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系統識別號 U0002-2607202000474600
中文論文名稱 國家安全風險與管制之研究-以無人飛行載具發展為例
英文論文名稱 National Security Risks and Regulations: the Case of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Executive Master's Program, Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生中文姓名 林鈺航
研究生英文姓名 Yu Hang Lin
學號 705330099
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
第二語文別 英文
口試日期 2020-06-30
論文頁數 81頁
口試委員 指導教授-曾怡碩
委員-李大中
委員-林志隆
中文關鍵字 無人飛行載具  隱私權  法規管制 
英文關鍵字 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  Privacy  The Legal and Regulation 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 無人飛行載具係指毋須人員在機艙內駕駛,而是藉由遙控或自動飛行控制並裝有任務酬載,在對人員具高度危險性的環境中進行航空攝影、大氣監控、通訊中繼、戰場監視、情資偵蒐以及戰鬥攻擊等各種任務的飛行載具;其包含載具本體、發動機、控制系統、任務酬載、無線傳輸等次系統,可以說是具體而微的航空工程整合產品。軍事用途方面,無人飛行載具可以廣泛用於偵蒐任務或遠距攻擊,能夠在敵方集結或發動攻擊前掌握敵情。廣義上,無人飛行載具小至一般人所熟知的遙控飛機,大至在高空長航程無人偵察機,甚至靶機也屬於無人飛行載具;但是其間最重大的差異在於無人飛行載具是使用來執行特別的任務,並且依照不同需求選用不同酬載,或者是設計不同飛行特性的飛行器執行任務。
近年來,無人飛行載具開始在戰場上嶄露頭角,其優異的表現開始讓各國重視無人飛行載具的運用。無人飛行載具的特色在使人員免於枯燥、危險、骯髒的任務,由於近年來無人飛行載具的優異表現,世界各國已開始重視無人飛行載具在軍事以外的民生運用。我國在無人機的開發應用上,主要也是以軍事科技系統為核心,並且以軍事任務及特定目標的空中觀測監管為主,並且以航太系統科技商與學研機構為主要的參與者;民用商業化方面,則以空中影像拍攝為主,雖有農業應用的倡議,但仍屬於零星活動,尚不足以產生實質的商業效益,因此,雖然在技術層面陸續有亮眼的表現,卻無法產生具產業規模的進展。此外,當無人飛行載具的發展日漸蓬勃的同時,飛行機體本身的飛行安全、國家安全顧慮、對人類基本權益可能帶來的影響也引發多方面的討論,從無人飛行載具在資料傳輸或應用上可能對無辜民眾帶來的人身財產損害、其作為武器的正當性、國防機密資料洩漏的可能性、到對於隱私權保障的顧慮,這些都挑戰著無人飛行載具從軍用設備轉化成民、商業用途的可能性。
有鑒於無人機的快速發展,本研究利用歷史研究以及文獻分析法呈現無人飛行載具的發展歷史以及近代的發展應用面向,接著從國家安全以及人類基本權益角度分析無人飛行載具潛藏之威脅,以及在執行法規管制時可能所面對的挑戰,最後再針對無人飛行載具的未來發展提供相關建議。
英文摘要 An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) refers to a powered aerial vehicle that does not need a pilot to operate in the cabin, but automatically controlled by a remote-control system. A UAV system is able to carry out various tasks in a dangerous environment, such as aerial photography, atmospheric monitoring, communication relay, etc. Military wise, a UAV system is able to execute missions such as battle file surveillance, intelligence search, or combat attack. A UAV system is complex that it contains the body, engine, control system, mission payload, wireless transmission, and other subsystems, which is fair to say that this is a micro-integrated and specific aviation engineering product. In a broad sense, an unmanned aerial vehicle can be as small as a remote-controlled aircraft that is familiar to general public. It can be as large as an unmanned reconnaissance aircraft that can be deployed as a military weapon. However, what makes an UAV system unique are that this system is designed to perform special missions, and based on the needs, the system will have different payloads and flight characteristics.
