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系統識別號 U0002-2705201823012700
中文論文名稱 音樂對EFL大學生之英文文章的短期與長期記憶影響之研究
英文論文名稱 Effects of Music on EFL College Students’ Short-term and Long-term Memory of English Articles
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 李家驊
研究生英文姓名 Chia-hua Lee
學號 602110156
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2018-05-17
論文頁數 70頁
口試委員 指導教授-王藹玲
委員-張慈珊
委員-林裕昌
中文關鍵字 暗示教學法  音樂  韋瓦第  四季  短期記憶  長期記憶  情緒 
英文關鍵字 Suggestopedia  music  Vivaldi  Four Seasons  Short-term memory  Long-term memory  Emotions 
學科別分類 學科別人文學語言文學
中文摘要 暗示教學法( Suggestopedia) 其中一項著稱的是,藉由特定節奏的音樂,可以對於學習有顯著的幫助,因其可以幫助學習者產生正面情緒以穩定及降低心中負面感受。部分研究也顯示其對於在學習過程中,音樂對記憶所習得的單字或片語是有幫助的。而此研究並非完全針對暗示教學法,而是更進一步著重於針對音樂對記憶的幫助。另外,相較於過往研究注重在單一單字或片語,此研究是探索音樂對學習者對文章的記憶,並同時研究短期及長期記憶。
38名台灣英語系大一生被邀請來參與此研究。受測者被分為實驗組與對照組;受測者的任務都是在閱讀文章後寫下他們所記得的文章內容。唯實驗組須在整個實驗中,以維瓦第的「四季」做為背景音樂下完成任務。此音樂的挑選也是基於暗示教學法的理論。實驗結束後有一份問卷用於調查音樂對受測者的影響。
結果顯示在統計上而言,兩組並無顯著差異。但受測者所寫下的記憶內容,在評分計算後,對照組,亦即沒有聽音樂的組別,在兩種記憶上的分數都是較高的。而問卷也顯示對受測者而言,音樂對他們的影響是以情緒為主。
此結果表達了一個可能性: 在學習中,情緒的影響力可能是大於音樂節奏的。意即如果因為對於學習中的記憶是有幫助的,那也可能是因為學習者喜歡該音樂。因為假設暗示教學法所支持的、特定節奏的音樂並非學習者所喜歡的類型,那學習者在被自身不喜歡的音樂所影響下可能產生負面情緒,反而影響學習。此假設並非完全否定暗示教學法在特定節奏音樂上對學習者的影響,只是提出,暗示教學法所支持的、特定節奏的音樂對學習者的影響力,可能並不如學習者因為其對音樂喜好而產生的情緒強度。因此,挑選音樂時,可能英語學習者喜好為主。
因此未來對此領域有興趣之研究者,可以對於音樂類型及受測者對音樂的喜好這兩部分做更深刻的探討。
英文摘要 Suggestopedia is known as one of its concepts of using certain types of tempos of music to help learning, because it helps trigger positive emotions to alleviate learners’ negative mentality. Some studies even support the music’s positive effects on memorization. In this study, 38 Taiwanese English major freshmen were invited for the two-part experiment. Participants were divided into the experimental group and the control group to explore whether music is influential on their short-term and long-term memory of two articles. Both groups read articles and wrote down what they had remembered, while the experimental group took the experiment with Vivaldi’s Four Seasons, which was chosen based on the concept of Suggestopedia, as the background music. Afterwards, a questionnaire was utilized to investigate participants’ reasons of listening to music and the effects of it in their leaning.
Statistically, no significances were found, but the evaluation of their writings showed that the control group generally had better performances on both types of memories in English learning. The questionnaire also indicated that participants listened to music because of its influences on emotions.
