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系統識別號 U0002-2609201709542300
中文論文名稱 超精密鑽石車削加工微光學結構製程中毛邊形成機制與抑制方法之研究
英文論文名稱 Study of burr formation mechanisms involved in ultra-precision diamond turning of various micro-optical structures
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 機械與機電工程學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生中文姓名 林文忠
研究生英文姓名 Wen-Chung Lin
學號 898370027
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2017-07-13
論文頁數 213頁
口試委員 指導教授-趙崇禮
委員-左培倫
委員-陳昭彰
委員-馬廣仁
委員-陳順同
中文關鍵字 刮痕  微切削  切屑  毛邊機制 
英文關鍵字 scratches  micro-cutting  chips  burr 
學科別分類
中文摘要 背光模組(back-light module)內的增亮膜((Brightness Enhancement Film, BEF)是TFT-LCD之必要光學元件且朝向大尺寸發展,此系利用已完成微結構切削之金屬滾軸進行roll to roll制程,壓印出所需之光學結構膜,所以大尺寸滾軸微結構加工是終端產品的先決條件。增亮膜如果能以兩張V溝(V-groove)互以90度堆疊形成金字塔結構(pyramid)者,不僅可提高輝度達110%,同時一次壓印下還可降低背光模組的厚度與制程簡化。但是V溝切削不良除了容易造成邊緣型毛邊(side burr)之外,而金字塔結構屬於不連續切削,不僅會造成離斷型毛邊(exit burr)之外,更會讓刀具急劇磨耗,使微結構變形。而適合難切削材料的橢圓振動切削(Elliptical Vibration Cutting, EVC)和飛刀加工(fly-cut),在粗糙度和切削速度上都遠遠不及于單點鑽石車削(Single Point Diamond Turning, SPDT)切削延展性金屬所能達到的奈米級鏡面和加工速度。
本文研究發現除了不適當的切削條件外,不同微結構切削時也會產生不同的毛邊問題。同時過去傳統精密切削加工的研究中,也忽略了菱鏡(prism)結構相鄰之間的切削干擾及因為切屑的剝離不良所導致的新毛邊問題。最後針對來源不同或未知的材料,如何能在加工前預測出最適合的切削條件及有效的毛邊抑制方法進行了探討。本文研究首先透過有限元素分析( Finite element method , FEM)對毛邊的形成進行預測,接著以單點鑽石車削無氧銅為實驗基礎,利用固定荷重(fix-loading)與固定切深(fix-feed)之刮痕模式對毛邊形成機制進行討論,最後根據不同刀具設計、不同微結構與切削條件,在CNC上進行滾筒模具切削。研究結果顯示:(1)切削時刀具會對被切削材料V溝的兩側擠壓而形成邊緣型毛邊,(2)切削阻力越大者在離斷的材料端面上越容易形成離斷型毛邊,(3)V溝菱鏡結構閉合後因波峰兩兩拉扯下會形成一種新的波浪型毛邊(wave burr) 問題,(4)離斷結構切削時,切屑的脫離不良除了邊緣型毛邊外還會導致新的剝離形毛邊(stripping burr)問題,(5)spiral cut能改變進給方向以平衡切削力者可以改善不對稱切削的毛邊,(6)plung cut的微量切削特性可以抑制離斷型毛邊,(7)切屑面的皺摺間距越細則顯示該材料的被切削性越好。
英文摘要 The backlight module of the Brightness Enhancement Film( BEF) is a necessary element of optical TFT-LCD and towards the development of large size. Using the metal roller which has been finished cutting micro structure first, and then used roll to roll process to stamping out the required optical structure, so large size roller processing is a prerequisite for terminal products. If can be stacked with two V-groove of BEF film to form a Pyramid structure at 90 degrees, it can not only increase the brightness to 110%, but also reduce the thickness and process simplification of the backlight module at one time. V-grooving cutting bad, in addition to easy to cause the side Burr, and the Pyramid structure is not continuous cutting, so will not only cause the formation of exit Burr, will be the tool wear and then micro structure deformation. And suitable to the hard cutting materials of elliptical vibration cutting (EVC) and fly-cut, the cutting roughness and speed is far inferior to the single point diamond turning (SPDT) cutting the malleable metal can reach Nano scale mirror and processing speed.
