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系統識別號 U0002-2703200723182100
中文論文名稱 美國青少年吸食大麻之研究(1960-1979)
英文論文名稱 The Marijuana Use of Youth (1960-1979)
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 95
學期 1
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 魏妙娟
研究生英文姓名 Miao-Chuan Wei
學號 691220114
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-01-04
論文頁數 76頁
口試委員 指導教授-李本京
委員-趙國材
委員-尤本立
中文關鍵字 大麻  青少年  次文化  嬉皮  搖滾樂 
英文關鍵字 Marijuana  Teenagers  Subculture  Hippie  Rock-n-roll 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 吸食大麻的風氣本侷限於小眾人口,但是在一九六○和一九七○年代濫用大麻之風氣在青少年間盛行,也形成了一種特有且普遍的社會現象。而這項社會現象與反抗文化和當時的社會背景有很大的關係。受到嬉皮文化和風起雲湧的社會運動影響,青少年將吸食大麻視為反抗權威的象徵,來對抗主流價值和權威體制,抑或是將使用大麻視為尋求神秘體驗或精神探索的途徑。
在本文第一部分探討青少年大麻次文化的形成,分析嬉皮文化還有搖滾樂所代表之反抗文化,對成千上萬的青少年的影響,造成青少年價值觀的重大改變。除此之外,當時的反越戰運動也和青少年吸食大麻文化的形成關係密切,反越戰抗議和運動的場合中吸食大麻成為反抗的象徵。而媒體的炒作和二次大戰戰後嬰兒潮的環境,造成當時人口結構以年輕人居多,加上前述因素的作用與影響,造成此股風潮。
第二部分則分析青少年吸食大麻之心理因素和文化背景因素,對青少年個體影響,其中以青少年所屬之大麻次文化影響最大。若青少年涉入大麻次文化越深,則越有可能去吸食大麻。因此再進一步探討兩種大麻次文化不同的傳統,一種是較為娛樂性質的,另一種則是具有超越意義的用藥經驗。其次發現吸食大麻對青少年所造成之問題,並未像刻板印象想像般中嚴重,雖有較為自由主義且反對傳統價值特色,但在課業、政治和其他表現方面,並無造成太大差異。
第三部分則是著重在因應此風氣的影響,政府和社會上所作之改革。青少年濫用大麻的人數迅速地攀升,引起當時政府的高度重視,以改變政策方向並成立「全國大麻與藥物濫用委員會」(National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse),期望能消退青少年吸食大麻的流行。而大麻除罪化的呼聲和保守家長團體則是兩股不同的力量,拉扯著大麻政策和立法。此後相關政策趨於保守嚴格,但社會對大麻法律上的爭議仍不斷,現今青少年使用大麻的情況還很普遍。
英文摘要 The custom of smoking marijuana was limited to some small groups at its first development. However, the widespread use of marijuana among teenagers at 1960s and 1970s became a unique social phenomenon. This phenomenon was deeply affected by the social background and associated closely with counterculture at that time. Influenced by the hippie culture and social movements, the teenagers regarded marijuana smoking as the symbol of anti-authority against mainstream values and the establishment, or used it to search for mystic experience and spiritual exploration.

The first part of this thesis is to discuss the formalization of teenagers’ marijuana subculture and to analyze how the counterculture, mainly the hippie culture and rock-n-roll, influenced thousands of teenagers. Moreover, the movement of anti-Vietnam war had close relation to the formalization of teenagers’ marijuana smoking. Marijuana smoking had become common and inevitable in many anti-Vietnam war occasions. Also, the media reporting at that time enlarged the population of marijuana smoking among teenagers, and the baby boomer after World War II contributed this phenomenon.

The second part of this thesis is to analyze the psychological factors and personal background factors in marijuana smoking among teenagers. Among those factors, marijuana subculture had the greatest influence on individual teenager. The more deeply one teenager involved in marijuana subculture, the more likely he or she used marijuana. There were two different kinds of marijuana subcultures. One was recreational, and the other was transcendental. Both of the two brought different influences on teenagers at that time. Moreover, it was found that the problems following marijuana smoking were not as serious as what was generally thought. Even although those teenagers were more liberal and anti-traditional, it made little difference on their performance at school, politics, etc.

