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系統識別號 U0002-2706200512525200
中文論文名稱 翻譯和神話詩學:黑倪的愛爾蘭朝聖之旅
英文論文名稱 Translation and Mythopoetics: Seamus Heaney's Irish Pilgrimage
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 93
學期 2
出版年 94
研究生中文姓名 高家萱
研究生英文姓名 Chia-Hsuan Kao
學號 888010021
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2005-06-24
論文頁數 201頁
口試委員 指導教授-海柏
委員-宋美王華
委員-劉建基
委員-王儀君
委員-蔡振興
中文關鍵字 黑倪  聖站島  朝聖  文化翻譯  神話詩學  藝術小說  地誌文  巴赫汀  薩伊德 
英文關鍵字 Seamus Heaney  Station Island  pilgrimage  cultural translation  mythopoetics  kunstlerroman  dinnesaschans  Mikhail Bakhtin  Edward Said 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文主旨在閱讀黑倪(Seamus Heaney)的自傳詩集《聖站島》 (Station Island)。「聖站島」位在北愛爾蘭的多格湖(Lough Derg)邊上,又名「聖‧派崔克的淨獄之路」(St. Patrick’s Purgatory),是黑倪三天兩夜的朝聖終點站。 在朝聖過程中,黑倪將一路上遇到的死去的親戚、鄰居和文學家的鬼魂做連結,建構成一系列的文化對話和一趟跨越古今之旅,這使得他的「朝聖」不單是個人宗教信仰上的實踐,更是詩人靈性轉變和昇華的記錄。詩中表達古和今對話,死和生對話,傳統和創新對話,但更重要的是本土和世界的對話。因此,他的「朝聖之旅」整合的是對話間不同的社會價值和過往的文學沉思,而經由這些整合讓我們得以一窺黑倪的神話詩學(mythopoetics)。意即,透過一站一站的朝聖,由對話所產生的互文性(intertextuality)交織成黑倪的文學之路。透過朝聖者和詩人二合一的角色,黑倪的論述有著巴赫汀(Makhail Bakhtin)小說和嘉年華式(carnivalization)的語言。透過模仿但丁(Dante Alighieri)、喬艾斯(James Joyce),甚至是艾略特(T. S. Eliot) 和歐威德(Ovid)的論述(narrative),黑倪讓我們看到他如何反省過往的社會衝突,顛覆英人眼中「麻煩」的愛爾蘭如何成為一個文化交融之地,一塊繼葉慈(W. B. Yeats)之後的文藝復興之土。



黑倪的「神話詩學」不但承襲中世紀但丁的救贖文學傳統,也延續現代主義記錄心靈流浪的藝術小說(künstlerroman)。黑倪用他的地域觀(sense of place)和克爾特(Celtic)特有的「地誌文」(dinnseaschans)接合這兩種論述模式,再現北愛文化;但另一方面,他也將「翻譯」(translation)帶入他的神話詩學之中。在1984年,他英譯中世紀克爾特(Celtic)的騎士文學《司威倪流浪記》(Sweeney Astray),在1999年,他英譯了古英文史詩《貝沃夫》(Beowulf) 。在後者的序言中,黑倪認為作為一個譯者,他的翻譯並不忠實,他擅自(transgressive)加入了一些愛爾蘭語在這部經典史詩之中。 就翻譯活動作為他神話詩學的一部份來看,黑倪的詩學觀點似乎並不只限在他的朝聖之路上,意即,黑倪的神話詩學除了表現在他重新閱讀過往的社群衝突和文學的「眾聲吵雜」(heteroglossia)之外,他如何昇華這些衝突變成文化集體意識(collective consciousness)的反省,如何詮釋救贖的渴望為人神的對話,都和他的「翻譯」觀點相連。這篇論文中,巴赫汀的「作者自空」 (kenoticism)和嘉年華式的小說語言都用來說明黑倪的神話論述幫助我們理解黑倪如何將北愛的眾生相改寫成基督宗教的淨獄之境和異教徒式的潛越之旅。 透過黑倪的愛爾蘭朝聖之旅,我們感受到的不但是他個人的宗教虔誠(pieties),更是他身為詩人的社會責任感和文化承傳的使命感。


第一章簡介黑倪的新史詩觀:他如何透過翻譯《貝沃夫》(Beowulf)和《司威倪流浪記》(Sweeney Astray)更新和保留史詩的文化和社會意義,如何透過自傳、朝聖和史詩詩人如但丁、喬艾思對話。第二章由巴赫汀的小說先解釋中世紀傳奇(romance)和流浪、身份認同的主題,再分析黑倪如何將中世紀的宗教和文學傳統凝結成他的個人經驗。第三章由《聖站島》中的藝術小說 (künstlerroman)和地誌文(dinnseaschans)的敘事來解讀黑倪作者的發言位置。第四章引用巴赫汀的「作者自空」和薩伊德的「對位閱讀」以解釋黑倪的的神話詩學。最後一章總結黑倪在翻譯上、在文類上、在詩學上的貢獻。透過他的朝聖之旅、翻譯和創作的交織,黑倪的神話詩學連結藝術小說和地誌文,詩人和神鬼:個人的宗教經驗和民族的集體意識讓他的文化交融化完滿。
英文摘要 Abstract:This dissertation studies Seamus Heaney’s poetic art in Station Island (1984). Known as St. Patrick’s Purgatory, Station Island in Lough Derg, Northern Ireland is a geographical and textual site for Heaney’s three-day literary and cultural pilgrimage, starting from his “looking back.” In the title poem of “Station Island” from this collection, Heaney interrelates his pilgrim voice with the voices of his literary masters and his Ulster neighbors, both the living and the dead, to reinscribe a cultural location; such a device makes his pilgrimage not only the poet’s devotional practice but provides a textual site for the medieval to become modern, the diachronic to become synchronic, and most importantly, the provincial to become apocalyptic. The poetic “pilgrimage” as word and traditional genre forms a textual unity constituted of