The paper is found that in addition to the improper cutting conditions, different micro structures also produce different burrs when cutting. At the same time, in the past research on the traditional precision cutting, the cutting edge interference between the prism and the new burrs caused by the poor peeling of the chip have also been neglected. Finally, how to predict the most suitable cutting conditions and the effective methods of cutting edges are discussed for different sources or unknown materials. The paper through the finite element method (FEM) to predict the burr formation followed by single point diamond turning on Oxygen free copper as the experimental basis, mechanism of burr formation was discussed by using the fixed load and fixed cutting depth of scratch mode. Finally, we are according to different cutting tools design and different micro structure and cutting condition to do the cutting experiment of the roller is carried out by using CNC. The results show that: (1) The tool will be extruded on both sides of the V groove of the cutting material to form side burr at cutting. (2)The larger of cutting force Is more easily to exit burr formation on the material of end face. (3) A new wave burr problem is formed after V grooving is closed and the wave peak interferes with each other. (4) When cutting the discontinuous structure, the discontinuous chip will lead to a new peeling burr problem when it breaks away from the material surface. (5) Used spiral cut can change the feed direction to balance cutting force, and can improve the cutting burr of asymmetrical cutting. (6) The micro cutting characteristics of plunge cut can inhibit the exit burr. (7) The same material but different hardness, the chip of the wrinkles spacing is more fine and it shows that the material is better cutting.
論文目次 誌謝 I
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 III
目錄 V
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 XVI
符號說明 XVII
第一章 序論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 研究背景 4
1-3 研究動機與目的 8
第二章 論文回顧與理論基礎 20
2-1 金屬切削基本理論 20
2-1-1 切削基本模式 21
2-1-2 二維切削模型與力學 26
2-1-3 切削幾何 29
2-1-4 切削尺寸效應 31
2-2 毛邊定義與形成機制 34
2-3 切削毛邊的模擬與預測 43
2-4 飛刀切削與毛邊形成機制 50
2-5 橢圓振動切削與毛邊形成機制 56
2-6 滾筒形金屬模具加工 60
2-7 特殊材料的微切削 63
2-8 光學膜ROLL TO ROLL製程 67
第三章 研究方法與設備 70
3-1 實驗設計 70
3-1-1 慢速刮痕實驗 71
3-1-2 快速刮痕實驗 71
3-1-3 加工機切削驗證 72
3-2 實驗設備 72
3-2-1 固定荷重式慢速刮痕器 72
3-2-2 高速主軸式之固定切深式快速刮痕 74
3-2-3 四軸式超精密滾軸加工機 74
3-3 實驗材料與刀具 76
3-3-1 鑽石刀具 76
3-3-2 實驗材料與工件 77
3-4 分析儀器 79
3-4-1 光學顯微鏡 79
3-4-2 掃描式電子顯微鏡 79
3-4-3 雷射掃描式共軛焦顯微鏡 79
3-5 DEFORM 3D切削模擬軟體 80
3-6 實驗流程 81
第四章 DEFORM 3D切削模擬與毛邊預測 82
4-1 不同刀具內夾角切削對毛邊發展之模擬預測 84
4-2 不同刀具前傾角切削對毛邊發展之模擬預測 84
4-3 不同刀具偏轉角切削對毛邊發展之模擬預測 85
4-4 刀具側傾角(不對稱角) 對切削毛邊發展之模擬預測 86
4-5 刀刃R值 (磨耗)對切削毛邊發展之模擬預測 86
4-6 不同刀具內夾角對應刀刃R值之切削毛邊發展模擬預測 88
第五章 固定荷重模式之慢速刮痕實驗 91
5-1 固定荷重之短刮痕對毛邊發展的影響 92
5-2 固定荷重之V-GROOVING對毛邊發展的影響 93
5-3 固定荷重之刀具側傾角(不對稱切削)對毛邊發展的影響 96
