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系統識別號 U0002-2607202108310800
中文論文名稱 學習焦慮之核心:探討成人推廣教育以英語為外語課程的課堂氣氛和學生聯繫感
英文論文名稱 The Axis of Anxiety: Dynamics and Connectedness in Adult Continuing EFL Classes
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 英文學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of English
學年度 109
學期 2
出版年 110
研究生中文姓名 柯紫婷
研究生英文姓名 KRISZTINA KOSIBA
學號 801110254
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2021-06-21
論文頁數 208頁
口試委員 指導教授-雷凱
委員-王兆璋
委員-田靜誼
委員-蔡瑞敏
委員-張慈珊
中文關鍵字 溝通焦慮  參與焦慮  成年學習者  班級氣氛  班級聯繫感  班級動力 
英文關鍵字 communication apprehension  participation apprehension  adult learners  classroom climate  classroom connectedness  classroom dynamics 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究旨在調查台灣一所推廣教育中心課程中之溝通焦慮、參與焦慮及課堂氣氛聯繫感之間的關係對於英語為第二外語的成年學習者之影響。研究文獻在對象為台灣的推廣教育中心的成年英語學習者相對缺乏。
本研究目的為:第一、測量研究對象的自覺溝通焦慮程度;第二、調查人口統計變項中的年齡、教育背景、性別及語言能力和依變項中的溝通焦慮、參與焦慮及班級氣氛聯繫感之間的關係;第三、確定三個依變項之中是否有相關性;第四、透過半結構性訪談調查研究對象對於學習焦慮和成員之間關係的看法。
研究對象為79位成年學習者,均完成填寫溝通焦慮個人報告量表、課堂參與焦慮量表及班級氣氛聯繫感量表之三份中文翻譯版問卷。隨後,進行半結構式訪談以了解成年學習者對於英語學習焦慮和成員之間關係的看法。問卷透過量化分析進行描述性統計分析和皮爾森積差相關分析以顯示變數之間的方向和關係。
研究結果顯示兩項顯著負相關:第一、在自覺溝通焦慮與自覺班級氣氛之間;第二、在自覺參與焦慮與自覺班級聯繫感之間。另一方面,在自覺溝通焦慮與自覺參與焦慮之間呈現顯著正相關。半結構性訪談結果顯示,研究對象有高度的班級聯繫感並強調成員之間關係的重要性。最後針對研究結果及教學義涵做出探討。
英文摘要 The current study aims to investigate the relationship between communication apprehension, participation apprehension and connected classroom climate in adult EFL classes at a continuing education center in Taiwan. In general, little research has been done on adult EFL learners in Taiwan at continuing education centers. The purposes of the current study are: 1.To measure the level of self-reported communication apprehension of the participants; 2. To investigate the relationship between the demographic variables age, education, gender, and language proficiency and the dependent variables communication apprehension, participation apprehension, and connected classroom climate. 3. To determine if there is any correlation among the three dependent variables. 4. To investigate participants’ perceptions of apprehension and inter-member relationships based on their semi-structured interview responses. The participants in the study were 79 adults, who were asked to fill out the Chinese translated version of the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA), Classroom Apprehension about Participation Scale (CAPS), and the Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI). Subsequently, semi-structured group interviews were conducted on how adult learners perceive apprehension and inter-member relationships. A quantitative analysis of the questionnaires was conducted through descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation in order to reveal the direction and relationship among the variables. Results indicated two significant negative correlations: 1. between perceived communication apprehension and perceived classroom climate and 2. between perceived participation apprehension and perceived classroom connectedness. There was a significant positive correlation between perceived communication apprehension and perceived participation apprehension. In the semi-structured group interviews, participants reported high levels of connectedness and emphasized the importance of inter-member relationships. Results and pedagogical implications are discussed.