In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles have begun to emerge on the battlefield, and their excellent performance has begun to make many countries pay attention to their potential. Originally, the goal of using UAVs is to save personnel from boring, dangerous or dirty tasks. Due to their excellency, countries have started to develop the use of UAVs for civilian area outside the military. In Taiwan, the development and application of UAVs are mainly within the military science and technology sector, with aerospace technology vendors and academic institutions as partners. In terms of commercialization, it is still limited to aerial photography. Although there are initiatives for agricultural applications, they are still sporadic activities, which are not big enough to generate substantial commercial benefits. While the development of UAVs is booming, the flight safety of the vehicles, national security concerns, and possible impacts on basic human rights have also led to many discussions. The application of UAVs may cause damage to personal properties, legitimacy of weaponizing UAVs, the possibility of leakage of confidential national defense information, and privacy concerns; these are the challenges that need to be addressed when we talk about the commercialization of UAVs.
In view of the rapid development of the UAVs, the researcher of this study uses historical research and literature analysis to present the history of unmanned aerial vehicles system, its recent development and applications, and concerns related to this new technological invention such as national security, impacts on basic human rights and any possible hidden threats. Further, the researcher examines the legal and regulation frameworks regarding UAVs deployment and applications. Building on these analyses, the researcher provides recommendations for the future development of unmanned aerial vehicles.
論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第三節 文獻探討 3
第四節 研究設計與架構 5
第五節 研究途徑與方法及風險管理 6
第六節 研究限制 6
第七節 章節安排 7
第二章 無人機歷史發展及軍事應用 9
第一節 無人飛行載具之進程 9
第二節 我國無人機技術發展 13
第三節 中國無人機技術發展 14
第四節 小結 15
第三章 無人機之非軍事應用 16
第一節 防災與災害應變 17
第二節 交通運輸與物流 20
一. 交通運輸方面 20
二. 物流方面 22
第三節 娛樂及報導 24
一. 展演用無人機 24
二. 新聞報導 27
第四節 小結 28
第四章 無人機應用擴增所衍生之風險 29
第一節 安全飛行所面對之風險 29
一. 無人機飛行之安全性考量-網路相關因素 30
二. 無人機飛行之安全性考量-無人機機體本身因素 32
第二節 國家安全 33
一. 軍事、戰鬥領域 34
二. 間接的國家安全面向 36
第三節 隱私權爭議 38
一. 無人機與資訊取得 38
二. 反制無人機侵入 40
第四節 倫理考量 41
第五節 小結 42
第五章 管制層面之挑戰 44
第一節 無人機的管制原則 45
一. 一般責任法 48
二. 刑法 49
第二節 我國與其他國家的法規比較 50
