of its Member
States under the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to Council Decision 2002/358/EC.
European Commission (2006g), Communication: Building a global carbon market –
Report pursuant to Article 30 of Directive 2003/87/EC, COM (2006)676 final,
13/11/2006.
European Commission (2006h), Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament
and the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation
activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the
Community, COM (2006) 818 final, 20/12/2006.
European Commission (2007), Communication-an energy policy for Europe, COM
(2007)1 final, 10/1/2007.
European Commission (2007a), Communication: Limiting global climate change to 2
degrees Celsius - The way ahead for 2020 and beyond, COM(2007)2 final,
10/1/2007.
European Commission (2007b), Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament
and of the Council amending Directive 98/70/EC as regards the specification of
petrol, diesel and gas-oil and introducing a mechanism to monitor and the
introduction of a mechanism to monitor and reduce greenhouse gas emissions
from the use of road transport fuels and amending Council Directive 1999/32/EC,
as regards the specification of fuel used by inland waterway vessels and repealing
Directive 93/12/EEC, COM(2007)18 final, 31/1/2007.
European Commission (2007c), Communication on the mid-term review of the Sixth
Community Environment Action Programme, COM (2007) 225 final, 30/4/2007.
European Commission (2007d), Green Paper- Adapting to climate change in
Europe-options for EU action, COM(2007)354 final, 29/6/2007.
European Commission (2007e), Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament
344
and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars
as part of the Community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from
light-duty vehicles, COM(2007)856 final, 19/12/2007.
European Commission (2007f), Communication-A European strategic energy
technology plan (SET-plan) - 'Towards a low carbon future' , COM(2007)723
final, 22/11/2007.
European Commission (2007g), Communication- on a new Animal Health Strategy
for the European Union (2007-2013) where “Prevention is better than cure,” COM
(2007) 539 final, 19/9/2007.
European Commission (2007h), White Paper-Together for Health: A Strategic
Approach for the EU 2008-2013, COM (2007) 630 final, 23/10/2007.
European Commission (2007i), Communication-An Integrated Maritime Policy for
the European Union, COM (2007) 575 final, 10/10/2007.
European Commission (2008), Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament
and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend
the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system of the Community, COM
(2008)16 final, 23/1/2008.
European Commission (2008a), Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament
and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide and amending
Council Directives 85/337/EEC, 96/61/EC, Directives 2000/60/EC, 2001/80/EC,
2004/35/EC, 2006/12/EC and Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006, COM(2008)18
final, 23/1/2008.
European Commission (2008b), Communication- 20 20 by 2020 - Europe's climate
change opportunity, COM(2008)30 final, 23/1/2008.
European Commission (2008c), Communication on the Sustainable Consumption and
Production and Sustainable Industrial Policy Action Plan, COM(2008)397 final,
16/7/2008.
European Commission (2008d), Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament
345
and of the Council on labelling of tyres with respect to fuel efficiency and other
essential parameters, COM(2008)779 final, 13/11/2008.
European Commission (2008e), Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament
and of the Council on the energy performance of buildings (recast), COM(2008)
780 final, 13/11/2008.
European Commission (2008f), Communication-Roadmap for Maritime Spatial
Planning: Achieving Common Principles in the EU, COM (2008) 791 final,
25/11/2008.
European Commission (2008g), Green Paper-Towards a secure, sustainable and
competitive European energy network, COM (2008) 782 final/2, 13/11/2008.
European Commission (2009), Commission Staff Working Document-Adapting to
climate change: the challenge for European agriculture and rural areas, SEC (2009)
417, 1/4/2009.
European Commission (2009-1), Commission Staff Working Document-Human,
animal and plant health impacts of climate change, SEC (2009) 416, 1/4/2009.
European Commission (2009-2), Commission Staff Working Document-Climate
Change and Water, Coasts and Marine Issues, SEC (2009) 386, 1/4/2009.
European Commission (2009-3), Green Paper-TEN-T: A policy review-Towards a
better integrated trans-European transport network at the service of the common
transport policy, COM (2009) 44 final, 4/2/2009.
European Commission (2009a), White Paper- Adapting to climate change: towards a
European framework for action, COM(2009)147 final, 1/4/2009.
