||In Search of Influence: China’s Use of Smart Power Under the Hu Administration
||Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
||Henry G. Wade Jr.
巧實力這個名詞，被認為是由兩位極力支持國際自由主義，其倡導策略性運用軟、硬力量組合的著名學者Joseph Nye與Suzanne Nossel所創。
||Most scholars believe that the United States will continue to be the world’s foremost superpower due to its unmatched military might. However, as we enter further into what many have now dubbed the “Asian Century”, it is time to recognize that Asian nations, and in particular Mainland China (中國), are also strategically applying the combination of both hard (economic, strategic) and soft (values, policies, institutions) power, albeit in different and competing types, to make their impact and claim their station on the global stage. This strategic combination of both hard and soft power has been coined as “Smart Power”.
The term Smart Power has been attributed to academics Joseph Nye and Suzanne Nossel—staunch promoters of American liberal internationalism through the strategic use of both hard and soft power.
While there are hard power rivalries between the United States and China in the Asia Pacific, China’s use of Smart Power to achieve its policy objectives has already begun to alter the balance of the U.S.-China relationship in favor of the Middle Kingdom. Examples can be seen in China’s strategic use of its growing influence on the global stage, by way of United Nations Security Council vetoes; creation of new bilateral relationships; strengthening of strategic alliances; as well as a strengthening of its national capacity in the areas of research, national development, culture, laws and education.
Nearly two centuries after Napoleon’s famous quote on China, the dragon is not only awake, but roaring. Foreign companies in Asia, factories in Africa, and even villages in Italy and streets in France have been acquired by astute Chinese businessmen. Although growth may have slowed in the midst of the world debt crisis, China remains the world’s manufacturing powerhouse and America’s biggest creditor. Recently, a Washington think tank made the bold prediction that the Yuan could overtake the U.S. dollar as the principal reserve currency within a decade. As a result, many decision-makers are rethinking their approach to the “Return of the Dragon.”
Chapter I: Introduction 1
Power Structures 2
“Strategic Mistrust” 3
The Giant Has Awoken 6
1.1 Motives 8
1.2 Objectives 9
1.3 Scope 10
1.4 Hypothesis 10
1.5 Methodology 10
1.6 Chapter Outline 11
Chapter II: The Physiognomies of Power 13
2.1 Is Power Smart? 13
2.1.1 Hard Power 14
2.1.2 Soft Power 20
Chapter III: Smart Power with Chinese Characteristics 26
3.1 A Dragon Rises in the East 27
3.1.1 China’s First Emperor 28
3.1.2 China’s New Emperors 30
3.2 China’s Smart Economics 34
3.2.1 China’s Economic Surge 36
3.2.2 China’s Economic Importance 41
Chapter IV: Beijing’s Smart Power Push 53
4.1 The Consent of Latin America 54
4.2 China’s Geo-economic and Geopolitical Interests in Latin America and the Caribbean 57
4.3 Chinese Military Relations with Latin America 60
4.4 Trends in China’s Strategy 68
Chapter V: Implications for future U.S.-China Relations 73
5.1 America’s Decline 75
5.1.1 Decline At Home 75
5.1.2 Decline Abroad 79
5.2 The Chinese Hand 81
5.2.1 ASEAN 81
5.2.2 An Open Mind 85
5.2.3 Increasing Chinese Value 88
5.2.4 The Chinese Long View 89
5.2.5 A Friend in Need 90
Chapter VI: Conclusion 94
Hypothesis Findings 96
U.S.-China Relations 97
Sustainable Economic Growth 99
Increasing International Stature 103
Reports, Journals, Essays and Working Papers 109
Websites and Electronic Resources 113
Figure 1.1 President Barack Obama and President Hu Jintao of China. Official State visit of President Hu Jintao…....……………………………………………...................………. 3
Figure 2.1 U.S. Military Expenditures 2010..……………………..….................……….. 16
Figure 2.2 Confidence in U.S. Leadership in Foreign Policy.....….................................. . 19
Figure 3.1 Organizational Structure of the Communist Party of China….......................... 31
Figure 3.2 Chinese Global Investments.……………...............................…………… ..... 38
