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系統識別號 U0002-2701202100521900
中文論文名稱 寡占市場下航空業數位轉型策略
英文論文名稱 Digital Transformation Strategy in the Airline Industry under Oligopoly
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 109
學期 1
出版年 110
研究生中文姓名 蔡曜宇
研究生英文姓名 Yao-Yu Tsai
學號 607610093
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2021-01-04
論文頁數 101頁
口試委員 指導教授-張瑋倫
共同指導教授-楊立人
委員-陳立民
委員-李月華
中文關鍵字 數位轉型  航空  寡占  動態競爭  績效  顧客體驗 
英文關鍵字 Digital Transformation  Airlines  Oligopoly  Competitive Dynamics  Performance  Customer Experience 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究旨在分析航空業數位轉型策略,並試圖找出較佳的數位轉型策略以確保企業之競爭優勢以因應數位時代來臨。因此,本研究關注在特定寡占市場結構下的競爭結構,分析競爭對手之間應用數位轉型時的行為和模式,並通過逆向的策略管理思維,逐步探討競爭互動之行為、反應、結果和意義,從執行面回頭檢視其背後的數位轉型策略。

文獻回顧章節包含數位轉型、寡占市場和動態競爭等相關重要文獻,綜合考量上述理論框架以及航空公司強化競爭優勢之目標,本研究藉由收集台灣2家主要航空公司的數位競爭互動,以質性個案探討方式將數位轉型行動結合動態競爭理論,運用Chen (1996)所提出之競爭者分析及察覺—動機—能力競爭分析模型,反映航空業數位轉型的各種競爭策略。本研究在兩個不同的時間段進行了兩次競爭者分析,並觀察競爭者觀點的變化,同時分析2015年至2019年間中華航空和長榮航空的3個數位轉型行動個案。

研究結果顯示,當數位轉型策略被視為持續性地利用數位技術改造顧客體驗時與企業取得競爭優勢正相關,並能從而提升公司的整體績效。此外,在寡占市場結構下,由於競爭者明確,察覺相對動機、能力較次要;能直接與顧客互動是航空公司採用數位轉型的重要動機;至於能力,台灣兩大航空公司在彼此皆擁有相當程度資源下,在數位轉型趨勢中多採用相同或相似的產品或系統,說明在競爭者有限的寡占競爭市場下,數位轉型策略亦適用Stackelberg模型的先行者優勢。
英文摘要 This thesis seeks to analysis how airlines can better conceive and implement digital transformation strategy to ensure competitive advantages as a response to the dawn of digital era. This thesis particularly focuses on the competitive dynamics of targeted airlines in a specific oligopolistic market structure, and analyzes behaviors and patterns between competitors when applying digital transformation initiatives. The actions, reactions, results, and meanings behind the interactions are examined step by step through a backward perspective. The literature review presents relevant definitions of digital transformation, oligopolistic competition and competitive dynamics. The analysis was further conducted through different stages, specifically competitor mapping, performance comparison, and awareness-motivation-capability model (AMC). The study has conducted the competitor mapping measurement twice at two different time, and observed the change of competitor viewpoints. 3 substantial digital implementations taken by China Airlines and EVA Air from 2015 to 2019 were selected and analyzed using AMC.

