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系統識別號 U0002-2608200817563500
中文論文名稱 強制添加生質能源政策探討
英文論文名稱 A study on the policy of biofuel blend ratio
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 產業經濟學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Economics
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 林文偉
研究生英文姓名 Wen-Wei Lin
學號 695540483
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-07-29
論文頁數 43頁
口試委員 指導教授-洪鳴丰
委員-蕭代基
委員-陳宜亨
中文關鍵字 生質能源  添加比  玉米市場  社會福利 
英文關鍵字 Biofuel  Biofuel blend ratio  Corn market  Social welfare 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學經濟學
中文摘要 由於生質能源的使用具有減少對國外能源進口的仰賴與減少使用化石能源所排放二氧化碳的正外部性,因此各國政府紛紛積極推展生質能源,然而在各國政府制訂政策時,卻常常忽略在大力推廣量生質能源下,對亦可作為糧食的農作料源市場之衝擊與生產生質能源對環境所造成的外部損害。
本論文加入中間投入財貨市場福利的概念,建構一涵括農民、生質能源廠商以及消費者之理論模型,探討強制添加生質能源政策對農作料源市場和能源市場的影響;並在將生質能源外部性納入考量下,探討政府應如何制訂生質能源添加比例以達社會福利極大。
我們發現在強制添加生質能源政策下,會使得生質能源價格上升,生質能源廠商會更仰賴政府的政策支持。此外,雖然提高添加比可提高玉米市場之整體福利,但卻有著福利分配面上的問題。最後,當國內能源需求增加使得生質能源需求因添加比政策政策而增加時,以目前的生產技術而言,生產更多的生質能源有可能會使生質能源之生產者剩餘降低,而須靠政府補貼來補足,因此,添加比的調整,須視生質能源生產技術、成本與市場需求而定。
英文摘要 Due to the use of biofuel could decrease the import of energy and replace the use of fossil fuel to reduce CO2, many countries enacted policies to promote the development of biofuel. However, lots of negative impacts on agricultural feedstock market and environmental damages caused by the process of biofuel production are not considered by these policies.
This paper specifies a model containing the decisions of farmers, biofel firms, and consumers to analyze the impacts of biofuel mandatory on corn market and fuel market. We also discuss how to set the optimal biofuel blend ratio to pursuit the maximum of social welfare.
We find that the policy of biofuel blend ratio makes the biofuel price increased, and the biofuel firms would be more dependent on the government’s supports. Increasing the biofuel ratio can enhance the welfare of corn market, but there are some problems happened in the welfare distribution. Finally, when the biofuel demand increases because of the policy of biofuel blend ratio, to produce more biofuel to meet the demand might cause a loss of producer surplus under the existing production technology. Therefore, adjusting the biofuel blend ratio to increase the social welfare should depend on the biofuel production technology, cost and relative demand.
論文目次 目錄

頁次
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究方法與本文架構 4
第二章 文獻回顧 6
第一節 國內外生質能源政策概況 6
第二節 生質能源政策探討 14
第三章 理論模型與政策分析 18
第四章 結論 33
參考文獻 35
附錄 38


表目錄

頁次
表一:2006年各國推動酒精汽油情況 2
表二:各國生質能源政策工具 10

圖目錄
頁次
圖一:論文架構圖 5
圖二:各國推動生質酒精之獎勵措施 12
圖三:理論模型分析架構 19

參考文獻 參考文獻

一、中文部分
林益豪,2007。「再生能源補貼基礎之研究」。碩士論文,政治大學經濟研究所。
吳伊婷,2007。「再生能源政策探討:封閉與開放經濟體系」。碩士論文,淡江大學產業經濟研究所。
馬新芬,2006。「推廣生質能源政策整合分析」。碩士論文,文化大學經濟研究所。
黃宗煌、陳佩芬、黃瀕儀,2006。「推廣能源作物與生質柴油之政策效果與整合分析」。東莞理工學院學報,13(4):39-50。
美國黃豆協會台灣辦事處,2005。『防制空氣污染面面觀─全球採用生質柴油, 空氣清潔而保健康』。取自http://www.asaim.org.tw/Biodiesel-index.htm。
黃韻勳、吳榮華,2008。「我國發展生質能源的利基與問題」。碳經濟。8:2-11。

二、英文部分
Banse, M., H. van Meijl, A. Tabeau, and G. Woltjer (2007), “Impact of EU Biofuel Policies on World Agricultural and Food Markets,” Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI).
http://library.wur.nl/file/wurpubs/LUWPUBRD_00355640_A502_001.pdf
Birur, D.K., T.W. Hertel, and W.E. Tyner (2007), “The Biofuel Boom: Implications for World Food Markets,” Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University.
http://www.agecon.purdue.edu/papers/biofuels/LEI_paper.pdf.
Dufey, A. (2006), “Biofuels production, trade and sustainable development: emerging isses,” International Institute for Environment and Development.
http://www.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/15504IIED.pdf.
Elobeid A., S. Tokgoz, D.J. Hayes, B.A. Babcock, and C.E. Hart (2007), “The Long-Run Impact of Corn-Based Ethanol on the Grain, Oilseed, and Livestock Sectors with Implications for Biotech Crops,” AgBioForum 10 (1):11-18.
Gardner, B. (2007), “Fuel Ethanol Subsidies and Farm Price Support,” Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization 5(2):1188-1188.
Gorter, de H., and D. R. Just (2007), “The Economics of a Biofuel Consumption Mandate and Excise-Tax Exemption: An Empirical Example of U.S. Ethanol Policy,” Department of Applied Economics and Management Working Paper # 2007-20, Cornell University.
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5503/.
Hill, J., E. Nelson, D. Tilman, S. Polasky, and D. Tiffany (2006), “Environmental, Economic, and Energetic Costs and Benefits of Biodiesel and Ethanol Biofuels,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(30):11206-11210.
Huettner, D. A. (1976), “Net Energy Analysis An Economic Assessment,” Science 192:101-104.
Kahraman, B. (2008), “Biodiesel as an alternative motor fuel: Production and policies in the European Union,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 12(2):542-552.
Ofir, D. R., M. Carriquiry, and D. J. Hayes (2008), “Implied Objectives of U.S. Biofuel Subsidies,” Center For Agricultural and Rural Development Working Paper 08-WP 459 Iowa State University.
Pimentel, D. (2003), “Ethanol Fuels Energy Balance, Economics and Environmental Impacts Are Negative,” National Resources Research. 12:127-134.
Tokgoz S., A. Elobeid, J. Fabiosa, D.J. Hayes, B.A. Babcock, T-H. Yu, F. Dong, C.E. Hart, and J.C. Beghin (2007), “Emerging Biofuels: Outlook of Effects on U.S. Grain, Oilseed, and Livestock Market,” Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Tyner, W. E. (2007), “Policy Alternatives for the Future Biofuels Industry,” Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization. 5(2):1189-1189.
Zerbe Jr., R.O. and A.S. Bellas (2006), “A Primer for Benefit-Cost Analysis,” Edward Elgar.

三、網站資料
經濟部能源局:http://www.moeaboe.gov.tw
經濟部能源局綠色城鄉計劃:http://www.biodiesel-tw.org/
再生能源網:http://re.org.tw/
EUROPEAN COMMISSION Direction-General for Energy and Transport:
http://www.managenergy.net/products/R538.htm
http://www.managenergy.net/products/R219.htm
International Energy Agency:http://www.iea.org/
Renewable Fuel Association:http://www.ethanolrfa.org/
United States Department of Agriculture(USDA):http://www.ers.usda.gov/AmberWaves/July06SpecialIssue/Features/Emphasis.htm.
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