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系統識別號 U0002-2706200616474800
中文論文名稱 應用於無線感測器網路下的定位方法
英文論文名稱 A Localization Mechanism Applied to Wireless Sensor Networks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 林志興
研究生英文姓名 Chih-Hsing Lin
學號 693191487
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
第二語文別 英文
口試日期 2006-05-27
論文頁數 68頁
口試委員 指導教授-王慶林
委員-陳振炎
委員-王英宏
中文關鍵字 無線感測器網路  定位  座標 
英文關鍵字 wireless sensor network  localization  coordinate  GPS  RSS 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 無線感測器網路是由許多具備無線通訊能力的感測器節點所組成的一個網路。感測器節點擁有感測資料、通訊傳輸的能力,將感應到的資料數據經由路由路徑方式傳送到資料收集中心。而在無線感測器網路中,取得大多數感測器節點的位置,作出精準的位置追蹤,對於我們在資料傳輸上,有著很大的幫助。
本論文提出一個應用於無線感測器網路下的定位方法,配合RSS的計算法則與三角定位原理來計算出未知座標節點。藉由部分搭載GPS的感測器節點,來求出其他未搭載GPS的感測器節點。爾後再利用計算出座標的節點來求出更多的未知座標節點。減少了無線感測裝置在應用定位追蹤上的成本,並且快速的找出整體網路中所有感測器節點的位置。
英文摘要 Wireless sensor network is composed of many sensor nodes that have abilities of wireless communications. Sensor nodes can sense data or transfer information. When a node senses some data, it can transfer them into the data collecting center with some routing path mechanism. In wireless sensor networks, it is helpful to data transferring when we obtain the locations of many of the sensor nodes and execute that target checking accurately.
This thesis presents a localization mechanism applied to wireless sensor networks. This mechanism can cooperate with RSS estimation method and trilateration to estimate the coordinates of some unknown nodes. It can estimate the sensor nodes that have no GPS with some other nodes that have GPS devices. Thereafter, we can obtain more unknown nodes with some estimated nodes. It decreases the cost that localization tracking of wireless sensor devices. And it finds the location that all sensor nodes are in whole network rapidly.
論文目次 第一章 緒論-1-
1-1 研究背景-2-
1-2 研究動機-4-
1-3 研究目的-6-
1-4 論文架構-7-
第二章 相關技術背景-8-
2-1 全球定位系統(GPS)-8-
2-2 估測距離相關的定位方法-13-
第三章 應用於無線感測器網路下的定位方法-18-
3-1 初始環境設定-19-
3-2 演算法的流程-26-
3-3 感測器節點的配置-27-
3-4 估測感測器節點間的距離和計算座標-30-
3-5 感測器節點的工作-33-
3-6 整體網路節點座標計算情形-43-
3-7 定位方法的特點 -51-
第四章 模擬結果分析-52-
4-1 模擬環境-52-
4-2 結果分析-53-
第五章 結論與未來研究方向-56-
5-1 結論-56-
5-2 未來研究方向-57-
參考文獻-58-
附錄 論文英文稿-61-
圖目錄
圖1 GPS接收器位於2個衛星訊號涵蓋區-11-
圖2 GPS接收器位於3個衛星訊號的交點-11-
圖3 AOA定位原理-14-
圖4 感測器節點的廣播範圍-20-
圖5(a):Node Broadcast Packet(NBP)-21-
圖5(b):Node Ack Packet(NAP)-21-
圖6 感測器節點專屬表格Node Information Table-21-
圖7 感測器節點收到NBP封包的判斷流程圖-23-
圖8 定位演算法的流程圖-27-
圖9 搭載GPS的感測器節點配置圖-28-
圖10 感測器網路節點分佈圖-29-
圖11 感測器節點收到origin發送的NBP封包後,NIT更新結果-31-
圖12 RN收到NAP封包,NIT更新情形-35-
圖13 舊的RN找到新的兩個RN-36-
圖14 未知座標節點收到NBP封包,NIT更新情形-39-
圖15 未知座標節點與三個來源點作距離估測-40-
圖16 未知座標節點將距離計算結果更新至NIT-41-
圖17 未知座標節點將座標計算結果更新至NIT-42-
圖18 未知座標節點計算流程圖 -43-
圖19 第一組RN發出NBP封包後,整體網路節點座標計算情形-44-
圖20 第一組RN發出NBP封包後,算出座標的節點回傳NAP封包情形- 45-
圖21 第一組RN接收NAP封包後,告知下一組RN的情形-46-
圖22 第二回合開始,RN發出NBP封包後,各節點計算情形-47-
圖23 第二回合結束,新的RN分佈情形-49-
圖24 第三回合開始,各節點計算情形-50-
圖25 初始條件節點位於網路中心-53-
圖26 初始條件節點位於網路左下角-54-
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[6]Meesookho, C., Narayanan, S., Raghavendra, C. S., “Collaborative classification applications in sensor networks,” Proceedings of Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop, 4-6 Aug. 2002, pp. 370-374.
