||The Axis of Anxiety: Dynamics and Connectedness in Adult Continuing EFL Classes
||Department of English
||The current study aims to investigate the relationship between communication apprehension, participation apprehension and connected classroom climate in adult EFL classes at a continuing education center in Taiwan. In general, little research has been done on adult EFL learners in Taiwan at continuing education centers. The purposes of the current study are: 1.To measure the level of self-reported communication apprehension of the participants; 2. To investigate the relationship between the demographic variables age, education, gender, and language proficiency and the dependent variables communication apprehension, participation apprehension, and connected classroom climate. 3. To determine if there is any correlation among the three dependent variables. 4. To investigate participants’ perceptions of apprehension and inter-member relationships based on their semi-structured interview responses. The participants in the study were 79 adults, who were asked to fill out the Chinese translated version of the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA), Classroom Apprehension about Participation Scale (CAPS), and the Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI). Subsequently, semi-structured group interviews were conducted on how adult learners perceive apprehension and inter-member relationships. A quantitative analysis of the questionnaires was conducted through descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation in order to reveal the direction and relationship among the variables. Results indicated two significant negative correlations: 1. between perceived communication apprehension and perceived classroom climate and 2. between perceived participation apprehension and perceived classroom connectedness. There was a significant positive correlation between perceived communication apprehension and perceived participation apprehension. In the semi-structured group interviews, participants reported high levels of connectedness and emphasized the importance of inter-member relationships. Results and pedagogical implications are discussed.
Chinese Abstract ii
English Abstract iv
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xiii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Background and Motivation 1
Research Questions 6
Significance of the Study 7
Organization of the Dissertation 7
Chapter Two: Literature Review 9
Anxiety and Communication Apprehension 9
Classroom Environment and Perceived Classroom Connectedness 16
Communicative Language Teaching and Cooperative Language Learning 19
Classroom Dynamics 24
Classroom Participation 26
The Stages of Group Development/Group Formation Process 29
Promoting Acceptance 30
The Role of the Instructor 33
Anxiety and Group Dynamics 35
Learner Centered Classes and Classroom Climate 42
Adult Learners 44
The History and Theoretical Background of Adult Learning 44
The Definition of the Adult Learner 45
Learning Goals of Adult Learners 46
Characteristics and Limitations of Adult Learners 49
The Concept of Lifelong Learning 51
Adult Education in Taiwan 52
Chapter Three: Methodology 55
Research Setting 55
Class Structure and Instructors 56
Participant Characteristics of the Quantitative Study 57
Participant Characteristics of the Semi-Structured Group Interviews 60
Research Framework 61
Pilot Study 62
Formal Study 63
Quantitative section: Questionnaire 64
Section I. General Questions 64
Section II. Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) 65
Section III. Class Apprehension about Participation Scale (CAPS) 66
Section IV. Connected Classroom Climate Inventory or CCCI 66
Section V. Participation 67
Section VI. Open Ended Questions 67
Qualitative Section: Semi-structured Group Interviews 68
Data Analysis 68
Chapter Four: Results 71
Quantitative Results 71
Inferential Statistics 71
Descriptive Statistics 71
Research Question 1: Personal Report of Communication Apprehension 73
Research Question 2: Correlation between Personal Report of Communication Apprehension and Connected Classroom Climate Inventory 76
Research Question 3: Correlation between Personal Report of Communication 79
Apprehension and Classroom Apprehension about Participation Scale 79
Research Question 4: Correlation between Connected Classroom Climate and 80
Classroom Apprehension about Participation Scale 80
Open Ended Question Responses 85
Qualitative Results 89
Research Question 5: Semi-Structured Group Interviews 89
1. Self-reported Perceptions of Anxiety 89
2. Self-reported Perceptions of Classroom Climate and Inter-member Relationships 91
3. Self-reported Perceptions of Participation 93
Chapter Five: Discussion and Conclusion 98
Summary and Discussion of the Major Findings 98
Learner Perceptions of Apprehension and Connected Classroom Climate 98
Pedagogical Implications 103
Limitations of the Study 107
Suggestions for Future Studies 108
Appendix A: Formal Study Questionnaire in English 128