論文目次 Acknowledgements i
Chinese Abstract ii
English Abstract iv
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xiii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Background and Motivation 1
Research Questions 6
Significance of the Study 7
Organization of the Dissertation 7
Chapter Two: Literature Review 9
Introduction 9
Anxiety and Communication Apprehension 9
Classroom Environment and Perceived Classroom Connectedness 16
Communicative Language Teaching and Cooperative Language Learning 19
Summary 23
Classroom Dynamics 24
Classroom Participation 26
The Stages of Group Development/Group Formation Process 29
Promoting Acceptance 30
The Role of the Instructor 33
Anxiety and Group Dynamics 35
Learner Centered Classes and Classroom Climate 42
Summary 43
Adult Learners 44
The History and Theoretical Background of Adult Learning 44
The Definition of the Adult Learner 45
Learning Goals of Adult Learners 46
Andragogy 47
Characteristics and Limitations of Adult Learners 49
The Concept of Lifelong Learning 51
Adult Education in Taiwan 52
Summary 54
Chapter Three: Methodology 55
Introduction 55
Research Setting 55
Class Structure and Instructors 56
Participant Characteristics of the Quantitative Study 57
Participant Characteristics of the Semi-Structured Group Interviews 60
Research Framework 61
Pilot Study 62
Formal Study 63
Quantitative section: Questionnaire 64
Instruments 64
Section I. General Questions 64
Section II. Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) 65
Section III. Class Apprehension about Participation Scale (CAPS) 66
Section IV. Connected Classroom Climate Inventory or CCCI 66
Section V. Participation 67
Section VI. Open Ended Questions 67
Qualitative Section: Semi-structured Group Interviews 68
Data Analysis 68
Chapter Four: Results 71
Introduction 71
Quantitative Results 71
Inferential Statistics 71
Descriptive Statistics 71
Research Question 1: Personal Report of Communication Apprehension 73
Research Question 2: Correlation between Personal Report of Communication Apprehension and Connected Classroom Climate Inventory 76
Research Question 3: Correlation between Personal Report of Communication 79
Apprehension and Classroom Apprehension about Participation Scale 79
Research Question 4: Correlation between Connected Classroom Climate and 80
Classroom Apprehension about Participation Scale 80
Open Ended Question Responses 85
Qualitative Results 89
Research Question 5: Semi-Structured Group Interviews 89
1. Self-reported Perceptions of Anxiety 89
2. Self-reported Perceptions of Classroom Climate and Inter-member Relationships 91
3. Self-reported Perceptions of Participation 93
Chapter Five: Discussion and Conclusion 98
Introduction 98
Summary and Discussion of the Major Findings 98
Learner Perceptions of Apprehension and Connected Classroom Climate 98
Pedagogical Implications 103
Limitations of the Study 107
Suggestions for Future Studies 108
References 110
Appendices 128
Appendix A: Formal Study Questionnaire in English 128
Appendix B: Formal Study Online Questionnaire in Chinese 139
Appendix C: Mean Score and Standard Deviation of Individual Items of the Four Scales: Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA), Classroom Apprehension about Participation Scale (CAPS), Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI), Participation (P) 159
Appendix D: Bar Charts of the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) Questionnaire Results 166
Appendix E: Mean and Standard Deviation of the Independent and Dependent Variables 170
Appendix F: ANOVA Correlation Tables of Independent and Dependent Variables 175
Appendix G: The Transcripts of the Semi-structured Group Interviews 182
Transcript of Interview 1 182
Transcript of Interview 2 195

List of Tables
Table 1. The Characteristics of Anxious and Unanxious Learners 40
Table 2. Summary of the Main Differences between Pedagogy and Andragogy based on Knowles (1970) 48
Table 3. The Characteristics of the Participants of the Quantitative Study 57
Table 4. The Characteristics of the Participants of the Qualitative Study 61
Table 5. Mean scores of the Dependent Variables 71
Table 6. Descriptive Statistics of the Dependent Variables 72
Table 7. Context specific and total Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) results 74
Table 8. Distribution of the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) Scores 76
Table 9. Correlations among Personal Report of Communication Apprehension, (PRCA) Classroom Apprehension about Participation Scale (CAPS) and Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI) 78
Table 10. Mean and Standard Deviation of Gender across the Four Scales 81
Table 11. T-test Statistics of Gender and Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI) 82
Table 12. Mean and Standard Deviation of Education across the Four Scales 83
Table 13. ANOVA Correlation Table of the Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI) and Education 84
Table 14. Eta Square of the Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI) and Education 84
Table 15. Factors Reported Causing Anxiety in English Classes 86
Table 16. Reported Factors of Decreasing Anxiety in English Classes 87
Table 17. The Highest 6 Mean Score Items of the Connected Classroom Climate Inventory CCCI) Reported by the Participants 96
List of Figures
Figure 1: Pie Chart Showing the Age Distribution of the Participants 59
Figure 2: Pie Chart Showing the Time Period of Participant Enrollment at the Institution 60
Figure 3: Personal Report of Communication Apprehension Scores of the Participants 75
Figure 4: Scatterplot of Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) and Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI) 77
Figure 5: Scatterplot of Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) and Classroom Apprehension of Participation Scale (CAPS) 79
Figure 6: Scatterplot of Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI) and Classroom Apprehension about Participation Scale (CAPS) 80
Figure 7: Venn Diagram of the Answers of the Open Ended Questions 88
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