The third part of this thesis is to discuss the influence of this atmosphere and the reform from the government and the society. The population of teenagers who abused marijuana was rising higher and higher and it drew a lot of attention of government and founded National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, trying to reduce the widespread use of marijuana among teenagers. However, the groups for marijuana decriminalization and conservative parental groups were two opposite sides and went on lobbying the marijuana policy and legislations from two different stances. Later on, the marijuana laws turned to be more conservative and stricter. However, the disputation of marijuana laws continues and it’s still common for teenagers to use marijuana nowadays.
論文目次 第一章 緒論••••••••••••••••••••••••1
第一節 研究動機與目的•••••••••••••••••1
第二節 研究方法、限制與研究架構••••••••••••5

第二章 青少年吸食大麻文化之形成•••••••••••••••8
第一節 青少年吸食大麻之情況•••••••••••••••8
第二節 嬉皮運動與搖滾樂之影響•••••••••••••••14
第三節 青少年吸食大麻之社會背景••••••••••••••20

第三章 青少年吸食大麻文化之發展因素與問題•••••••••••27
第一節 青少年吸食大麻之心理因素•••••••••••••••27
第二節 大麻次文化對青少年之影響 ••••••••••••••35
第三節 青少年吸食大麻產生之問題••••••••••••••41

第四章 青少年吸食大麻之政治問題與發展••••••••••••••48
第一節 青少年吸食大麻之政治問題•••••••••••••••48
第二節 大麻除罪化運動和反對力量••••••••••••••••54
第三節 現今美國青少年吸食大麻之情況••••••••••••••60

第五章 結論•••••••••••••••••••••••••••67

參考書目•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••71



表次

圖表一 一九六五年後吸食大麻人口年齡分佈••••••••••••11

圖表二 高三學生獲得大麻的比例•••••••••••••••••60

圖表三 青少年最容易拿到的藥物•••••••••••••••••61

圖表四 增加刑罰對青少年使用率的影響••••••••••••••63

圖表五 一九九九年聯邦藥物控制預算分配圖••••••••••••64
參考文獻 一. 中文部分

書籍
艾瑞克•西格瑟著,民國94年。張美惠譯。《大麻•草莓園•色情王國》。台北:時報文化。

周震毆等著,民國72年。《青少年犯罪心理與防治》。台北:百科文化。

林立樹,民國90年。《美國通史》。台北:五南圖書。

柯德賴特,民國91年。薛绚譯。《上癮五百年》。台北:立緒文化企業公司。

湯瑪斯著。李素卿譯,民國85年。《上癮行為導論》。台北:五南圖書。

楊國樞、葉啟政主編,民國70年。《藥物濫用問題》。台北:巨流出版社。

藍采風,民國67年。《藥物問題的社會觀》。台北:茂昌圖書有限公司。

張友倫、李劍鳴主編,民國81年。《美國歷史上的社會運動和政府改革》。天津市:天津教育出版社。

賴健司著,《搖滾音樂台》,民國88年。台北市:米羅出版社。

學位論文
黃乃琦,民國77年。《美國藥物(毒品)濫用之危機處理:美國藥物政策之探討》。淡江大學美國研究所碩士論文。

趙瑞,民國77年。《美國青少年藥物犯罪問題之研究》。淡江大學美國研究所碩士論文。

蔡發林,民國72年。《美國六○年代學生運動》。淡江大學美國研究所碩士論文。

網站資料
破報復刊138號: http://www.twblog.net/freedrugs/archives/000451.html。

「作為文化抵抗的傳播論述:關於傳播民主化的問題意識─一個後殖民批評的觀點」。http://cc.shu.edu.tw/~gioc/download/940506speech.doc

二. 英文部分

書籍
Auld, John, 1981. Marijuana Use and Social Control. New York: Academic Press Inc..

Becker, Howard S., 1973. The Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: Free Press

Bonnie, Richard J. and Charles H. Whitebread II, 1974. The Marijuana Conviction: A History of Marijuana Prohibition in the United States. Virginia: University of Virginia Press.

Botvin, Gilbert J., Steven Schinke, Mario A. Orlandi eds. , 1995. Drug Abuse Prevention With Multiethnic Youth. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publication, Inc.

Bourrie, Mark, 2003. Hemp: A Short History of the Most Misunderstood Plant and Its Uses and Abuses, New York: Firefly Books.

Brinkley, Alan, 1999. American History: A Survey 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Chaloupa, Frank J. and Adit Laixuthai, 1994. Do Youths Substitute Alcohol and Marijuana? Some Economic Evidence. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Earleywine, Mitch, 2002. Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence. New York: Oxford University Press.