Appendix B: Formal Study Online Questionnaire in Chinese 139
Appendix C: Mean Score and Standard Deviation of Individual Items of the Four Scales: Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA), Classroom Apprehension about Participation Scale (CAPS), Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI), Participation (P) 159
Appendix D: Bar Charts of the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) Questionnaire Results 166
Appendix E: Mean and Standard Deviation of the Independent and Dependent Variables 170
Appendix F: ANOVA Correlation Tables of Independent and Dependent Variables 175
Appendix G: The Transcripts of the Semi-structured Group Interviews 182
Transcript of Interview 1 182
Transcript of Interview 2 195
List of Tables
Table 1. The Characteristics of Anxious and Unanxious Learners 40
Table 2. Summary of the Main Differences between Pedagogy and Andragogy based on Knowles (1970) 48
Table 3. The Characteristics of the Participants of the Quantitative Study 57
Table 4. The Characteristics of the Participants of the Qualitative Study 61
Table 5. Mean scores of the Dependent Variables 71
Table 6. Descriptive Statistics of the Dependent Variables 72
Table 7. Context specific and total Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) results 74
Table 8. Distribution of the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) Scores 76
Table 9. Correlations among Personal Report of Communication Apprehension, (PRCA) Classroom Apprehension about Participation Scale (CAPS) and Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI) 78
Table 10. Mean and Standard Deviation of Gender across the Four Scales 81
Table 11. T-test Statistics of Gender and Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI) 82
Table 12. Mean and Standard Deviation of Education across the Four Scales 83
Table 13. ANOVA Correlation Table of the Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI) and Education 84
Table 14. Eta Square of the Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI) and Education 84
Table 15. Factors Reported Causing Anxiety in English Classes 86
Table 16. Reported Factors of Decreasing Anxiety in English Classes 87
Table 17. The Highest 6 Mean Score Items of the Connected Classroom Climate Inventory CCCI) Reported by the Participants 96
List of Figures
Figure 1: Pie Chart Showing the Age Distribution of the Participants 59
Figure 2: Pie Chart Showing the Time Period of Participant Enrollment at the Institution 60
Figure 3: Personal Report of Communication Apprehension Scores of the Participants 75
Figure 4: Scatterplot of Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) and Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI) 77
Figure 5: Scatterplot of Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) and Classroom Apprehension of Participation Scale (CAPS) 79
Figure 6: Scatterplot of Connected Classroom Climate Inventory (CCCI) and Classroom Apprehension about Participation Scale (CAPS) 80
Figure 7: Venn Diagram of the Answers of the Open Ended Questions 88
||Alpert, R., & Haber, R. N. (1960). Anxiety in academic achievement situations. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 61(2), 207-215.
Ancess, J., & Darling-Hammond, L. (1995). Collaborative learning and assessment at International High School. In L. Darling-Hammond, J. Ancess, & B. Falk (Eds.), Authentic assessment in action (pp. 115-167). New York: Teachers College Press.
Armstrong, M., & Boud, D. (1983). Assessing participation in discussion: An exploration of the issues. Studies in Higher Education, 8, 33-44.
Azevedo, Vanessa, et al. "Interview Transcription: Conceptual Issues, Practical Guidelines, and
Challenges." Revista de Enfermagem Referência, vol 4, no.14, 2017, pp. 159- 67. ProQuest.
Baek, S. and Choi, H. (2002). The Relationship between Students‟ Perceptions of Classroom Environment and their Academic Achievement in Korea. Asia Pacific Education Review 3(1): 125-135.
Barr, R. B., & Tagg, J. (1995). From teaching to learning-A new paradigm for understanding education. Change, Nov-Dec, 13-25.
Bailey, K. M., (1983) “Competitiveness and Anxiety in Adult Second Language Acquisition: Looking at and through the Diary Studies,” In Seliger, Herbert W. and Michael H. Long (Ed). Classroom Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition, Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 67-103.
Berdine, R. (1986). Why some students fail to participate in class. Marketing News, 20, 23-24.
Bernal, S. (2017). Lifelong learning and limiting factors in second language acquisition for adult
students in post-obligatory education. Cogent Psychology, 4(1), 1404699. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311908.2017.1404699
Booth-Butterfield, S. (1988). Instructional interventions for reducing situational anxiety and avoidance. Communication Education, 37, 214-223.
Breen, M., and C. N. Candlin. (1980). The essentials of a communicative curriculum in language teaching. Applied Linguistics 1 (2): 89- 112.
Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy, second edition. New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
Brown, J. D., Robson, G., & Rosenkjar, P. R. (2001). Personality, motivation, anxiety, strategies,
and language proficiency of Japanese students. In Z. Dornyei & R. W. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 361-398). Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.
Brown, H. D. (2014). Principles of language learning and teaching (6th ed.).White Plains, NY: Pearson Education.
Bucholtz, M. (2000). The politics of transcription. Journal of Pragmatics, 32(10), 1439–1465. doi:10.1016/ S0378-2166(99)00094-6
Burchfield, C. M., & Sappington, J. (1999). Participation in classroom discussion. Teaching of
Psychology, 26, 290-291.
Boudreau, C., MacIntyre, P.D., & Dewaele, J.-M. (2018). Enjoyment and anxiety in second language communication: An idiodynamic approach. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8, 149-170.
Carlson, R. E., Dwyer, K. K., Bingham, S. G., Cruz, A. M., Prisbell, M., & Fuss, D. A. (2006).
Connected classroom climate and communication apprehension: Correlations and implications for the basic course. Basic Communication Course Annual, 18, 1-27.
Chang, F. (2011). The Causes of Learners’ Reticence and Passivity in English Classrooms in Taiwan. The Journal Of Asia TEFL, 8(1), 1-22.
Chang, L. Y. H. (2010). Group processes and EFL learners’ motivation: A study of group dynamics in EFL classrooms. TESOL Quarterly, 44(1), 129−154.
Cheng, X. (2000). Asian students’ reticence revisited. System, 28, 435-446.
Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., & Noels, K. A. (1994). Motivation, self-confidence, and group cohesion in the foreign language classroom. Language Learning, 44(3), 417−448.
Coates, J. (2004). Women, Men and Language (3rd edition). U.K: Pearson Education Ltd.
Cohen, M. (1991). Making class participation a reality. PS: Political Science & Politics, 24, 699-703.
Connell, S.H., & Borden, G.A. (1987). Incorporating treatment for communication apprehension into oral communication courses. Communication Education, 36, 56-64.
Crabtree B, Miller W. Doing Qualitative Research. 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage 1999;
Crombie, G., Pyke, S. W., Silverthorn, N., Jones, A., & Piccinin, S. (2003). Students’ perceptions of their classroom participation and instructor as a function of gender and context. Journal of Higher Education, 74, 51-76.
Dallimore, E. J., Hertenstein, J. H., & Platt, M. B. (2004). Classroom participation and discussion effectiveness: Student-generated strategies. Communication Education, 53, 103-115.
Daly, John. (1991) "Understanding Communication Apprehension: An Introduction for Language Educators." Language Anxiety: From Theory and Research to Classroom Implications. Ed. Elaine K. Horwitz & Dolly J. Young. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 3-13.
Daly, J. A., & Friedrich, G. (1981). The development of communication apprehension: A retrospective analysis of contributory correlates. Communication Quarterly, 29, 243-255.
Dancer, D., & Kamvounias, P. (2005). Student involvement in assessment: A project designed to assess class participation fairly and reliably. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 30, 445-45.
Devaele, J.-M., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2014). The two faces of Janus? Anxiety and enjoyment is the
foreign language classroom. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 4, 237-
Dewaele, J.-M., & Alfawzan, M. (2018). Does the effect of enjoyment outweigh that of anxiety in foreign language performance? Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8 (1), 16-21.
Dewaele, J.-M., Witney, J., Saito, K., & Dewaele, L. (2017). Foreign language enjoyment and anxiety in the FL classroom: The effect of teacher and learner variables. Language Teaching Research. doi: 10.1177/1362168817692161
Dewaele, J.-M., MacIntyre, P. D., Boudreau, C. and Dewaele, L. (2016). Do girls have all the fun? Anxiety and Enjoyment in the Foreign Language Classroom. Theory and Practice of Second Language Acquisition 2(1): 41–63.
Dörnyei, Z. & Malderez, A. (1997) Group dynamics and foreign language teaching. System, 25, 65-81.
Dörnyei, Z. (1997) Psychological processes in cooperative language learning: Group dynamics and motivation. Modern Language Journal 81: 482–93.
Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics. New York: Oxford University
Dörnyei, Z. & Murphey, T. (2003). Group dynamics in the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Dörnyei, Z. & Mercer, S. (2020). Engaging Learners in Contemporary Classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Douglas, T. (1983) Groups: Understanding People Gathered Together. Tavistock, London.
Dwyer, K.K., Bingham, S.G., Carlson, R.E., Prisbell, M., Cruz, A.M., & Fus, D.A. (2004). Communication and connectedness in the classroom: Development of the connected classroom climate inventory. Communication Research Reports, 21, 264-272.
Edmondson, A. C. (2019). The Fearless Organization: Creating Psychological Safety in the Workplace for Learning, Innovation, and Growth. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Ehrman, M. E. & Dörnyei. Z. (1998). Interpersonal dynamics in second language education. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Ely, C. M. (1986). An analysis of discomfort, risk-taking, sociability, and motivation in the L2 classroom. Language Learning, 36, 1-25.
Fassinger, P. A. (2000). How classes influence students’ participation in college classrooms. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 35, 38-47.
Fassinger, P. A. (1996). Professors’ and students’ perceptions of why students participate in class. Teaching Sociology, 24, 25-33.
Fassinger, P. A. (1995). Understanding classroom interaction: Students’ and professors’ contributions to student silence. Journal of Higher Education, 66, 82–96.
Finch, A. E. (2001). The non-threatening learning environment. Korea TESOL Journal, 4(1), 133–158.
Fredricks, J. A. (2014). Eight Myths of Student Disengagement: Creating Classrooms of Deep Learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2003). The value of positive emotions. American Scientist, 91, 330-335.
Friedrich, G. W. An empirical exploration of a concept of self-reported speech anxiety. Speech
Monographs, 1970, 73, 67-72.
Frisby, B. N., Berger, E., Burchett, M., Herovic, E., & Strawser, M. G. (2014). Participation apprehensive students: The influence of face support and instructor–student rapport on classroom participation. Communication Education, 63, 105–123.
Gascoigne, C. (2012). Classroom climate and student-to-student interaction in the postsecondary language classroom. French Review, 85, 79–89.
Gedamu, A. D., & Siyawik, Y. A. (2014). The relationship between students’ perceived EFL classroom climate and their achievement in English language. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal, 3(4), 187–192.
Ghaith, G. (2003). The relationship between forms of instruction, achievement and perceptions of classroom climate. Educational Researcher, 45(1), 83–93.
Girgin, K. Z., & Stevens, D. D. (2005). Bridging in-class participation with innovative instruction: Use and implications in a Turkish university classroom. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 42, 93-106.
Glasser, W. (1994). Foreword. In B. Greene (Ed.), New paradigms for creating quality schools. Chapel Hill, NC: New View Publications
Gleason, M. (1986). Better communication in large classes. College Teaching, 34, 2024.
Glomo-Narzoles, D. T. (2013). Classroom communication climate and communicative linguistic competence of EFL learners. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(3), 404-410.
Greene, J. C., Caracelli, V. J., & Graham, W. F. (1989). Toward a conceptual framework for
mixed-method evaluation designs. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11, 255-274.
Greeson, L. E. (1988). College classroom interaction as a function of teacher- and student-centered instruction. Teaching & Teacher Education, 4, 305-315.
Hadfield, J. (1992). Classroom dynamics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Heron, J. (1989). The facilitator’s handbook. London: Kogan Page.
Hilgard, E., Atkinson, J., & Atkinson, L. (1971). Introduction to Psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World.
Horwitz, E. K. (2001). Language anxiety and achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 112-126.
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. A. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. In E. K. Horwitz & D. J. Young. (Eds.). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 101-108). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Horwitz, E. K., &Young, D. J., (1991). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Horwitz, E. K. (2010). Foreign and second language anxiety. Language Teaching, 43, 154-167.
Horwitz, E. K. (2017). On the misreading of Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope (1986) and the need to balance anxiety research and the experiences of anxious language learners. In C. Gkonou, M. Daubney & J.-M. Dewaele (Eds.), New Insights into Language Anxiety: Theory, Research and Educational Implications (pp. 31-50). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Howard, J. R., & Henney, A. L. (1998). Student participation and instructor gender in the mixed age college classroom. The Journal of Higher Education, 69, 384-405.