Figure 3.3 Chinese Outward Investments Since 2005........................................................ 43
Figure 5.1 Americans’ Take on International Issues....……….....…………................... . 77
Figure 5.2 Public Views China as Top Economic Power, U.S. as Leading Military Power…....…………………………...…………………………………...…................…. 80
Table 1.1 Chinese Holdings of U.S. Treasury Securities 2003-2012…………………....... 7
Table 2.1 GDP Growth: Japan, U.S. and China 2010-2030..………........…….................. 24
Table 3.1 Summary Demographic Indicators, China 1950-2000..…………….................. 35
Table 3.2 Chinese Investment by Sector...………………….............................................. 42
Table 3.3 Summary of Chinese Loans to Latin America ..………………......................... 44
Table 3.4 Bank Loans to Latin America by Sector, 2005–2011 (US$ million).................. 46
Bader, Jeffrey A. 2012. Obama and China’s Rise: An Insider’s Account of America’s Asia Strategy. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
Cooper, Robert. 2004. “Hard Power, Soft Power and the Goals of Diplomacy.” In American Power in the 21st Century, by David Held and Mathias Koenig-Archibugi, 167-180. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Fairbank, John King, and Merle Goldman. 2006. China: A New History, Second Enlarged Edition. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Feng, Wang, and Andrew Mason. 2008. “The Demographic Factor in China’s Transition.” In China’s Great Economic Transformation, by Loren Brandt and Thomas G. Rawski, 136-166. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Garrett, Geoffrey. 2010. “G2 in G20: China, the United States and the World after the Global Financial Crisis.” Global Policy 1 (1): 29-39.
Ghafouri, Mahmoud. 2009. “China’s Policy in the Persian Gulf.” Middle East Policy 16 (2): 82.
Goldstein, Avery. 2005. Rising to the Challenge: China’s Grand Strategy and International. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press.
Gray, Colin S. 2012. Hard Power and Soft Power: The Utility of Military Force as an Instrument of Policy in the 21st Century. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Strategic Studies Institute.
Hollihan, Thomas A., and Zhan Zhang. 2012. Media Diplomacy and U.S.-China Military-to-Military Cooperation. Center on Public Diplomacy Paper, Los Angeles: FIGUEROA PRESS.
Jr., Joseph S. Nye. 1991. Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. New York: Basic Books.
—. 2004. Power in the Global Information Age: From Realism to Globalization. London: Routledge .
—. 2004. Soft Power: The Means To Success In World Politics. New York: PublicAffairs.
Jacques, Martin. 2009. When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Birth of a New Global Order. Penguin Press: New York.
Kissinger, Henry. 1979. White House Years. Boston: Little, Brown & Company.
Kurlantzick, Joshua. 2007. Charm Offensive: How China’s Soft Power Is Transforming the World. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Li, Cheng. 2008. “China’s Political Trajectory: Internal Contradictions and Inner-Party Democracy.” The Rise of China. South Hadley, Massachusetts: Mount Holyoke College. 1-27.
Mahbubani, Kishore. 2009. The New Asian Hemisphere: The Irresistible Shift of Global Power to the East. New York City: PublicAffairs.
Marti, Michael E. 2002. China and the Legacy of Deng Xiaoping: From Communist Revolution to Capitalist Evolution. Dulles, Virginia: Brassey’s Inc.
Mazov, Sergey. 2010. A Distant Front in the Cold War: The USSR in West Africa and the Congo, 1956-1964. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press.
Michael, Franz, and Chung-li Chang. 1966. The Taiping Rebellion - History and Documents Volume 1 : History. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Morganthau, Hans. 1960. Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. New York: Knopf.
Munoz, Heraldo. 1986. Las Relaciones Exteriores del Gobierno Militar Chileno. Santiago: Las Ediciones del Ornitorrinco.
Ong, Lynette H., and Christian Gobel. 2012. Social Unrest in China. London: Europe China Research and Advice Network, April 23.