5-4 固定荷重之刀具前後傾角對毛邊發展的影響 98
5-5 固定荷重之刀具不同內夾角對毛邊發展的影響 101
5-6 固定荷重之刀具偏轉角度對毛邊發展的影響 102
5-7 固定荷重之不同被切削材料對毛邊發展的影響 104
5-8 固定荷重之刮痕切屑分析 106
第六章 固定切深模式之刮痕實驗 109
6-1 固定切深下慢速刮痕對毛邊發展的影響 109
6-2 固定切深下V-GROOVING閉合波峰對毛邊發展影響 112
6-3 固定切深下不同切削速度對毛邊發展的影響 114
6-4 固定切深下在不同切削深度對毛邊發展的影響 118
6-5 固定切深下不同刀具條件對離斷型毛邊的發展影響 121
6-5-1 不同刀具內夾角刮痕對斜端面(離斷型)的毛邊影響 122
6-5-2 不同刀具內夾角刮痕在不同切深下對斜端面的毛邊影響 123
6-5-3 不同刀具磨耗的刮痕對斜端面的毛邊影響 126
第七章 設備誤差與毛邊關係 132
7-1 加工機精度實驗前測試加工 132
7-2加工機軸運動誤差補償 136
7-3補償後各軸運動定位精度與加工確認 138
7-4操作環境的溫度確認 140
第八章 模具不同微切削毛邊分析與參數優化 144
8-1 螺旋式與直進式車削之工法差異分析 145
8-2 SPIRAL切削PYRAMINDS微結構與毛邊抑制 150
8-3 PLUNGE切削PYRAMINDS微結構與毛邊抑制 156
8-4 不對稱角度切削對毛邊的發展與抑制研究 164
8-5 切屑與被切削材料的適切削性研究 174
第九章 其他特殊材料加工之微切削研究 179
9-1 高分子PU材料之微切削研究 179
9-2 硬脆材料碳化鎢之微切削研究 186
第十章 結論與未來展望 193
參考文獻 201

圖目錄
圖-1 細微加工精度演進圖[2]...........................................................2
圖-2 背光模組示意圖[11]................................................................11
圖-3 美國3M公司增亮膜專利結構[12]........................................11
圖-4 可提升增亮膜出光量的金字塔陣列結構[18].......................12
圖-5 金字塔立體四角錐結構的四向多點光源..............................12
圖-6 第一方向之V溝結構撞擊刀具示意圖.................................13
圖-7 PYRAMIDS正交結構加工之毛邊與刀具磨耗....................13
圖-8 金字塔結構與切削毛邊..........................................................14
圖-9 (A)傳統切削捲曲型毛邊[20](B) 切削塑性變型流痕毛邊..15
圖-10 (A)PU輪切削後融熔表面(B)切削PU輪刀具熱磨耗崩損..18
圖-11 含鈷量10%的碳化鎢之車削前及車削後外觀差異..............19
圖-13 正交切削與斜交切削[23].......................................................22
圖-14 切削變形區與第I變形區切屑形成.......................................24
圖-15 切屑型態:(左)不連續型(中)連續型(右)BUE連續型[10] .....26
圖-16 切削力學圖..............................................................................27
圖-17 正交之切削力關係圖[28] .......................................................28
圖-18 切屑之形成幾何示意圖 ..........................................................30
圖-19 SLIP-LINE FIELD FOR PLOUGHING [34]..........................33
圖-20 切削毛邊類型[42]....................................................................35
圖-21 毛邊形成起源圖[44]................................................................37
圖-22 毛邊形成機制四個步驟[44]...................................................38
圖-23 切削深度FT與刀刃R的比值[45] .........................................39
圖-24 切削分力圖[45] ........................................................................39
圖-25 EXIT BREAK OFF MODEL[46]............................................41

圖-26 毛邊形成模型(A)毛邊發展圖(B)毛邊發展SEM[49].........42
圖-27 切削加工的毛邊形成之有限元素模擬圖[50] .......................43
圖-28 在不同切削速度下的毛邊形成之有限元素模擬圖[50] .......44
圖-29 以FEM模擬金屬切削毛邊(上)及毛邊SEM(下)之比較[51]..................................................................................................45
圖-30 (A)第一切深材料停滯與切屑流向(B)第二切深切屑流向...46
圖-31 (A)第一切深的切屑流模擬(B)第二切深的切屑流模擬.....47
圖-32 黃銅與無氧銅不同材料對切削毛邊的影響[70] ...................52
圖-33 不同刀具刀刃半徑對毛邊的影響[71] ...................................52
圖-34 FLY-CUT刀具進給方向切削示意圖[70] .............................53