Howes, C. (2000). Social-emotional classroom climate in childcare, child-teacher relationships and children’s second grade peer relations. Social Development 9(2): 191-204.
Hsu, S. 2004. Sources of differences in communication apprehension between Chinese in Taiwan and Americans. Communication Quarterly, 52: 370 –389.
Hsu, Chia‐Fang Sandy (2002) The influence of self‐construals, family and teacher communication patterns on communication apprehension among college students in Taiwan, Communication Reports, 15:2, 123-132.
Hsu, C. -F., & Huang, I. -T. (2017). Are international students quiet in class? The influence of teacher confirmation on classroom apprehension and willingness to talk in class. Journal of International Students, 7(1), 38–52.
Hsu, C.F. (2007), “Cross-cultural comparison of communication orientations between Americans
and Taiwanese”, Communication Quarterly, Vol. 55 No. 3, pp. 359-74.
Hsu, S. (2004). Sources of differences in communication apprehension between Chinese in Taiwan and Americans. Communication Quarterly, 52: 370 –389.
Huang, H.W. (2005). The relationship between learning motivation and speaking anxiety among EFL non-English major freshmen in Taiwan (Master’s thesis). Chaoyang University of Technology, Taiwan.
Hyde, C. A., & Ruth, B. J. (2002). Multicultural content and class participation: Do students self-disclose? Journal of Social Work Education, 38, 241-256.
Jackson, J. (2002). Reticence in second language case discussion: Anxiety and aspirations. System, 30, 65-84.
Jacobs, E.E., Harvill, R.L., & Masson, R.L. (1988). Group counseling strategies and skills. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
Johnson, D., R. Johnson, and E. Holubec. (1994). Cooperative Learning in the Classroom. Alexandria.
Karp, D. A., & Yoels, W. C. (1976). The college classroom: Some observations on the meanings of student participation. Sociology and Social Research, 60, 421-439.
Kennedy, P. (2002). Learning cultures and learning styles: Myth-understandings about adult (Hong Kong) Chinese learners. Internal Journal of Lifelong Education, 21(5), 430-445.
Kidd, J. R. (1978) How Adults Learn (3rd. edn.), Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:Prentice Hall Regents.
Kleinmann, H. H. (1977). Avoidance behavior in adult second language acquisition. Language Learning, 27(1), 93-107.
Knowles, M.S. (1970). The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy. Association Press, New York.
Knowles, M. S. (1980). The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy. (2nd ed.) New York: Cambridge Books.
Knowles, P. (1990). The adult learner: A neglected species (4th ed.). Houston: Gulf Publishing.
Knowles, Malcolm S. (2005). et al. The Adult Learner: The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development, Routledge.
Knox, A.B. (1978). Helping Adults to Learn. In: Yearbook of Adult and Continuing Education, Marquis Academic Media, Chicago.
Krashen, S. D. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. London: Longman.
Lamb, D.H. (1972). Speech anxiety: Towards a theoretical conceptualization and preliminary scale development. Speech Monographs, 39, 62-67.
Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. 1990. Progress in small group research. Annual Review of Psychology, 41: 585-634.
Liu, M., & Jackson, J. (2008). An exploration of Chinese EFL learners’ unwillingness to communicate and foreign language anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 92(1), 71–86.
Littlewood, W. (1981). Communicative Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lyons, P. R. (1989). Assessing classroom participation. College Teaching, 37, 36-38.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991). Methods and results in the study of anxiety and language learning: A review of the literature. Language Learning, 41(1), 85-117.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1989). Anxiety and second language learning: Toward a theoretical clarification. Language learning, 39 (2), 251-275.
MacIntyre, P. D. (1998). Language anxiety: A review of the research for language teachers. In D.
J. Young (Ed.), Affect in foreign language and second language learning (pp. 24-45).
MacIntyre, P. D. (1999). Language anxiety: A review of the research for language teachers. In D. J. Young (Ed.), Affect in foreign language and second language learning: A practical guide to creating a low anxiety classroom atmosphere (pp. 24-45). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill College.
Maherzi, S. (2011). Perception of classroom climate and motivation to study English in Saudi Arabia: Developing a questionnaire to measure perception and motivation. Electronic Journal of Research in Education Psychology, 9(2), 763-798.