Farrelly, Matthew C., Jenny W. Bray, Gary A. Zarkin, Brett W. Wending, and Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, 1999. The Effects of Prices and Policies on the Demand for Marijuana: Evidence From the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Hanson, Glen R., Peter J. Venturelli, Annette E. Fleckenstein, 2002. Drugs and Society. Boston: Jones and Barlett.

Hochman, Joel Simon, 1972. Marijuana and Social Evolution. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall

Hyde, Margaret O., 1986. Mind Drugs 5th ed.. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company.

Joy, Janet E., Stanley J. Watson, Jr., and John A Benson, Jr., 1999. Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Keniston, Kenneth, 1974. ‘Drugs Use,’ in Alvin E. Winter, ed., Adolescence Contemporary. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co..

Kent , Deborah, 1994. The Vietnam War: “What are we fighting for? ”, Hillside N.J.: Enslow Publishers.

Leary, Timothy, Psychedelic Prayers after the Tao Te Ching, New York: Poets Press, 1966

Macdonald, Donald Ian, 1989. Drugs, Drinking and Adolescents, 2nd ed. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc..

Matthews, Patrick, 1999. Cannabis Culture. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Musto, David F., 1973. The American Disease: Origins of the Narcotic control, New Haven: Yale Univ. Press

Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo and Beau Kilmer, 2003. Marijuana and Crime: Is There a Connection Beyond Prohibition? Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo, Michael Grossman, Frank J. Chaloupa, Patrick M. O’Malley, Lloyd D. Johnston, and Matthew C. Farrelly, 2000. Marijuana and Youth. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Pinger, Robert R., Wayne A. Payne, Dale B. Hahn, and Ellen J. Hahn, 1998. Drugs Issues For Today. Boston: WCB McGraw-Hill Companies.

Resnik, Hank, 1990. Youth and Drugs: Society’s Mixed Message. Rockville, Md.: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

Rosenthal, Ed and Steve Kubby, 2003. Why Marijuana Should Be Legal. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press.

Saffer, Henry and Frank Chaloupka, 1995. The Demand For Illicit Drugs. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Schlosser, Eric, 2003. Reefer Madness: Sex Drugs, and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Wolfe, Tom, 1968. The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. New York: Bantam Books.

文獻
1951/11/2. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 1977, Criminal Justice Research Center, U. S. Dept. of Justice, United States 82nd Congress, Public Law No. 225. Approved November 2, 1951.

1975/5/27. Irwin RAVIN v. STATE of Alaska, Supreme Court of Alaska, 537 P.2d 494.

1991/6/18. 582 Southern Reporter, 2d Series 676. Kenneth L. JENKS and Barbara J. Jenks, Appellants, v. STATE of Florida, Appellee. No. 90-2462. District Court of Appeal of Florida, First District.


期刊
Ryoko, Yamaguchi, Lloyd D. Johnston & Patrick M. O'Malley 2003/4. ‘Relationship Between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies,’ Journal of School Health, Vol. 73, No. 4.

Miranne, Alfred C. 1979/6. ‘Marihuana Use and Achievement Orientations of College Students,’ Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 20, No. 2

網站資料
Advertising Sobriety: The Media War on Marijuana: http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology/b103/f01/web1/clarke.html

alt.hemp Cannabis/Marijuana FAQ: http://www.faqs.org/faqs/drugs/hemp-marijuana/

Booksrags.com: at http://www.bookrags.com/other/drugs/marihuana-commission-recommendation-edaa-02.html

Cannabis News: http://www.cannabisnews.com/

Common Sense for Drug Policy: http://www.csdp.org/

Department of Psychology of Loyola University, New Orleans: The Relationship Between Marijuana and Alcohol Use and Academic Performance in Undergraduate Student:
http://clearinghouse.missouriwestern.edu/manuscripts/515.asp

Drug Enforcement Administration: http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/

Drug War Rant.com: http://blogs.salon.com/0002762/stories/2003/12/22/whyIsMarijuanaIllegal.html

Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN): http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/opiateDeaths.cfm

Marijuana Policy Project: http://www.mpp.org/

National Institute on Drug Abuse: http://www.nida.nih.gov/

National Institute of Medicine: http://www.iom.edu/CMS/3775/5608.aspx

SAMHSA: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/NHSDA/2k3NSDUH/2k3OverviewW.pdf

The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws: http://www.norml.org/

Rand Drug Policy Research Center: http://www.rand.org/multi/dprc/

Washington Post: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/05/03/AR2005050301638.html

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
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