Portal, Jane. 2007. The First Emperor: China’s Terracotta Army. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
—. 2007. The First Emperor: China’s Terracotta Army. London: British Museum Press.
Spence, Jonathan. 2001. The Search for Modern China. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
Willibald, Sigrid. 2013. Japan’s (Un)Certain Future? Permanent Membership on the United Nations Security Council - A Delphi Study. Munich: GRIN Verlag.
Zakaria, Fareed. 2009. The Post American World. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
Reports, Journals, Essays and Working Papers
(Comptroller), Office of the Under Secretary of Defense. 2011. Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Estimates The Joint Staff (TJS). February. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://comptroller.defense.gov/defbudget/fy2012/budget_justification/pdfs/01_Operation_and_Maintenance/O_M_VOL_1_PARTS/O_M_VOL_1_BASE_PARTS/TJS_OP-5_FY_2012.pdf.
(JETRO), Japan External Trade Organization. 2009. China in Africa: An African Case Study. Manual Report, Chiba, Japan: Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO).
Arai, Tatsushi, Shihoko Goto, and Zheng Wang. 2013. Clash of National Identities: China, Japan, and the East China Sea Territorial Dispute. Conference Essays, Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
Avendaño, Lilliana. 2013. “Lending Money: Latin America and China’s New Engagement.” African East-Asian Affairs: The China Monitor (2): 61-78.
Bijian, Zheng. 2005. “China’s “Peaceful Rise” to Great-Power Status.” Foreign Affairs 84 (5): 18-24.
Bohnet, Armin, Zhong Hong, and Frank Müller. 1993. “China’s open-door policy and its significance for transformation of the economic system.” Intereconomics 28 (4): 191-197.
Center, Pew Research. 2013. Public Sees U.S. Power Declining as Support for Global: America’s Place in the World. Quadrennial Survey, Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center.
China, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of. 2008. China’s Policy Paper on Latin America and the Caribbean. Policy Paper, Beijing: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China.
Corbett, Steve, and Michael J. Davidson. Winter 2009-10. “The Role of the Military in Presidential Politics.” Parameters 39 (4): 58-72.
Defense, Office of the Secretary of. 2005. The Military Power of the People’s Republic of China 2005. Annual Report to Congress, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Defense.
Defense, U.S. Department of. 2000 . Annual Report on the Military Power of the People’s Republic of China. Report to Congress, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Defense.
Domínguez, Jorge I. 2006. China’s Relations With Latin America: Shared Gains, Asymmetric Hopes. Working Paper, Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Dialogue.
Downs, Erica S. 2011. Inside China, Inc: China Development Bank’s Cross-Border Energy Deals. Report, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
Dumbaugh, Kerry. 2008. China’s Foreign Policy: What Does It Mean for U.S. Global Interests? CRS Report for Congress, Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service.
Edoho, Felix M. 2011. “Globalization and Marginalization of Africa: Contextualization of China–Africa Relations.” Africa Today 58 (1): 103-124.
Ellis, Dr. R. Evan. 2011. China-Latin America Military Engagement: Good Will, Good Business, and Strategic Position. Special Report, Carlisle, Pennsylvania: The U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute.
Gachúz, Juan Carlos. 2012. “Chile’s Economic and Political Relationship with China.” The Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 133-154.
Goldgeier, James M. 2010. The Future of NATO. Council Special Report, Council on Foreign Relations.
Glaser, Bonnie S., and Brittany Billingsley. 2012. Reordering Chinese Priorities on the Korean Peninsula. Freeman Chair Report, Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies.
Gorman, Tom. 2008. “Modern China: The Promise and Challenge of an Emerging Superpower.” World Savvy Monitor 41-48.
Horta, Loro. 2008. “In Uncle Sam’s Backyard: China’s Military Presence in Latin America.” Military Review 8 (5): 47-55.
III, Ernest J. Wilson. 2008. “Hard Power, Soft Power, Smart Power.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 616: 110-124.
Intelligence, US. 2009. The Sino-Soviet Struggle in Cuba and The Latin American Communist Movement. Declassified Working Paper, Shelton, Connecticut: Ninety-Nine Cent Publishing.