Research findings and implications suggests that digital transformation strategy, viewed as the consistent use of technology in transforming customer experience, is positively correlated with gaining competitive advantage, thus elevating the overall performance of the company. Above all, research results show that awareness is less important in this oligopolistic market structure, but motivation, and capability are critical, and even predominant. Awareness tends not to be an issue in the airline industry as market incumbents are well-defined, and even familiar with one another. Concerning motivation, direct customer interaction is a decisive motivation for airlines to take part in digital transformation. Regarding capability, airlines are mostly copy and pasting identical or similar resource, products, or systems in the digital trend, indicating that the first-mover advantage in the Stackelberg model prevails in a competitive market with limited incumbents such as the airline industry in Taiwan.
論文目次 Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………….i
INDEX OF FIGURES………………………………………………….iii
INDEX OF TABLES……………………………...………………...….iv
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION………………………………….1
1.1 Research background and setting……….……...……………1
1.2 Research objectives and research questions……..…………4
1.3 Research approach………….………………………………...7
1.4 Research structure.………..………………………………….7
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW………………………10
2.1 Digital transformation………………………………………10
2.1.1 Airline……………………………………………………10
2.1.2 Digital transformation……………………………………13
2.1.3 Strategy………………………………………………….14
2.1.4 Digital transformation strategy………………………….16
2.1.5 Customer experience……………………………………25
2.2 Oligopoly……………………………………………………28
2.2.1 Oligopolistic market structure…………………………28
2.2.2 Oligopolistic competition………………………………..30
2.3 Competitive dynamics……………….....…………………35
2.3.1 Competitive strategy………………………………….35
2.3.2 Competitive dynamics…………………………………38
2.3.2.1 Competitor analysis………………………………39
2.3.2.2 Awareness-motivation-capability (AMC) model…41
2.3.2.3 Outcome analysis…...…………………………….42
2.4 Summary……………………………………………………..45
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHOD………………………….46
3.1 Research design………………………………………………..46
3.2 Sampling……………………………………………………..47
3.3 Data collection………………………………………………..47
3.4 Research procedure…………………………………………..48
3.5 Methodology limitations……………………………………….50
CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS…….52
4.1 Case background………………………………………………52
4.1.1 The airline industry in Taiwan………………………….52
4.1.2 China Airlines……………………………………………54
4.1.3 EVA Air………………………………………………..56
4.2 Analysis of competitor mapping……………………………..58
4.3 Analysis of Chine Airlines and Eva Air competitive dynamics...64
4.3.1 Market share performance……………………………….64
4.3.2 Analysis of digital competitive actions between 2015 and 2019……………………………………………………………67
4.3.2.1 China Airlines introduced Amadeus in 2015...68
4.3.2.2 APP evolution from 2016 to 201……………..71
4.3.2.3 China Airlines’ virtual reality program from 2017……………………………………………………73
4.4 Findings…………………………………………….…………75
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION………………………………….78
5.1 Research implications………………………………………..80
5.2 Recommendations for future research…………………………82
5.3 Research limitations……………………………………………83
BIBLIOGRAPHY...........……………………..………………..…84 

Index of Figures
Figure 1: Research structure………………………………….……..…9
Figure 2: ICAO classification of civil aviation activities…….….…11
Figure 3: The aviation, travel and tourism ecosystem……………...12
Figure 4: Relation between digital transformation strategy and other corporate strategies…………………………………....………….……..17
Figure 5: Digital Transformation Perspectives in the Literature....19
Figure 6: Building blocks of the digital transformation…....……22
Figure 7: Applications of digital technologies in the enterprise..24
Figure 8: The strategic triangle……………………………..………37
Figure 9: Framework of competitor analysis………………….….41
Figure 10: Analytical method - an integrated framework of competitive dynamics………………………………………………………...…50
Figure 11: The action sequence of key technological implementation from 2015 to 2019 by China Airlines and EVA Air……………….………68

Index of Tables
Table 1: China Airlines’ passenger aircraft list 2015………….…………55
Table 2: China Airlines’ passenger aircraft list 2019………….…………56
Table 3: EVA Air’s passenger aircraft list 2015…………………………57
Table 4: EVA Air’s passenger aircraft list 2019…………………………58
Table 5: EVA Air’s competitor position to China Airlines as of January 1st of 2015…………………………………………...………………...62
Table 6: China Airlines’ competitor position to EVA Air as of January 1st of 2015…………………………………………………...………..62
Table 7: EVA Air’s competitor position to China Airlines as of December 31st of 2019………………………………………………..…...63
Table 8: China Airlines’ competitor position market commonality to EVA Air as of December 31st of 2019……………………………...…63
Table 9: China Airlines’ year by year market share and passenger load factor from 2015 to 2019………………………………….………….65
Table 10: EVA Air’s year by year market share and passenger load factor from 2015 to 2019………………………………………………….……65
Table 11: China Airlines and EVA Air’s year by year market share from 2015 to 2019……………………………….……………………….66
Table 12: China Airlines and EVA Air’s year by year passenger load factor from 2015 to 2019…………………………………………………..66
Table 13: AMC analysis of China Airlines’ introduction of Amadeus in 2015……………….………………………………………………..70
Table 14: AMC analysis of APP evolution from 2016 to 2017….....72
Table 15: AMC analysis of China Airlines’ virtual reality program from 2017……………………………..………………………………….74
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