European Commission (2009b), Communication - The Renewable Energy Progress
Report:Commission Report in accordance with Article 3 of Directive 2001/77/EC,
Article 4(2) of Directive 2003/30/EC and on the implementation of the EU
Biomass Action Plan, COM (2005)628, COM(2009)192 final, 24/4/2009.
European Commission (2009c), Commission Staff Working Document accompanying
346
the White Paper Adapting to climate change: Towards a European framework for
action, SEC (2009) 387, 1/4/2009.
European Commission (2009d), Press release, “Commission welcomes adoption of
climate and energy package,” ip/09/628, 23/4/2009.
European Commission (2009e), Communication-Investing in the Development of
Low Carbon Technologies (SET-Plan), COM(2009)519, 7/10/2009.
European Commission (2009f), Commission Staff Working Document: The role of
European agriculture in climate change mitigation, SEC (2009) 1093 final,
23/7/2009.
European Commission (2009g), Report from the Commission on implementation of
the Community waste legislation Directive 2006/12/EC on waste, Directive
91/689/EEC on hazardous waste, Directive 75/439/EEC on waste oils, Directive
86/278/EEC on sewage sludge, Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging
waste, Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste and Directive 2002/96/EC on
waste electrical and electronic equipment for the period 2004-2006, COM (2009)
633 final, 20/11/2009.
European Commission (2009h), Communication-Stepping up international climate
finance: A European blueprint for the Copenhagen deal, COM (2009) 475 final,
10/9/2009.
European Commission (2010), Communication: International climate policy
post-Copenhagen: Acting now to reinvigorate global action on climate change,
COM (2010) 86 final, 9/3/2010.
European Commission (2010-1), Commission Decision 2010/778/EU amending
Decision 2006/944/EC determining the respective emission levels allocated to the
Community and each of its Member States under the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to
Council Decision 2002/358/EC, OJ L 332, 16/12/2010.
European Commission (2010a), Communication-The CAP towards 2020: Meeting the
food, natural resources and territorial challenges of the future, COM (2010) 672
347
final, 18/11/2010.
European Commission (2011), Communication-Renewable Energy: Progressing
towards the 2020 target, COM(2011)31 final, 31/1/2011.
European Commission (2011a), Communication-Energy Efficiency Plan 2011, COM
(2011) 109 final/2, 8/3/2011.
European Commission (2011b), Commission Staff Working Document - Recent
progress in developing renewable energy sources and technical evaluation of the
use of biofuels and other renewable fuels in transport in accordance with Article 3
of Directive 2001/77/EC and Article 4(2) of Directive 2003/30/EC, SEC (2011)
130 final, 31/1/2011.
European Commission (2011c), Communication-A Roadmap for moving to a
competitive low carbon economy in 2050, COM(2011)112 final, 8/3/2011.
European Commission (2011d), Commission Staff Working Paper: Progress report of
the Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2006, SEC (2011) 275 final, 8/3/2011.
(二)歐盟理事會/歐洲議會文獻
Council Directive 67/548/EEC, OJ 196, 16/8/1967.
Council Directive 70/157/EEC, OJ L 042, 23/2/1970.
Council Directive 70/220/EEC, OJ L 076, 6/4/1970.
Council Declaration on the programme of action of the European Communities on the
environment, OJ C 112, 20/12/1973.
Council Resolution on the continuation and implementation of a European
Community policy and action programme on the environment, OJ C 139,
13/6/1977.
Council Decision concerning chlorofluorocarbons in the environment, OJ L 90,
3/4//1980.
Council Resolution on the continuation and implementation of a European
348
Community policy and action programme on the environment (1982 to 1986), OJ
C 46, 17/2/1983.
Council Resolution on the continuation and implementation of a European
Community policy and action programme on the environment (1987-1992), OJ C
328, 7/12/1987.
Council Resolution on the greenhouse effect and the Community, OJ C 183,
20/7/1989.
Draft Minutes of the 1436th meeting of the Council(Joint Energy/Environment
Council)held in Luxembourg on Monday 29 October 1990, 9612/90, 9/11/1990
Council Resolution on a Community programme of policy and action in relation to
the environment and sustainable development, OJ C 138, 17/5/1993.