一. 美國 50
二. 歐盟 51
三. 中國 53
四. 台灣 53
第三節 無人機的風險管理 54
第六章 結論與建議 60
第一節 軍事應用上之建議 60
第二節 監控應用上之建議 62
第三節 法規管制上之建議 63
第四節 結論 65
參考文獻 67
一. 中文文獻 67
二. 英文文獻 70
附錄:民用航空法【遙控無人機專章】 76

圖次
圖 1、研究架構圖 5
圖 2、雷恩情報偵察機 11
圖 3、MQ-1 掠奪者 12
圖 4、銳鳶(中翔二號)無人機 14
圖 5、救生無人機Auxdron Lifeguard 18
圖 6、英特爾Shooting Star無人機 25
圖 7、MQ-9死神偵察機 35
圖 8、FAA建議如何標示無人機 51
圖 9、風險評估階層圖 58

表次
表格 1、風險分析表 56


參考文獻 一. 中文文獻
(一) 官方文件
中國民用航空局空管行業管理辦公室:民用無人駕駛航空器系統空中交通管理辦法,09. 21. 2016
審計部:陸軍司令部「無人飛行載具系統(鋭鳶專案)」軍事投資計畫執行情形,01. 08. 2015
(二) 專書
石育賢 / 熊治民 / 侯鈞元 / 謝孟玹 / 羅宗惠 / 黃仲宏 / 鍾俊元:全球無人載具發展商機與台灣業者進入的策略-自動駕駛與無人機載具,新竹:工研院IEK,2016。
林中彥/林智毅:無人飛機設計與實作,新北:全華圖書,2017。
徐子明 / 高慈薏 / 黃偉正 / 楊政霖 / 顧馨文:無人機發展動態與國際大展策略頗析,台北:財團法人資訊工業策進會產業情報研究所,2017。
Baichtal, John 著 / 林易騰譯:打造我的第一台無人機,台北:松岡數位文創有限公司,2016。
Cockburn, Andrew著 / 劉名揚譯:解密無人機:高科技殺人武器的誕生,台北:如果出版,2016。
Guermonprez, Paul 著 / 謝孟渝譯:無人機起飛:從軍事任務到民用空拍,無人機的未來與創新,台北:晨星出版社,2016。
Hidalgo, Cesar著 / 戴至中譯:資訊裂變:iPhone、超跑、無人機、全球經濟與想像力結晶的發展之路,台北:寶鼎出版社,2016。
(三) 期刊論文
吳益銘 / 鄧友清:智慧生活的未來想像-無人機技術探索,刊載於:電腦與通訊,第175期,2018年10月,頁7-13。
李克聰:遙控無人機正式列管隱私權界線與管理,刊載於:消費者報導雜誌,第446期,2018年6月,頁19-21。
柯亦儒:英國交通部公開新的無人機管制方案並徵詢意見,刊載於:科技法律透析,第29卷2期,2017年2月,頁7-8。
許智翔:小型無人機的國家安全與因應,刊載於:新社會政策,第61期,2019年2月,頁20-24。
黃仁志:丹麥的無人機發展經驗,刊載於:經濟前瞻,第177期,2018年5月,頁73-78。
溫逸倫 / 周業凱 / 鄭元博 / 謝憲慶:運用無人機技術提升警政巡邏效率,刊載於:電腦與通訊,第171期,2017年9月,頁1-3。
熊治民:商用無人飛行載具應用發展趨勢,刊載於:電工通訊季刊,2016第三季,2016年9月,頁1-8。
賴文儀:軍用機器人與正義戰爭傳統,刊載於:全球政治評論,第59期,2017年,頁51-58。
(四) 博(碩)士論文
王正:論美國武裝無人機的國際法問題,國立政治大學國際事務學院外交學系研究所碩士論文,2014。
李耀庭:無人飛行載具系統適航法規的分析與編定,國立成功大學民航研究所碩士論文,2015。
邱釋輝:我國應用無人飛行載具進行空中搜救任務之安全問題研究,國立成功大學航空太空工程研究所碩士論文,2010。
袁更生:中共空軍現代化發展-以無人飛行載具為例,私立淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所碩士論文,2012。
陳建銘:無人機之專利分析研究,國立臺灣科技大學專利研究所碩士論文,2017。
趙子豪:國防部架構規範各種方法論之研究-以無人飛行載具執行情監偵作業為例,國立國防大學兵器系統工程碩士論文,2011。
閻玳亘:無人機飛航管理,國立成功大學航空太空工程研究所碩士論文,2016
(五) 網路資料
王炯華:30億研發偵察機 空軍不買閒沒武力,刊載於蘋果日報,23. 12. 2013。資料引自:https://tw.appledaily.com/headline/daily/20131223/35526757 (檢索日期:2019年8月12日)。
交通部民用航空局:交通部另:發布「遙控無人機管理規則」,並自109年3月31日施行,最後更新:08. 10. 2019。資料引自:https://www.caa.gov.tw/Article.aspx?a=2292&lang=1 (檢索日期:2019年10月21日)
全民國防教育辦公室:大學暨在職教育授課參考九,04. 01. 2017。資料引自:https://aode.mnd.gov.tw/DownloadHandler.ashx?unitId=115&contentId=95&uploadId=939 (檢索日期:2019年7月1日)。
朱明:中科院騰雲無人機換新引擎 與美軍服役的MQ-9「死神」同級,刊載於上報,25. 05. 2019。資料引自:https://www.upmedia.mg/news_info.php?SerialNo=63974 (檢索日期:2019年8月12日)
吳中傑:一台電腦就搞定300架無人機燈光秀!屏東燈會最夯表演,藏著英特爾股價重返晶片龍頭的秘密,刊載於商業周刊,20. 02. 2019。資料引自:https://www.businessweekly.com.tw/business/blog/25320 (檢索日期:2019年10月21日)。