The result indicates a possibility that emotions’ power may be beyond the music’s tempos. That is, if the specific types of music Suggestopedia supports to be useful does not fit learners’ preferences, the music may generate negative emotions and thus damage learning. The researcher does not deny Suggestopedia stands but proposes a possibility that human emotions are more powerful than the music’s tempos. Thus, future researchers on this topic can investigate whether playing the music learners like is more helpful on memorization.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONCENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………………I
CHINESE ABSTRACTS………………………………………………………II
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………VI
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………X

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………1
Background and motivation of the study………………1
Statement of the problem……………………………………………………3
Purpose and significance of the study…………………5
Research Questions……………………………………………………………………6
Organization of the study…………………………………………………6
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………8
The psychological function of music………………………8
Emotions and memory…………………………………………………………………11
Memory and learning…………………………………………………………………13
Music, English learning, and Suggestopedia……16
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………20
Participants……………………………………………………………………………………20
Materials……………………………………………………………………………………………20
The two modified articles…………………………………………………20
Genres of the two articles………………………………………………21
The level of difficulty of articles………………………22
The length of articles…………………………………………………………22
Background music: Vivaldi’s Four Seasons…………23
Questionnaire…………………………………………………………………………………23
Research design……………………………………………………………………………24
The experimental group and the control group………………24
The procedure of the experiment…………………………………………………24
Data analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………………26
Summaries of short-term memory and long-term memory……26
Scores……………………………………………………………………………………………………26
Inter-rater reliability………………………………………………………26
Quantitative data analysis………………………………………………27
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS………………………………………………………………………………29
The variables in the study………………………………………………29
The correlations between participants’ English proficiencies and their performances in the experiments………29
The experimental group…………………………………………………………30
The control group………………………………………………………………………31
The overall scores of participants’ performances in the experiments………………………………………………………………………………………32
Participants’ performances on “Even Penguins Get
the Flu”………………………………………………………………………………………………32
Participants’ performances on “The Importance of Responsibility”……………………………………………………………………………33
The results for two research questions………………35
RQ1: Can music enhance learners’ short-term memory on recalling English articles they read?…………………35
The t-test analysis on short-term memory of “Even Penguins Get the Flu”………………………………………………………………………………………………35
The t-test analysis on short-term memory of “The Importance of Responsibility”……………………………………………………………………………35
RQ2: Can music enhance learners’ long-term memory on recalling English articles they read?……………………………………………36
The t-test analysis on long-term memory of “Even Penguins Get the Flu”………………………………………………………………………………………………36
The t-test analysis on long-term memory of “The Importance of Responsibility”……………………………………………………………………………37
The analysis of the questionnaire……………………………38
The statistics of the experimental group…………38
The statistics of the control group………………………39
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS…………………………………………………………………………41
The influences of genres of articles…………………………41
The influences of emotions……………………………………………………42
The descriptive statistics of questionnaires……43
The time limit……………………………………………………………………………………46
The familiarity of the materials……………………………………47
The types of music and participants’ learning habits……47
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………50
Summary of the findings………………………………………………………50
Educational implications of the study…………………51
Limitations of the study……………………………………………………52
Suggestions for future research…………………………………53
REFERENCES 55
APPENDIX A Even Penguins Get the Flu (original version) ………………………61
APPENDIX B The Importance of Responsibility (original version) ………………………63
APPENDIX C Even Penguins Get the Flu (modified version) ………………………66
APPENDIX D The Importance of Responsibility (modified version) ………………………67
APPENDIX E Questionnaire (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2007), original
Version ……………………………………………………………68
APPENDIX F Questionnaire (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2007), translated
Version ……………………………………………………………69
APPENDIX G The rubric for scoring participants’ writings …………………………………………………………………………………70

List of Tables
Table 3.1 The inter-rater reliability of the rubrics……………………………………28
Table 4.1 The Pearson Correlation of the experimental group’s GSAT scores and short-
term and long-term memory scores…………………………………..….…30
Table 4.2 The Pearson Correlation of the control group’s GSAT scores and short-term and long-term memory scores……………………………………………...31
Table 4.3 The Mean scores of each item on “Even Penguins Get the Flu” ………...…32
Table 4.4 The Mean scores of each item on “The Importance of Responsibility” ……34
Table 4.5 The t-test scores of the two groups on short-term memory of “Even Penguins Get the Flu” ………………………………….……………………………35
Table 4.6 The t-test scores of the two groups on short-term memory of “The Importance
of Responsibility” …………………………………………………………36
Table 4.7 The t-test scores of the two groups on long-term memory of “Even Penguins
Get the Flu” …………………………………………………………….…37
Table 4.8 The t-test scores of the two groups on long-term memory of “The Importance
of Responsibility” …………………………………………………………37
Table 4.9 The descriptive statistics of the questionnaires from the experimental
group…………………………………………………………………….…38
Table 4.10 The descriptive statistics of the questionnaires from the control group…...39
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