Johansson, Åsa, Yvan Guillemette, Fabrice Murtin, David Turner, Giuseppe Nicoletti, Christine de la Maisonneuve, Guillaume Bousquet, and Francesca Spinelli. 2012. Looking to 2060: Long-Term Global Growth Prospects: A Going for Growth Report. OECD Economic Policy Papers, France: OECD Publishing.
Jr., Frederick Wakeman. 1977. “Rebellion and Revolution: The Study of Popular Movements in Chinese History.” The Journal of Asian Studies 36 (2): 201-237.
Jr., Joseph S. Nye. 2009. “Get Smart - Combining Hard and Soft Power.” Foreign Affairs 88 (4).
—. 1990. “Soft Power.” Foreign Policy 80: 153-171.
—. 2004. “Soft Power and American Foreign Policy.” Political Science Quarterly 119 (2): 255-270.
—. 2004. “The Decline of America’s Soft Power.” Foreign Affairs 83 (3): 16-20.
—. 2003. “U.S. Power and Strategy After Iraq.” Foreign Affairs 82 (4): 60-73.
Katzman, Kenneth. 2007. The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA). CRS Report for Congress, Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RS20871.pdf.
Kissinger, Henry A. 2012. “The Future of U.S.-Chinese Relations.” Foreign Affairs 91 (2): 44-55.
Lawrence Mhandara, Charity Manyeruke, Eve Nyemba. 2013. “Debating China’s New Role in Africa’s Political Economy.” African East-Asian Affairs: The China Monitor 79-101.
Li, Cheng. 2012. “The Battle for China’s Top Nine Leadership Posts.” The Washington Quarterly 35 (1): 131-145.
Li, Jieli. 2002. “State Fragmentation: Toward a Theoretical Understanding of the Territorial Power of the State.” Sociological Theory 20 (2): 139–156.
Lieberthal, Kenneth G., and Jisi Wang. 2012. Addressing U.S.-China Strategic Distrust. Paper, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Instiution.
Lijun, Sheng. 2003. China-ASEAN Free Trade Area: Origins, Developments and Strategic Motivations. Working Paper, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
McGiffert, Carola. 2009. Chinese Soft Power and Its Implications for the United States: Competition and Cooperation in the Developing World. A Report of the CSIS Smart Power Initiative, Washington, D.C.: CSIS.
Miller, Alice. 2011. “The Politburo Standing Committee under Hu Jintao.” China Leadership Monitor 35: 1-9.
Montalva, Juan Diego, and Patricio Navia. 2007. China – Latin America Task Force. Working Paper, Miami: Center for Hemispheric Policy, University of Miami.
Morrison, Wayne M., and Marc Labonte. 2013. China’s Holdings of U.S. Securities: Implications for the U.S. Economy. CRS Report for Congress, Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service.
Nolte, Detlef. 2013. The Dragon in the Backyard: US Visions of China’s Relations Toward Latin America. Working Paper, Hamburg, Germany: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA).
Nossel, Suzanne. 2004. “Smart Power.” Foreign Affairs 83 (2): 131-143.
Ortega, Alejandro. 2010. “International Effects on the Democratic Onset in Chile.” Stanford Journal of International Relations 28-39.
Project, Pew Global Attitudes. 2007. Global Unease With Major World Powers. Public Opinion Survey, Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center.
Sakurada, Daizo. 1997. The Japan-US Security Treaty: From a Japanese Perspective. Working Paper, Centre for Strategic Studies, Victoria University of Wellington.
Sheng, Lijun. 2003. China-ASEAN Free Trade Area: Origins, Developments and Strategic Motivations. Working Paper, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Vaughn, Bruce, and Wayne M. Morrison. 2006. China-Southeast Asia Relations: Trends, Issues and Implications for the United States. CRS Report for Congress, Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service.
Weiss, Jessica Chen. 2003. “The Need for Liberalization in China: Electoral Reform and the People’s Congress System.” Stanford Journal of East Asian Affairs 3: 39-44.