圖-35 利用FLY-CUT之DOWN-CUT模式加工PYRAMIDS......53
圖-36 形成毛邊的四個階段[70].......................................................54
圖-37 橢圓振動切削(EVC)[76].........................................................57
圖-38 在COPPER上以CC及EVC(VF=5M/MIN)加工ARRAY之比較[78]................................................................................57
圖-39 切削V型微溝槽的毛邊差異[82]...........................................58
圖-40 V溝切削示意圖[85]................................................................60
圖-41 連續式切削V溝菱鏡的SIDE BURR型態[86] ....................62
圖-42 斷續式切削正交結構的EXIT BURR型態[86] ....................62
圖-43 CO含量與切削距離及刀具磨耗之關係圖[95].....................66
圖-44 TFT-LCD背光模組結構[100] ................................................68
圖-45 光學膜之ROLL TO ROLL製程示意圖[102] .......................69
圖-46 慢速刮痕示意圖 ......................................................................71
圖-47 晶圓劃線機全景(左)與慢速刮痕器刀具(右) .........................73
圖-48 固定切深式快速刮痕設備示意(上視)圖 ...............................74

圖-49 滾筒式超精密加工機四軸運動座標系..................................75
圖-50 刮痕器用鑽石刀具OM圖......................................................76
圖-51 人工鑽石車刀(SEM)...............................................................77
圖-52 刮痕器實驗工件......................................................................78
圖-53 光學膜ROLL TO ROLL用滾筒型模具................................79
圖-54 (A)PRO-E繪製鑽石刀具(B)模擬程式自動產生工件..80
圖-55 實驗設計與流程圖 ..................................................................82
圖-56 切削軟體模擬程序示意圖......................................................83
圖-57 不同刀具內夾角之毛邊模擬預測結果..................................84
圖-58 900刀具前傾角之毛邊模擬預測結果....................................85
圖-59 刀具右偏轉對毛邊發展的模擬預測結果..............................86
圖-60 刀具右側傾切削對毛邊發展的模擬預測結果......................86
圖-61 有限元素模擬磨耗90度內夾角鑽石車刀..........................87
圖-62 90度鑽石刀具磨耗下不同切深之毛邊模擬結果.................88
圖-63 刀具不同內夾角刀具及刀刃R值對應毛邊高度曲線關係.89
圖-64 內夾角90度刀具之點刮痕材料推犁之共軛焦圖 ................92
圖-65 V溝切削示意圖......................................................................93
圖-66 (A)刮痕切入點向外推擠應力(B)刮痕之彗星尾向外塑性變形流痕..................................................................................94
圖-67 (A)刮痕切屑皺摺與邊緣撕裂(B)刮痕切屑正面皺摺與邊緣撕裂......................................................................................95
圖-68 不對稱角度切削示意圖..........................................................96
圖-69 (A)刀具右側傾斜角10O(B)刀具右側傾斜角40O...........96
圖-70 刀具傾斜造成不同切屑厚度之示意圖..................................97
圖-71 刀具前傾斜切削示意圖..........................................................99

圖-72 OM顯示不同傾角下的毛邊發展明顯-450>-150.................100
圖-73 第一方向刮痕(A)傾角-150刮痕毛邊(B)傾角-450刮痕跳動毛邊....................................................................................100
圖-74 第二方向(A)傾角-150 (B)傾角-450..................101
圖-75 不同刀具內夾角之刮痕OM結果........................................102
圖-76 刀具偏轉角之切削示意圖....................................................103