Council Directive 93/76/EEC to limit carbon dioxide emissions by improving energy
efficiency (SAVE), OJ L 237, 22/9/1993.
Council Decision 93/389/EEC for a monitoring mechanism of Community CO2 and
other greenhouse gas emissions, OJ L 167, 9/7/1993.
Council Decision 93/500/EEC concerning the promotion of renewable energy sources
in the Community (Altener programme), OJ L 235, 18/9/1993.
Council Decision 94/69/EC concerning the conclusion of the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change, OJ L 33, 7.2.1994.
Directive 96/57/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 September
1996 on energy efficiency requirements for household electric refrigerators,
freezers and combinations thereof, OJ L 236, 18/9.1996.
1990th Council meeting-environment, Brussels, 3/3/1997, 6309/97.
2017th Council meeting-environment, Luxembourg, 19-20/6/1997, 9132/97.
Council Resolution on energy efficiency in the European Community, OJ C 394,
17/12/1998.
349
Directive 98/69/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to
measures to be taken against air pollution by emissions from motor vehicles and
amending Council Directive 70/220/EEC, OJ L 350, 28/12/1998.
Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to the
quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Council Directive 93/12/EEC, OJ
L 350, 28/12/1998.
Council Decision 1999/296/EC amending Decision 93/389/EEC for a monitoring
mechanism of Community CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions, OJ L 117,
5/5/1999.
Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste, OJ L 182,
16/7/1999.
Directive 1999/94/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to the
availability of consumer information on fuel economy and CO2 emissions in
respect of the marketing of new passenger cars, OJ L 12, 18/1/2000.
Directive 2000/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy
efficiency requirements for ballasts for fluorescent lighting, OJ L 279, 1/11/2000.
Decision No 646/2000/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council adopting a
multiannual programme for the promotion of renewable energy sources in the
Community (Altener) (1998 to 2002), OJ L 79, 30/3/2000.
Decision No 647/2000/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council adopting a
multiannual programme for the promotion of energy efficiency (SAVE) (1998 to
2002), OJ L 79, 30/3/2000.
Decision No 1753/2000/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
establishing a scheme to monitor the average specific emissions of CO2 from new
passenger cars, OJ L 202, 10/08/2000.
Regulation (EC) No 1980/2000 of the European Parliament and of the Council on a
revised Community eco-label award scheme, OJ L 237, 21/9/2000.
350
Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the
promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal
electricity market, OJ L 283, 27/10/2001.
Regulation (EC) No 2422/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council on a
Community energy efficiency labelling programme for office equipment, OJ L
332, 15/12/2001.
Council Decision 2002/358/EC concerning the approval, on behalf of the European
Community, of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change and the joint fulfilment of commitments thereunder, OJ L 130,
15/5/2002.
Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy
performance of buildings, OJ L 1, 4/1/2003.
Council Decision 2002/358/EC concerning the approval, on behalf of the European
Community, of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change and the joint fulfilment of commitments thereunder, OJ L 130,
15/5/2002.
Decision No 1600/2002/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council laying
down the Sixth Community Environment Action Programme, OJ L 242,
10/9/2002.
Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy
performance of buildings, OJ L 1, 4/1/2003.
Directive 2003/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the
promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport, OJ L 123,
17/5/2003.
Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a
scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and
amending Council Directive 96/61/EC, OJ L 275, 25/10/2003.
Council Directive 2003/96/EC restructuring the Community framework for the
351
taxation of energy products and electricity, OJ L 283, 31/1/2003.
Decision No 1230/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council adopting a
multiannual programme for action in the field of energy: "Intelligent Energy —
Europe" (2003 — 2006), OJ L 176, 15/7/2003.
Decision No 280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning
a mechanism for monitoring Community greenhouse gas emissions and for
implementing the Kyoto Protocol, OJ L 49, 19/2/2004
Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion
of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market and
amending Directive 92/42/EEC, OJ L 52, 21/2/2004.
Directive 2004/101/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending
Directive 2003/87/EC establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission
allowance trading within the Community, in respect of the Kyoto Protocol's
project mechanisms, OJ L 338, 13/11/2004.