Mahfuzah Binti Rafek., Nur Hani Laily Bt Ramli., Halimatussaadiah Bt Iksan., NurhazlinMohd
Harith., & Athirah Izzah Bt Che Abas. (2014). Gender and Language: Communication apprehension in second language learning. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 123, 90-96.
Matsuda, S., & Gobel, P. (2004). Anxiety and predictors of performance in the foreign language classroom. System, 32, 21-36.
Matsumoto, Y. (2010). The impact of group dynamics on the L2 speech of student nurses in the classroom. Procedia－Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3, 180−189.
Mills, N., Pajares, F., & Herron, C. (2006). A reevaluation of the role of anxiety: Self-efficacy, anxiety, and their relation to reading and listening proficiency. Foreign Language Annals, 39(2), 276-295.
McCombs, B.L. and Whisler, J.S. (1997) The Learner-Centered Classroom and School: Strategies for Increasing Student Motivation and Achievement. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
McCroskey, J. C. (1982). An introduction to rhetorical communication (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
McCroskey, J. C. (1970). Measures of communication-bound anxiety. Speech Monographs, 37, 269-277.
McCroskey, J. C. (1984). The communication apprehension perspective. In J. A. Daly and J. C. McCroskey, Avoiding communication: Shyness, reticence, and communication apprehension, pp. 13-38. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
McCroskey, J. C. (1997a). Self-report measurement. In J. A. Daly, J. C. McCroskey, J. Ayres, T. Hopf, & D. M. Ayres (Eds.), Avoiding communication: Shyness, reticence, and communication apprehension (2nd ed., pp. 191–216). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
McCroskey, J. C. (1977b). Oral communication apprehension: A summary of recent theory and research. Human Communication Research, 4 (1), 78-96.
McGroarty, M. 1989. The benefits of cooperative learning arrangements in second language instruction. NABE Journal 13(2), 127-143.
McLean C. P. & Anderson E. R. (2009). Brave men and timid women? A review of the gender differences in fear and anxiety. Clinical Psychological Review 29 (6), pp. 496-505.
Mejı́as, H., Applebaum, R. L., Applebaum, S. J., Trotter, R. T., (1991). Oral communication apprehension and Hispanics: An exploration of oral communication apprehension among Mexican American students in Texas. In E. K. Horwitz & D. J. Young. (Eds.). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 87-97). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Merriam, S.B. (2001). Andragogy and self-directed learning: Pillars of adult learning theory. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 89, 3-13.
Moskowitz, Gertrude. Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Language Classroom. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 1978
Myers, S. A., Horan, S. M., Kennedy-Lightsey, C. D., Madlock, P. E., Sidelinger, R. J., Byrnes, K., Frisby, B., & Mansson, D. H. (2009). The relationship between college students’ self-reports of class participation and perceived instructor impressions. Communication Research Reports, 26, 123-133.
Myers, S.M. (1995). Student perceptions of teacher affinity- seeking and classroom climate. Communication Research Reports, 12, 192-199.
Myers, S.M., & Rocca, K.A. (2001). Perceived instructor argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness in the college classroom: Effects on student perceptions of climate, apprehension, and state motivation. Western Journal of Communication, 65, 113-137.
Neer, M. R. (1987). The development of an instrument to measure classroom apprehension.
Communication Education, 36, 154-166.
Neer, M. R., & Kircher, W. F. (1989). Apprehensives’ perception of classroom factors influencing their class participation. Communication Research Reports, 6, 70-77.
Olsen, R., and S. Kagan. (1992). About cooperative learning. In C. Kessler (ed.), Cooperative Language Learning: A Teacher’s Resource Book. New York: Prentice Hall. 1-30.
Oxford, R. L. (1999). Anxiety and the language learner: New insights. In: Arnold, J. (Ed.), Affect in language learning. Cambridge University Press, pp. 58-67.
Petress, K. (2006). An operational definition of class participation. College Student Journal, 40,
Pew, S. (2007). Andragogy and pedagogy as foundational theory for student motivation in higher education. InSight: A Collection of Faculty Scholarship, 2, 14-25.
Phillips, G.M., & Butt, D., (1966). Reticence re-visited. Pennsylvania, Speech Annual, 1966, 23, 40-57.