圖-77 刀具偏右轉角之刮痕OM結果............................................103
圖-78 NIP的十字刮痕之LSCM(雷射共軛焦OM)結果..............105
圖-79 刮痕起點仍顯示向外推擠力但V溝無SIDE BURR.........105
圖-80 銅材刮痕時形成的推擠與切屑皺摺導致邊緣毛邊發展....107
圖-81 (A)鎳材刮痕切屑邊緣平整(B)銅材刮痕切屑邊緣
圖-82 無氧銅固定切深之慢速刮痕OM型態................................111
圖-83 無氧銅慢速刮痕的邊緣毛邊型態比較................................111
圖-84 無氧銅在不同刮痕模式下的慢速十字刮痕型態比較........112
圖-85 連續V溝閉合相鄰的波峰毛邊形態...................................113
圖-86 刀具對材料刮痕時向外擠壓的塑性變形............................114
圖-87 固定切深=0.01MM、切削V=5,000MM/MIN嚴重毛邊...116
圖-88 固定切深=0.01MM、切削V=20,000MM/MIN微量毛邊.116
圖-89 固定切深=0.010MM、V=100,000MM/MIN無可見毛邊..117
圖-90 固定切深進行十字切削的離斷型毛邊問題........................117
圖-91 SPIRAL漸進切深=0~0.020MM及波峰未閉合下均無毛邊問題........................................................................................119
圖-92 SPIRAL漸進切深=0~0.020MM波峰閉合產生輕微毛邊..120
圖-93 SPIRAL漸進切深=0~0.030MM下的毛邊與切削振紋......121
圖-94 一次切深0.01MM不同刀具的斜端面毛邊長度趨勢........122

圖-95 45度刀具在斜端面的刮痕離斷型毛邊大小.......................123
圖-96 90度刀具在斜端面的刮痕離斷型毛邊大小.......................124
圖-97 130度刀具在斜端面的刮痕離斷型毛邊大小.....................124
圖-98 一次切深0.03MM下不同刀具的斜端面毛邊長度趨勢....125
圖-99 90度刀具不同R值(磨耗度)SEM圖..................................126
圖-100 90度刀具不同R值刮痕的離斷型毛邊長度......................126
圖-101 45度刀具不同分次切深的離斷型毛邊長度.......................128
圖-102 90度刀具不同分次切深的離斷型毛邊長度.......................128
圖-103 130度刀具不同分次切深的離斷型毛邊長度.....................128
圖-104 不同分次切深模式之毛邊趨勢............................................129
圖-105 滾筒型加工機及滾軸安裝 ....................................................133
圖-106 測試結構9050BEF加工示意圖(單位=MM) .......................134
圖-107 (A)加工誤差結構(B)加工誤差導致滾軸表面不良紋路 .....136
圖-108 複製結構之SEM,顯示加工誤差所造成的結構錯位 .......136
圖-109 X/Z軸雷射定位安裝圖 .........................................................137
圖-110 C軸雷射定位安裝圖 ............................................................137
圖-111 各軸精度補償前後結果 ........................................................139
圖-112 軸誤差補正後之正確多螺紋結構........................................140
圖-113 利用IR-GUN測知加工機操作溫度之熱影響來源............141
圖-114 加工機5支溫度感知器配置圖............................................142
圖-115 5支溫度感應器之24小時連續溫度波動...........................142
圖-116 SPIRAL CUT與PLUNGE CUT工法差異示意圖 .............146
圖-117 SPIRAL CUT分次加工誤差所導致的切削錯位示意圖 ....147
圖-118 不同工法同在無氧銅模具加工9050結構毛邊結果..........149
圖-119 SPIRAL CUT結構閉合之左右波浪型毛邊放大圖............149

圖-120 第1方向橫削結構封閉後檢視無邊緣型毛邊....................151
圖-121 SPIRAL不同切削參數下之殘留離斷型毛邊之加工結果 .154
圖-122 二道切深+微量切深之PYRAMINDS離斷型毛邊圖........156
圖-123 刀具離出斷面結構之材料剝離與離斷形毛邊發展示意圖156
圖-124 刀具磨耗前的加工結構完整無毛邊與變形 ........................158
圖-125 刀具磨耗後的加工結構 ........................................................159
圖-126 刀具切削路徑15,000M磨耗後顯示尖端與邊刃磨耗圖 ...159
圖-127 切削路徑7,000M無毛邊無刀具磨耗的結構影像 .............160
圖-128 切削路徑7,000M切削完整之光學膜影像共軛焦量測 .....161
圖-129 切削路徑15,000M無毛邊有刀具磨耗的光學膜結構影像161
圖-130 切削路徑15,000M加工磨耗之光學膜共軛焦影像量測 ...162
圖-131 刀具不對稱角與切削厚度關係示意圖................................165
