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系統識別號 U0002-2612201315352900
中文論文名稱 影響力之追求:胡錦濤政府時期,中國巧實力之運用
英文論文名稱 In Search of Influence: China’s Use of Smart Power Under the Hu Administration
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 102
學期 1
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 韋恩立
研究生英文姓名 Henry G. Wade Jr.
學號 699330584
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2013-12-23
論文頁數 120頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃介正
委員-王高成
委員-馬振坤
中文關鍵字 中國  美國  巧實力  軟實力  硬實力  美中關係  胡錦濤政府時期  國際事務  戰略. 
英文關鍵字 China  United States  Smart Power  Soft Power  Hard Power  U.S.-China Relations  Hu Administration  International Affairs  Strategy  USA  PRC 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 美國至今無人能敵的強大軍事力量使大部份學者們認為,她能夠持續維持其世界第一超級強權的地位。然而,在當我們更進一步跨入這個所謂¬「亞洲世紀」的年代裡,必須要認知到亞洲區域的國家特別是中國,她運用一種不同於西方國家的競爭方式,她有策略性的運用硬權力如經濟力量、戰略力量,以及軟權力如其價值,政策以及其風俗文化等軟硬權力組合之力量, 對世界政治發揮其影響力並於全球政局中取得她的地位。

巧實力這個名詞,被認為是由兩位極力支持國際自由主義,其倡導策略性運用軟、硬力量組合的著名學者Joseph Nye與Suzanne Nossel所創。

當在美中之間於亞洲區域出現硬權力的競爭對手時,中國運用巧實力以達到其政策目標的方式便開始對美中平衡產生影響,並改變雙方平衡狀態趨向於中國這一方。而中國策略性的運用其影響力在全球政局上的例子,可由中國在聯合國安理會的投票過程、新型大國關係的建立、強化戰略夥伴關係及同時亦加強本身學術研究、國家發展、文化、法律與教育等各方面的實際運作中可觀察出來。

拿破崙對於中國的曾說過一句名言:「這條龍不但是甦醒了,且嘯聲震天」。而這句話之後過了兩個世紀,許多在亞、非兩洲的外商及工廠,以及遠在法、義兩國的鄉村街道也都被精明的中國商人所收買購入。雖然中國的經濟成長在全球金融危機之下或許略稍減緩,但中國仍為世界工廠的動力中心且為購買美國外債最大債權國。近期,一個美國智庫提出了一個很大膽的預測,於未來十年內,人民幣將取代美元做為世界的主要貨幣,因此許多決策者正重新思考如何面對中國這條已甦醒過來的巨龍。
英文摘要 Most scholars believe that the United States will continue to be the world’s foremost superpower due to its unmatched military might. However, as we enter further into what many have now dubbed the “Asian Century”, it is time to recognize that Asian nations, and in particular Mainland China (中國), are also strategically applying the combination of both hard (economic, strategic) and soft (values, policies, institutions) power, albeit in different and competing types, to make their impact and claim their station on the global stage. This strategic combination of both hard and soft power has been coined as “Smart Power”.
The term Smart Power has been attributed to academics Joseph Nye and Suzanne Nossel—staunch promoters of American liberal internationalism through the strategic use of both hard and soft power.
While there are hard power rivalries between the United States and China in the Asia Pacific, China’s use of Smart Power to achieve its policy objectives has already begun to alter the balance of the U.S.-China relationship in favor of the Middle Kingdom. Examples can be seen in China’s strategic use of its growing influence on the global stage, by way of United Nations Security Council vetoes; creation of new bilateral relationships; strengthening of strategic alliances; as well as a strengthening of its national capacity in the areas of research, national development, culture, laws and education.
Nearly two centuries after Napoleon’s famous quote on China, the dragon is not only awake, but roaring. Foreign companies in Asia, factories in Africa, and even villages in Italy and streets in France have been acquired by astute Chinese businessmen. Although growth may have slowed in the midst of the world debt crisis, China remains the world’s manufacturing powerhouse and America’s biggest creditor. Recently, a Washington think tank made the bold prediction that the Yuan could overtake the U.S. dollar as the principal reserve currency within a decade. As a result, many decision-makers are rethinking their approach to the “Return of the Dragon.”
論文目次 Abstract iii
Figures viii
Tables viii
Chapter I: Introduction 1
Power Structures 2
“Strategic Mistrust” 3
The Giant Has Awoken 6
1.1 Motives 8
1.2 Objectives 9
1.3 Scope 10
1.4 Hypothesis 10
1.5 Methodology 10
1.6 Chapter Outline 11
Chapter II: The Physiognomies of Power 13
2.1 Is Power Smart? 13
2.1.1 Hard Power 14
2.1.2 Soft Power 20
Chapter III: Smart Power with Chinese Characteristics 26
3.1 A Dragon Rises in the East 27
3.1.1 China’s First Emperor 28
3.1.2 China’s New Emperors 30
3.2 China’s Smart Economics 34
3.2.1 China’s Economic Surge 36
3.2.2 China’s Economic Importance 41
Chapter IV: Beijing’s Smart Power Push 53
4.1 The Consent of Latin America 54
4.2 China’s Geo-economic and Geopolitical Interests in Latin America and the Caribbean 57
4.3 Chinese Military Relations with Latin America 60
4.4 Trends in China’s Strategy 68
Chapter V: Implications for future U.S.-China Relations 73
5.1 America’s Decline 75
5.1.1 Decline At Home 75
5.1.2 Decline Abroad 79
5.2 The Chinese Hand 81
5.2.1 ASEAN 81
5.2.2 An Open Mind 85
5.2.3 Increasing Chinese Value 88
5.2.4 The Chinese Long View 89
5.2.5 A Friend in Need 90
Chapter VI: Conclusion 94
Hypothesis Findings 96
U.S.-China Relations 97
Sustainable Economic Growth 99
Increasing International Stature 103
Limitations 106
Bibliography 107
Books 107
Reports, Journals, Essays and Working Papers 109
Websites and Electronic Resources 113

Figures
Figure 1.1 President Barack Obama and President Hu Jintao of China. Official State visit of President Hu Jintao…....……………………………………………...................………. 3
Figure 2.1 U.S. Military Expenditures 2010..……………………..….................……….. 16
Figure 2.2 Confidence in U.S. Leadership in Foreign Policy.....….................................. . 19
Figure 3.1 Organizational Structure of the Communist Party of China….......................... 31
Figure 3.2 Chinese Global Investments.……………...............................…………… ..... 38
Figure 3.3 Chinese Outward Investments Since 2005........................................................ 43
Figure 5.1 Americans’ Take on International Issues....……….....…………................... . 77
Figure 5.2 Public Views China as Top Economic Power, U.S. as Leading Military Power…....…………………………...…………………………………...…................…. 80


Tables
Table 1.1 Chinese Holdings of U.S. Treasury Securities 2003-2012…………………....... 7
Table 2.1 GDP Growth: Japan, U.S. and China 2010-2030..………........…….................. 24
Table 3.1 Summary Demographic Indicators, China 1950-2000..…………….................. 35
Table 3.2 Chinese Investment by Sector...………………….............................................. 42
Table 3.3 Summary of Chinese Loans to Latin America ..………………......................... 44
Table 3.4 Bank Loans to Latin America by Sector, 2005–2011 (US$ million).................. 46
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