Xiaohui, Wang. 2012. “Firmly Grasping the Guiding Thought of Cultural Reform and Development.” 4 (1): 81-90.
Xing, Li. 2007. East Asian Tegional Integration: From Japan-led “Flying-geese” to China-centred “Bamboo Capitalism” . Working Paper, Denmark: Center for Comparative Integration Studies (CCIS), Aalborg University.
Websites and Electronic Resources
(CIA), The Central Intelligence Agency. 2013. The World Factbook: CHINA. April 29. Accessed May 12, 2013. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html.
Adams, Gordon. 2007. The U.S. Military’s Growing Role In Foreign Policy. April 2. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://www.thebulletin.org/web-edition/columnists/gordon-adams/the-us-military%E2%80%99s-growing-role-foreign-policy.
Affairs, The Chicago Council on Global. 2009. Anxious Americans Seek a New Direction in United States Foreign Policy: Results of a 2008 Survey of Public Opinion. Public Opinion Survey Results, Chicago: The Chicago Council on Global Affairs.
America, The Heritage Foundation - Leadership for. 2013. China Global Investment Tracker Interactive Map. Accessed June 10, 2013. http://www.heritage.org/research/projects/china-global-investment-tracker-interactive-map.
Argentine-Chinese Chamber of Production, Industry and Commerce. n.d. Important Bilateral Agreements. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.argenchina.org/articulos/_en_acuerdosBilaterales.asp.
Ash, Timothy Garton. 2011 . Debt crisis: In our competitive decadence, we face eurogeddon and dollargeddon. July 20. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2011/jul/20/us-debt-crisis-european-default.
Babauta, Leo. 2010. Focus: A simplicity manifesto in the age of distraction. Nov 23. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://focusmanifesto.com/effortless-action/.
Bajoria, Jayshree, and Beina Xu. 2013. The Six Party Talks on North Korea’s Nuclear Program. Sept 30. Accessed Nov 14, 2013. http://www.cfr.org/proliferation/six-party-talks-north-koreas-nuclear-program/p13593.
Barke, Chris. 2013. What Implications Does Rising Chinese Influence Have for Latin America? Aug 13. Accessed Nov 14, 2013. http://www.e-ir.info/2013/08/13/what-implications-does-the-rising-chinese-influence-have-for-latin-america/.
Brandt, Loren, and Thomas G. Rawski. 2008. China’s Great Economic Transformation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brooks, David. 2011. Pundit Under Protest. June 13. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/14/opinion/14brooks.html.
Brown, Ellen. 2012. The Myth That Japan Is Broke: The World’s Largest “Debtor” Is Now The World’s Largest Creditor. September 5. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://www.webofdebt.com/articles/mythjapan.php.
Brzezinski, Zbigniew, interview by Riz Khan. 2010. One on One (Dec 11).
Callick, Rowan. 2007. “The China Model.” The American - The Online Magazine of the American Enterprise Institute. November - December. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://american.com/archive/2007/november-december-magazine-contents/the-china-model.
Chang, Andrei. 2008. China boosts military ties with Chile and Argentina. Nov 20. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.upi.com/Business_News/Security-Industry/2008/11/20/China-boosts-military-ties-with-Chile-and-Argentina/UPI-31351227216308/.
—. 2008. China’s Policy Paper on Latin America and the Caribbean. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://english.gov.cn/official/2008-11/05/content_1140347.htm.
—. 2004. Hu Jintao Holds Talks with Argentine President. Nov 17. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/topics/huvisit/t170608.shtml.
China, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of. 2004. Foreign Minister Li Zhaoxing Comments on the Fruitful Results Of President Hu Jintao’s Trip to Latin America. Nov 26. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/topics/huvisit/t172349.shtml.
—. 2004. Hu Jintao Visits the China-Brazil Aeronautics and Space Cooperation Project in Sao Paulo. Nov 15. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/topics/huvisit/t170364.shtml.
—. 2004. President Hu Jintao Holds Talks with Castro. Nov 23. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/topics/huvisit/t171665.shtml.