Directive 2005/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a
framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-using products
and amending Council Directive 92/42/EEC and Directives 96/57/EC and
2000/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, OJ L 191, 22/7/2005.
Regulation (EC) No 842/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on
certain fluorinated greenhouse gases, OJ L 161, 14/6/2006.
Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy
end-use efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive
93/76/EEC, OJ L 114, 27/4/2006.
Directive 2006/40/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to
emissions from air conditioning systems in motor vehicles and amending Council
Directive 70/156/EEC, OJ L 161, 14/6/2006.
Decision No 1639/2006/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
establishing a Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (2007 to
352
2013), OJ L 310, 9/11/2006.
Regulation (EC) No 106/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on a
Community energy-efficiency labelling programme for office equipment (recast
version),OJ L 039, 13/02/2008.
Directive 2008/101/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending
Directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for
greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community, OJ L 8,
13/1/2009.
Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the
promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and
subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC, OJ L 140,
5/6/2009.
Directive 2009/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending
Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission
allowance trading scheme of the Community, OJ L 140, 5/6/2009.
Decision No 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the
effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the
Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020, OJ L
140, 5/6/2009.
Directive 2009/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009
amending Directive 98/70/EC as regards the specification of petrol, diesel and
gas-oil and introducing a mechanism to monitor and reduce greenhouse gas
emissions and amending Council Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the
specification of fuel used by inland waterway vessels and repealing Directive
93/12/EEC, OJ L 140, 5/6/2009.
Directive 2009/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the
geological storage of carbon dioxide and amending Council Directive 85/337/EEC,
European Parliament and Council Directives 2000/60/EC, 2001/80/EC,
353
2004/35/EC, 2006/12/EC, 2008/1/EC and Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006, OJ L
140, 5/6/2009.
Regulation (EC) No 443/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council setting
emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the
Community's integrated approach to reduce CO 2 emissions from light-duty
vehicles, OJ L 140, 5/6/2009.
Directive 2009/125/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a
framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-related products,
OJ L 285, 31/10/2009.
Regulation (EC) No 1222/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the
labelling of tyres with respect to fuel efficiency and other essential parameters, OJ
L 342, 22/12/2009.
Regulation (EC) No 66/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the
EU Ecolabel, OJ L 27, 30/1/2010.
Directive 2010/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the
indication by labelling and standard product information of the consumption of
energy and other resources by energy-related products, OJ L 153, 18/06/2010.
Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy
performance of buildings, OJ L 153, 18/6/2010.
Directive 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on industrial
emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control) Text with EEA
relevance, OJ L 334, 17/12/2010.
(三)歐洲議會文獻
European Parliament Working Documents, 1984-1985, Document B 2-1430/84,
17/1/1985.
European Parliament Working Documents, 1986-1987, Document A 2-68/86,
27/6/1986.
354
European Parliament Resolution on measures to counteract the rising concentration of
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere(the ‘Greenhouse’ effect), OJ C 255/272-273,
13/10/1986.
(四)歐盟高峰會文獻
Conclusions of the European Council (2010), 25/26 March 2010, DOC/10/1.
Conclusions of the Presidency (1988), The European Council meeting in Rhodes, 2-3
December 1988, Bull. EC 12-1988.
Conclusions of the Presidency (1990), The European Council meeting in Dublin,
25-26 June 1990, Annex II: The Environmental Imperative, SN/60/1/90.
European Council Conclusions (2010), 28-29 October 2010, EUCO 25/1/10 REV 1.
Presidency Conclusions (2001a), Goteborg European Council, 15 and 16 JUNE 2001,
SN 200/1/01 REV 1.
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參、網站資料
Council of the European Union. Website: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/
European Commission(EC). Website: http://ec.europa.eu/
European Environment Agency(EEA). Website: http://www.eea.europa.eu/
European Parliament(EP). Website: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/
Eurostat. Website: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC).Website: http://www.ipcc.ch/
United Nations(UN). Website: http://www.un-documents.net/
United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP).Website: http://www.unep.org/
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC). Website:
http://unfccc.int/
World Meteorological Organization(WMO). Website: http://www.wmo.int/
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