張小玫:無人機是商機,還是危機?刊載於科技政策觀點,08. 15. 2016。資料引自:https://portal.stpi.narl.org.tw/index/article/10265;jsessionid=924C6B1ABF7670C6B7C820BDF15E5478 (檢索日期:2019年6月22日)。
張茂森:無人機挾輻射物 墜落安倍官邸,刊載於自由時報,23. 04. 2015。資料引自:https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/world/paper/874104 (檢索日期:2019年8月12日)。
翟本瑞:傅柯:⟪規訓與懲罰⟫導讀,08. 05. 2007。資料引自:http://purplebaby-iampurplebaby.blogspot.com/2007/05/blog-post_120.html (檢索日期:2019年9月30日)。
蔣小偉:百年來人類飛行動力的演進,08. 06. 2004。資料引自:https://scitechvista.nat.gov.tw/c/s9Fj.htm (檢索日期:2019年6月22日)
Schlenoff, Daniel C. 撰/郭兆林譯:萊特兄弟的飛行秘史,01. 12. 2003 。資料引自:https://sa.ylib.com/MagArticle.aspx?Unit=featurearticles&id=343 (檢索日期:2019年10月22日)
(六) 其他
張渝江/張國楨:無人機大未來-與你我攸關的生活變化與投資暨創業商機:台灣綠圖,2017,資料引自:https://www.pubu.com.tw/ebook/38248 (檢索日期:2019年7月11日)。[電子書]

二. 英文文獻
(一) 官方文件
Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/945 of 12 March 2019 on unmanned aircraft systems and on third-country operators of unmanned aircraft systems, OI L 152, 11. 6. 2019, pp. 1-40.
Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/947 of 24 May 2019 on the rules and procedures for the operation of unmanned aircraft, OJ L 152, 11. 6. 2019, pp. 45-71.
Council Directive 85/374/EEC of 25 July 1985 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States concerning liability for defective products, OJ L 210, 07. 08. 1985 pp. 29-33.
Department of Defense: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Reliability Study, February 2003.
Hsu, Kimberly/ Murray, Craig/Cook, Jeremy: China’s Military Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Industry, 13. 06. 2013.
McGuire, Melissa/Rys, Malgorzata/Rys, Andrew: A Study of How Unmanned Aircraft Systems Can Support the Kansas Department of Transportation’s Efforts to Improve Efficiency, Safety, and Cost Reduction, August 2016.
(二) 專書
Austin, Reg: Unmanned Aircraft Systems: UAVs Design, Development and Deployment, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2010.
(三) 專書論文
Clothier, Reece A./Walker, Rodney A.: Safety Risk Management of Unmanned Aircraft Systems, in Valavanis, Kimon P./Vachtsevanos, George J. (eds.): Hanbook of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, NY: Springer, 2015, pp. 2229-2275
Dalamagkidis, Konstantions: Introduction, in Dalamagkidis, et al.: On Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System, NY: Springer, 2011, pp. 1-10
Singer, P. W.: Author’s Note: Why a Book on Robots and War?, in Singer, P. W.: Wire for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century, London: The Penguin Press, 2009, pp. 1-15.