圖-132 加工結構設計圖....................................................................165
圖-133 加工前刀具外形(OM*1000).................................................165
圖-134 PLUNGE CUT嚴重的波浪型毛邊......................................166
圖-135 SPIRAL CUT(向右10.30側進給)輕微的波浪型毛邊.........167
圖-136 SPIRAL CUT(向左360側進給)波浪型毛邊幾乎消失........167
圖-137 單切7和11ΜM深V溝顯示右側出現較大邊緣形毛邊..169
圖-138 以UV膠及光固化反複製結構示意圖................................169
圖-139 PLUNGE CUT反複製結構剖面OM/SEM顯示波峰傾向10.30側...................................................................................169
圖-140 刀具10.30側切刃明顯磨耗..................................................170
圖-141 SPIRAL CUT向右進給右側毛邊明顯,後受左刃擠壓往左傾斜........................................................................................171
圖-142 SPIRAL CUT向左進給左切刃毛邊較小,右刃切削厚度恰可消除....................................................................................171
圖-143 SPIRAL CUT向左進給切削結構完整無毛邊(UV COPY)172
圖-144 往左進給切削距離為5,000M時波峰毛邊及刀具磨耗均發生明顯於10.3度側...............................................................173
圖-145 不對稱切削與尺寸效應示意圖............................................173
圖-146 以R10MM圓弧刀作車平后的切屑外觀比較....................175
圖-147 HV=600鎳磷車平切屑表面外觀與皺褶間距.....................176
圖-148 HV=660鎳磷車平切屑表面外觀與材料滑移皺褶間距.....176
圖-149 HV=700鎳磷車平切屑表面外觀與皺褶間距.....................176
圖-150 HV=700鎳磷V溝切屑表面外觀與結構面皺褶................178
圖-151 HV=700鎳磷V溝切屑表面外觀與結構面皺褶................178
圖-152 HV=700鎳磷V溝切屑表面外觀與結構面皺褶................178
圖-153 線切割機操作原理................................................................180
圖-154 PU輪鏡面傳統冷確切削時的高溫效應..............................181
圖-155 R50MM切削後刀具表面受到PU融熔態的高溫破壞......181
圖-156 以高壓氮氣進行切削冷卻後可形成連續切屑....................182
圖-157 低溫氮氣與常溫冷卻切削的表面粗糙差異........................183
圖-158 高壓氮氣低溫冷卻切削設置圖............................................184
圖-159 切削面的OM顯微結構........................................................184
圖-160 未採用低溫冷卻切削PU輪所導致的刀具嚴重崩損.........185
圖-161 PU切屑邊緣平滑無切削力所造成的撕裂痕跡..................186
圖-162 三種圓弧刀不同條件的FACING切削結果.......................189
圖-163 碳化鎢完成微量FACING後的表面組織呈現平滑...........190
圖-164 碳化鎢切削量=0.003MM下顯示有類延性切削特徵.........190

表目錄
表-1冷陰極管與發光二極體性能比較表................................9
表-2不同加工方法所產生的毛邊型態[42] ...........................35
表-3WAFER SCRIBER 規格.................................................73
表-4滾筒式四軸超精密加工機規格與精度簡表..................76
表-5模擬切削參數..................................................................81
表-6鑽石車刀之不同內夾角與刀刃R值的切削毛邊高度結果..................................................................................89
表-7慢速刮痕實驗切削參數..................................................91
表-8不同刀具角度下的分次切削參數................................127
表-9滾軸加工前置準備與表面基準化加工參數................133
表-109050BEF結構之設備精度測試加工參數....................134
表-115支溫度感應器之24小時連續溫度平均與變異.......143
表-12兩種工法切削9050結構之加工條件..........................147
表-13圓弧刀鏡面切削參數表(單位:MM).............................187
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