transforming and transmitting moments that mythopoetically liminalize and hybridize cultural and literary “others.” Using Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept of novelistic language, I demonstrate how Heaney, through his intertextual dialogue with non-Irish literary souls on Ulster ground practices kenoticism and carnivalization of inherited literary and religious values--Catholic, Dantean, medieval and druidic—to revaluate the social and cultural conflicts known as the Northern Ireland “troubles.” Making his articulation distinct from that of modernists like T.S. Eliot, James Joyce and even W.B. Yeats, Seamus Heaney derives the technique of hybridized narrative from his understanding of translation as part of literary creation. Through two significant translations into modern English, the Celtic medieval Buile Suibhne as Sweeney Astray in 1984 and the Anglo-Saxon epic of Beowulf in 1999, Heaney challenges the conservative concept of translation.
Making translation as an aspect of his poetics into a “voice right” implicates cultural hybridization and re-contextualizes historical social conflicts, repositioning them as textual dialogues. Chapter One introduces Heaney’s insight on epic as a creative genre, his view on Catholic pilgrimage as part of Celtic experience, his translations of the Anglo-Saxon Beowulf epic as his own Irish “voice right,” the adoption of the legendary Sweeney figure as a poetic persona, and Heaney’s motivations for having literary dialogues with Dante, Joyce and Yeats. Chapter Two studies the theme of pilgrimage in the translation Sweeney Astray and heteroglossia in the transgressive translation of Beowulf. Chapter Three is concerned with how Heaney structures his Ulster pilgrimage in the title poem “Station Island” as a hybridized narrative of Celtic dinnseaschans and of modernist kunstlerroman. Here Bakhtin's concept of speech genre and Edward Said's concept of cultural affiliation are used to clarify Heaney's literary transmigration. Chapter Four uses Bakhtin's kenoticism and Said's contrapuntal readership to understand Heaney's mythopoetic dialogues with other literary figures. In the last chapter, I conclude with a translation-as-creation to his translation as cultural hybridization. To Seamus Heaney, pilgrimage is a purgatorial fire of filiation and affiliation, forging hybridic forms that textualize his native Northern Ireland. The Irishized English "Station Island" is hybridic articulation in extremis: the most innovative with the most traditional, the most Celtic with the most Catholic. Heaney's literary pieties reconstruct local identity in religious seriousness.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract iii
Acknowledgement v
Table of Contents vi
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Chapter Two: Heaney’s Translations: Heteroglossia of his Beowulf, Sweeney Astray and Station Island 46
Chapter Three: Heaney’s Generic Pilgrimage: Kunstlerroman and Dinnseachans 90
Chapter Four: Heaney's Dialogue with the Literary Traditions 131
Chapter Five: Conclusion 178
Works Cited 194
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