Price, M. L. (1991). The subjective experiences of foreign language anxiety: Interviews with anxious students. In E. K. Horwitz & D. J. Young. (Eds.). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 101-108). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Prisbell, M., Dwyer, K.K., Carlson, R.E., Bingham, S.G., & Cruz, A.M. (2009). Connected classroom climate in the basic course: Associations with learning. Basic Communication Course Annual, 21, 145-165.
Ray Jr., C. W. & H. Chu (2005). Does Andragogy Work in Taiwan? An Analysis from Eastern Cultural Perspective. Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development International Conference (AHRD).
Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2016). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sandelowski, M. (2003). Tables or tableaux? The challenges of writing and reading mixed
methods studies. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 321-350). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Savicevic, D. M. (1998). “Understanding Andragogy in Europe and America: Comparing and Contrasting. In J. Reischmann, B. Michal, and J. Zoran (eds.), Comparative Adult Education 1998: The Contribution of ISCAE to an Emerging Field of Study. Ljubljan, Slovenia: Slovenian Institute for Adult Education.
Scarcella, Robin & Rebecca Oxford. The Tapestry of Language Learning: The Individual in the Communicative Classroom. Boston: Heinle, 1992.
School of Continuing Education, Chinese Culture University. (2012)
Scovel, T. (1978). The effect of affect on foreign language learning: A review of the anxiety research. In E. K. Horwitz & D. J. Young. (Eds.). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications (pp. 15-23).Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Senior, R. (2002). A class-centered approach to language teaching. ELT Journal, 56(4), 397-403.
Sin-Hui, Y., Duh, R.(2008). The effect of adopting modified controversial-issues approach on accounting students' communication apprehension: An exploratory study. Tai Da Guan Li Lun Cong, 19(1), 127-156. Retrieved from https://search-proquest com.ezproxy.lib.tku.edu.tw/docview/2033085144?accountid=14237
Slavin, R. E. (1996). Research on cooperative learning and achievement: What we know, what we need to know. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 43- 69.
Smith, D. H. (1992). Encouraging students’ participation in large classes: A modest proposal.
Teaching Sociology, 20, 337-339.
Spielberger, C.D. (1966). (Ed.) Anxiety and behavior. New York: Academic Press.
Stevick, E. W. (1980) Teaching Languages: A Way and Ways. Newbury House, Rowley, MA.
Stuart, W.D., & Rosenfeld, L.B. (1994). Student perceptions of teacher humor and classroom climate. Communication Research Reports, 11, 87-97.
Tien, C.Y. (2018). English speaking anxiety in EFL university classrooms in Taiwan. European Journal of English Language Teaching, 4(2): 21-34.
Trotter, Y. D. (2006). Adult Learning Theories: Impacting Professional Development Programs. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 72(2), 8-13.
Tuckman, B. W., (1965). Development sequence in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63(6), 384 399.
Turula, A. (2002). Language anxiety and classroom dynamics: A study of adult learners. English Language Teaching Forum, 40 (2), 28-33.
Wade, R. (1994). Teacher education students’ views on class discussion: Implications for fostering critical reflection. Teaching and Teacher Education, 10, 231-243.
Weaver, R. R., & Qi, J. (2005). Classroom organization and participation: College students’ perceptions. The Journal of Higher Education, 76, 570-601.
Wheeless, L.R., (1971). Communication apprehension in the elementary school. Speech Teacher, 1971, 20, 297-299.
Wicks-Nelson, R. & Israel, A. C (2006). Behavior Disorders of Childhood 6th Edition. New Jersey: Person Education, Inc.
Williams, M., Mercer, S., & Ryan, S. (2016). Exploring psychology in language learning and teaching. Oxford University Press.
Young, D. J. (1999) Affect in foreign language and second language learning: a practical guide to creating a low-anxiety classroom atmosphere. Boston, McGraw Hill.
Young, D. J. (1990). An investigation of students’ perspectives on anxiety and speaking. Foreign Language Annals, 23, 539-553.
Young, D. J. (1991). Creating a low-anxiety classroom environment: What does language anxiety research suggest? Modern Language Journal, 75, 426-439.
Young, D. J. (1986). The relationship between anxiety and foreign language oral proficiency ratings. Foreign Language Annals, 19, pp. 439-445.
Zhang, Q. (2005). Immediacy, humor, power distance and classroom communication apprehension in Chinese college classrooms. Communication Quarterly, 53, 109-124.