China, The National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of. 2003. China and Cuba Bilateral Relations. Sept 26. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.npc.gov.cn/englishnpc/Special/SpecialVisitsCuba/2009-09/01/content_1516857.htm.
Daily, China. 2011. China to deliver eight Y-8 aircraft to Venezuela. June 02. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2011-06/02/content_12632748.htm.
Daily, PLA. 2008. PLA-foreign military exercises since 2000. Feb 13. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://english.chinamil.com.cn/site2/special-reports/2008-02/13/content_1122067.htm.
Deng, Chao. 2013. China’s Fosun to buy One Chase Manhattan Plaza. Oct 17. Accessed Oct 20, 2013. http://www.marketwatch.com/story/chinas-fosun-to-buy-one-chase-manhattan-plaza-2013-10-17.
Dyer, Geoff, Jamil Anderlini, and Henny Sender. 2011. China’s lending hits new heights. Jan 17. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/488c60f4-2281-11e0-b6a2-00144feab49a.html#axzz2n9ElmzFs.
Economist, The. 2013. China’s outward investment: The Second Wave. What to make of Chinese firms’ latest foreign purchases. Oct 26. Accessed Oct 28, 2013. http://www.economist.com/news/business/21588369-what-make-chinese-firms-latest-foreign-purchases-second-wave.
FlorCruz, Michelle. 2013. China’s Politburo Standing Committee And Their Paths To Power. March 21. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://www.ibtimes.com/chinas-politburo-standing-committee-their-paths-power-infographic-1142349.
Ford, Peter. 2011. Gates’s China visit: Beijing confirms stealth fighter test flights. Jan 11. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-Pacific/2011/0111/Gates-s-China-visit-Beijing-confirms-stealth-fighter-test-flights.
Forum, China History. 2007 . Napoleon’s saying about China. June 1. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?showtopic=17589.
Foundation, Nuclear Age Peace. n.d. Brazil. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/issues/proliferation/brazil/.
French, Howard W. 2004. China in Africa: All Trade, With No Political Baggage. Aug 8. Accessed Dec 1, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/08/international/asia/08china.html.
Friedman, Thomas L. 2003. Where Birds Don’t Fly. Dec 21. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/12/21/opinion/where-birds-don-t-fly.html.
Gallagher, Kevin, and Estefanía Marchán. 2013. China is the new bank in Latin America. Is it a better deal? Feb 11. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://triplecrisis.com/china-is-the-new-bank-in-latin-america-is-it-a-better-deal/.
Gladstone, Rick. 2012. Friction at the U.N. as Russia and China Veto Another Resolution on Syria Sanctions. July 19. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/20/world/middleeast/russia-and-china-veto-un-sanctions-against-syria.html.
Gonzalez, Angel, and Saabira Chaudhuri. 2013. Sinochem to Buy 40% of Pioneer Natural Venture. Jan 30. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887323701904578274042731860634.
Government, Australian. 2012. Australia in the Asian Century White Paper. October. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://asiancentury.dpmc.gov.au/white-paper.
House, The White. 2011. Press Conference with President Obama and President Hu of the People’s Republic of China. Jan 19. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/01/19/press-conference-president-obama-and-president-hu-peoples-republic-china.
—. 2009. Statement On Bilateral Meeting With President Hu Of China. April 1. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Statement-On-Bilateral-Meeting-With-President-Hu-Of-China/.
Hudson, Rex A. 1994. Chile: A Country Study - Relations with the United States. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://countrystudies.us/chile/111.htm.
Hynes, Major H.A. 1998. “China: The Emerging Superpower .” Federation of American Scientist. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/china/doctrine/0046.htm.
IRIN. 2006. AFRICA: China’s great leap into the continent. March 23. Accessed Dec 1, 2013. http://www.irinnews.org/printreport.aspx?reportid=58530.
Jin, Wu. 2010. China’s peace keeping force in Haiti. Jan 19. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.china.org.cn/world/haitiquake/2010-01/19/content_19269747.htm.