Vachtsevanos, George J./Valavanis, Kimon P.: Military and Civilian Unmanned Aircraft, in Valavanis, Kimon P./Vachtsevanos, George J. (eds.): Hanbook of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, NY: Springer, 2015, pp. 93-103
(四) 期刊論文
Altawy, Riham/Youssef, Amr M.: Security, Privacy, and Safety Aspects of Civilian Drones: A Survey, in ACM Transactions on Cyber-Physical Systems, Vol. 1, No. 2, February 2017, Article 7.
Betson, Andrew P.: The Case Against a Cargo Unmanned Aircraft System, in Army Sustainment, Vol. 44, No. 5, September-October 2012, pp. 28-29.
Callam, Andrew: Drone Wars: Armed Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, in International Affairs Review, Vol. 18, No. 3, Winter 2010.
Clarke, Roger/Moses, Lyria Bennett: The Regulation of Civilian Drones’ Impacts on Public Safety, in Computer Law & Security Review, Vol. 30, No. 3, June 2014, pp. 263-285.
Guta, Suraj G./Ghonge, Mangesh/ Jawandhiya, Pradip M.: Review of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS), in International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology, Vol. 2, No. 4, April 2013, pp. 1646-1658.
Natarajarathinam, Malini/Capar, Ismail/Narayanan Arunachalam: Managing Supply Chains in Times of Crisis: A Review of Literature and Insights, in International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, Vol. 39, No. 7, 2009, pp. 535-573.
Piras, M. et al.: Detailed Geological Mapping in Mountain Areas Using An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: Application to the Rodoretto Valley, NW Italian Alps, in Geomatics, Natural Jazards and Risk, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2017, pp. 137-149
Toke, Michael J.: Restatement (Third) of Torts and Design Defectiveness in American Products Liability Laws, in Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy, vol. 5, No. 2, Winter 1996, pp. 239-287.
Van Wassenhove, L N: Humanitarian Aid Logistics: Supply Chain Management in High Gear, in Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 57, No. 5, 2006, pp. 475-489.
Wall, Tyler/Monahan, Torin: Surveillance and Violence from Afar: The Politics of Drones and Liminal Security-Scapes, in Theoretical Criminology, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2011, pp. 239-254.
(五) 會議論文
Blinn, Nathan/Issa, Raja R. A.: Feasibility Assessment of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Construction Management Applications, paper presented at Construction Research Congress 2016, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 31. 05 .2016-02. 06. 2016.
Hartmann, Kim/Steup, Christoph: The Vulnerability of UAVs to Cyber Attacks -An Approach to the Risk Assessment, paper presented at the 5th International Conference on Cyber Conflict, Tallinn, Estonia, 4-7. 6. 2013.
Ohta, Akio: Sky Magic – Drone Entertainment Show, paper presented at SIGGRAPH ’17 Emerging Technologies, Los Angeles, CA, 30. 07. 2017 – 03. 08. 2017.
Zhang, Li-Ye/Peng, Zhong-Ren/Sun, Daniel/Liu, Xiaofeng: A UAV-Based Automatic Traffice Incident Detection System for Low Volume Roads, paper presented at Transportation Research Board 92nd Annual Meeting, Washing DC, 13-17, 01, 2013.
(六) 網路資料
ABC News: Exclusive: CIA Aircraft Kills Terrorist, 13. 05. 2005. Available from: https://abcnews.go.com/WNT/Investigation/story?id=755961 (Accessed 06. 03. 2019)
Barrett, Brian: Lady Gaga’s Halftime Show Drones Have a Bright Future, 05. 02. 2017. Available from: https://www.wired.com/2017/02/lady-gaga-halftime-show-drones/ (Accessed 03. 10. 2019)
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