[7]Arampatzis, Th., Lygeros, J., Manesis, S., “A Survey of Applications of Wireless Sensors and Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Symposium on, Mediterrean Conference on Control and Automation Intelligent Control, 2005, pp. 719-724.
[8]Heinzelman, W. B., Chandrakasan, A. P., Balakrishnan, H., “An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Volume 1, Issue 4, Oct. 2002, pp. 660-670.
[9]Civilis, A., Jensen, C. S., Pakalnis, S., “Techniques for efficient road-network-based tracking of moving objects,” IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Volume 17, Issue 5, May 2005, pp. 698-712.
[10]Lewandowski, W., Thomas, C., “GPS time transfer,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Volume 79, Issue 7, Jul. 1991, pp. 991-1000.
[11]Folster, F., Rohling, H., “Data association and tracking for automotive radar networks,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Volume 6, Issue 4, Dec. 2005, pp. 370-377.
[12]Anlauff, M., Sunbul, A., “Deploying localization services in wireless sensor networks,” Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, 2004, pp. 782-787.
[13]Patwari, N., Ash, J. N., Kyperountas, S., Hero, A. O., lll, Moses, R. L., Correal, N. S., “Locating the nodes: cooperative localization in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Volume 22, Issue 4, Jul. 2005, pp. 54-69.
[14]Hatami, A., Pahlavan, K., “A comparative performance evaluation of RSS-based positioning algorithms used in WLAN networks,” Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Volume 4, 13-17 Mar. 2005, pp. 2331-2337.
[15]Niculescu, D., “Positioning in ad hoc sensor networks,” IEEE Network, Volume 18, Issue 4, July-Aug. 2004, pp. 24-29.
[16]Luo, R. C., Ogst Chen, Tu, L. C., “Nodes localization through data fusion in sensor network,” Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA), Volume 1, 28-30 Mar. 2005, pp. 337-342.
[17]Chan, Y. T., Ho, K. C., “Joint time-scale and TDOA estimation: analysis and fast approximation,” IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Volume 53, Issue 8, Part 1, Aug. 2005, pp. 2625-2634.
[18]Hogg, D. C., “Fun with the Friis free-space transmission formula,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Volume 35, Issue 4, Aug. 1993, pp. 33-35.
[19]Fei Dai, Jie Wu, “Efficient Broadcasting in Ad hoc Wireless Networks Using Directional Antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Volume 17, Issue 4, Apr. 2006, pp. 335-347.
[20]Gezici, S., Zhi Tian, Giannakis, G. B., Kobayashi, H., Molisch, A. F., Poor, H. V., Sahinoglu, Z., “Localization via ultra-wideband radios: a look at positioning aspects for future sensor networks,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Volume 22, Issue 4, Jul. 2005, pp. 70-84.
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