Johnson, Stephen. 2005. Balancing China’s Growing Influence in Latin America. Oct 24. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2005/10/balancing-chinas-growing-influence-in-latin-america.
Joyce, Steven. 2013. NZ and China Strengthen Education Links. April 11. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/nz-and-china-strengthen-education-links.
Jr., Joseph S. Nye. 2004. The Benefits of Soft Power. February 8. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/4290.html.
—. 2005. The Rise of China’s Soft Power. Dec 29. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/1499/rise_of_chinas_soft_power.html.
Kabemba, Claude. 2012. Chinese involvement in Angola. Oct 4. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.osisa.org/books/regional/chinese-involvement-angola.
Kennedy, Paul. 2010. Back to Normalcy. Dec 10. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://www.newrepublic.com/article/magazine/79753/normalcy-american-decline-decadence.
Khan, Joseph. 2006. China, Shy Giant, Shows Signs of Shedding Its False Modesty. Dec 9. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/09/world/asia/09china.html?ex=1323320400&en=dad26021a6a1aed8&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&_r=0.
King, KC. 2011. philosiblog. Sept 11. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://philosiblog.com/2011/09/27/when-it-is-obvious-that-the-goals-cannot-be-reached-dont-adjust-the-goals-adjust-the-action-steps/.
Kissinger, Henry, interview by Kai Ryssdal. 2011. Kissinger on China - Past and Present (May 17).
Kitchen, Michael. 2013. What will China buy? Beijing goes shopping in the U.S. Oct 28. Accessed Nov 1, 2013. http://blogs.marketwatch.com/thetell/2013/10/28/what-will-china-buy-beijing-goes-shopping-in-u-s/.
Knowland, Don. 2013. China’s president visits Mexico and Central America seeking economic ties. June 10. Accessed Nov 14, 2013. http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2013/06/10/xime-j10.html.
LaFranchi, Howard. 2013. America’s new isolationism. Sept 29. Accessed Nov 14, 2013. http://www.miaminewsday.com/national/24249-america-s-new-isolationism.html.
Liu, Melinda. 20126. Obama’s Southeast Asia Trip: ‘Last Trick’ to Contain China? Nov 20. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/11/20/obama-s-southeast-asia-trip-last-trick-to-contain-china.html.
Lobe, Jim. 2012. U.S. Public Satisfied With Less Militarised Global Role. Sept 10. Accessed Nov 14, 2013. http://www.ipsnews.net/2012/09/u-s-public-satisfied-with-less-militarised-global-role/.
Mallén, Patricia Rey. 2013. Trade Between Chile And China Grew 22 Percent In 7 Years As China Became Chile’s Biggest Trading Partner. Sept 6. Accessed Nov 14, 2013. http://www.ibtimes.com/trade-between-chile-china-grew-22-percent-7-years-china-became-chiles-biggest-trading-partner.
Margesson, Rhoda. 2005. Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami: Humanitarian Assistance and Relief Operations. CRS Report for Congress, Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL32715.pdf.
Merced, Michael J. de la, and David Barboza. 2013. Needing Pork, China Is to Buy a U.S. Supplier. May 29. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/smithfield-to-be-sold-to-shuanghui-group-of-china/?_r=0.
Miel, Rhoda. 2011. China’s Yanfeng USA pursues global auto supply strategy. Nov 3. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://www.plasticsnews.com/article/20111103/NEWS/311039986/chinas-yanfeng-usa-pursues-global-auto-supply-strategy.
News, BBC. 2006. US bans arms sales to Venezuela. May 15. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4774475.stm.
News, Xinhua. 2013. US ambassador to China resigns. Nov 20. Accessed Dec 1, 2013. http://www.chinausfocus.com/print/?id=33898.
Niblett, Robin. 2012. The Economic Crisis and the Emerging Powers: Towards a New International Order? Feb 20. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/wps/portal/rielcano_eng/Content?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/elcano/elcano_in/zonas_in/00053_niblett_economic_crisis_emerging_powers.
Obama, U.S. President Barack. 2009. Remarks by the President at The U.S.–China Strategic and Economic Dialogue. July 27. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-uschina-strategic-and-economic-dialogue.
Petras, James. 2012. China: Rise, Fall and Re-Emergence as a Global Power. March 7. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://www.globalresearch.ca/china-rise-fall-and-re-emergence-as-a-global-power/29644.
Press, Associated. 2013. China, France Vow to Promote “Multipolar” World. April 25. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/A/AS_CHINA_FRANCE?SITE=AP&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT&CTIME=2013-04-25-06-37-04.
Prestowitz, Clyde. 2011. New wind blowing: American decline becomes the new conventional wisdom. June 15. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://prestowitz.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2011/06/15/new_wind_blowing_american_decline_becomes_the_new_conventional_wisdom.
Probaway. 2013. Philosophers Squared – Plato. Sept. Accessed Nov 14, 2013. http://probaway.wordpress.com/2013/09/02/philosophers-squared-plato/.
Putin, Russian President Vladimir. 2013. A Plea for Caution From Russia: What Putin Has to Say to Americans About Syria. Sept 11. Accessed Nov 14, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/12/opinion/putin-plea-for-caution-from-russia-on-syria.html.
Richter, Paul. 2013. Caroline Kennedy nomination as envoy to Japan points to larger trend. July 25. Accessed Nov 14, 2013. http://articles.latimes.com/2013/jul/25/nation/la-na-ambassadors-appointments-20130726.
Rivero, Raylsiyaly, and Alex Sánchez. 2008. Venezuela’s Military In The Hugo Chávez Era. Sept 18. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.coha.org/venezuela%E2%80%99s-military-in-the-hugo-chavez-era/.
Schneidman, Witney, and Dane Erickson. 2012. The Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) and the Prospects for “Trilateral” Development. July 17. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2012/07/17-china-africa-cooperation-schneidman.
Secretariat, The ASEAN. 2012. ASEAN-CHINA Dialogue Relations. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://www.asean.org/news/item/asean-china-dialogue-relations.
Sources, China Information and. 2013. The Communist Party of China (CPC, CCP). April. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://www.chinatoday.com/org/cpc/.
State, U.S. Department of. 2013. U.S.-China S&ED Outcomes of the Strategic Track. July 13. Accessed Nov 14, 2013. http://www.china.org.cn/business/2013-07/13/content_29412960.htm.
Steinhauser, Paul, and John Helton. 2013. CNN poll: Public against Syria strike resolution. Sept 9. Accessed Nov 14, 2013. http://edition.cnn.com/2013/09/09/politics/syria-poll-main/.
Studies, University of Miami Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American. 2003. The Cuban Military In The Economy. Aug 11. Accessed June 14, 2013. http://ctp.iccas.miami.edu/FOCUS_Web/Issue46.htm.
Tang, Charles. 2013. Brazil-China: A Growing Alliance. July 25. Accessed Nov 14, 2013. http://www.worldpolicy.org/blog/2013/07/25/brazil-china-growing-alliance.
Television, China Central. 2013. China, Russia vow to strengthen relationship. March 25. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://english.cntv.cn/program/newshour/20130325/104220.shtml.
Times, New York. 2013. Easing Tensions on the India-China Border. October 31. Accessed Nov 14, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/01/opinion/easing-tensions-on-the-india-china-border.html?_r=0.
Vyas, Kejal. 2013 . China’s Xi in Trinidad to Talk Energy, Bolster Ties. June 1. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887324412604578519283382646360.
Wertz, Richard R. 2013. Exploring Chinese History - Present Day. Accessed May 12, 2013. www.ibiblio.org/chinesehistory/contents/01his/c05s03.html.
Yuming, Chen. 2013. China-Australia friendship keeps blooming. Aug 21. Accessed Nov 14, 2013. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/opinion/china-australia-friendship-keeps-blooming/story-e6frgd0x-1226700881131#.
Zakaria, Fareed. 2011. Are America’s Best Days Behind Us? March 3. Accessed June 13, 2013. http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2056723,00.html.