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系統識別號 U0002-2607200711473400
中文論文名稱 肥胖、就業與收入關聯性之兩篇探討
英文論文名稱 Obesity, employment and earnings.
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 產業經濟學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Economics
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 李佳恩
研究生英文姓名 Jia-En Li
學號 694510628
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-06-09
論文頁數 51頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡登淵
委員-陳世能
委員-鄒孟文
中文關鍵字 肥胖  就業  收入  bivariate probit model 
英文關鍵字 obesity  employment  earnings  bivariate probit model 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學經濟學
中文摘要 本論文主要可分為兩篇研究,第一篇在探討肥胖對就業的影響,第二篇則在探討肥胖對收入的影響。
第一篇:本文主要在探討肥胖對就業的影響,並以國家衛生研究院,民國90年國民健康訪問調查資料(National Health Interview Survey, NHIS)來進行分析,而由於肥胖可能會影響就業,就業亦可能影響肥胖,所以兩者間可能具有內生性問題,若以univariate probit模型來估計,其估計參數將不具有一致性,因此,本文將採用具有工具變數的bivariate probit模型來進行分析,且以「父母肥胖」作為樣本肥胖的工具變數。實證結果顯示:肥胖與就業間確實存在內生性問題,若將肥胖視為外生變數來處理,對男性及女性而言,皆會低估肥胖對就業的負向衝擊。
第二篇:本文主要在探討肥胖對收入的影響,並使用國家衛生研究院,民國90年國民健康訪問調查資料(National Health Interview Survey, NHIS)來進行分析,並採兩階段的ordered probit with sample selection模型來進行估計,其中第一階段為樣本的就業選擇問題,而第二階段為樣本在有就業的情況下,肥胖對勞動者收入的影響,而此收入為區間資料;另外,本文還將收入的區間資料轉換為連續資料,以Heckman’s two-stage的方法估計,並比較兩估計結果。實證結果顯示:兩估計結果是相似的,在大部分的行業中,肥胖對女性的收入有負向影響效果,而肥胖僅對從事專門服務業的男性收入相對於從事農業的男性收入有負向的影響效果。
英文摘要 Essay 1: This paper examines the empirical association between obesity and employment. It analyzes the 2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) of Taiwan using a bivariate probit model, which controls for endogeneity of obesity. A genetic instrumental variable, parent’s condition of obesity, is used to investigate the causal relationship. The result shows that the exogeneity assumption of obesity will underestimate the negative impact of obesity on employment for both men and women.
Essay 2: This paper examines the effect of obesity on earnings. It analyzes the 2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) of Taiwan using the ordered probit model with sample selection in which earnings are defined as an ordered variable. We also transform the earnings from ordered variable to continuous variable and use the Heckman’s two-stage model to estimate the effect. Both results show that obese women are more likely to earn less than non-obese women in most of the industries in Taiwan, but for men obesity has a larger inverse effect only in professional service industry relative to agriculture.
論文目次 目錄

目錄 I
表目錄 II
第一篇 肥胖與就業關聯性之探討 1
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 資料出處與變數定義 3
第一節 資料來源 3
第二節 資料處理 4
第三節 變數定義與敘述統計 5
第三章 實證模型設定 12
第四章 實證結果與分析 16
第五章 結論 21
第一節 結論 21
第二節 研究限制 21
第三節 未來研究方向 22
第二篇 肥胖與收入關聯性之探討 23
第一章 緒論 23
第二章 資料出處與變數定義 25
第一節 資料來源 25
第二節 資料處理 26
第三節 變數定義與敘述統計 27
第三章 實證模型設定 35
第四章 實證結果與分析 37
第五章 結論 41
第一節 結論 41
第二節 研究限制與未來研究方向 42
附錄一 身體質量指數指標 43
附錄二 Trivariate Probit 模型與估計結果 44
附錄三 WESML模型與估計結果 46
參考文獻 49

表目錄
表一 變數定義表 8
表二 男性敘述統計表 10
表三 女性敘述統計表 10
表四 就業probit模型估計結果 16
表五 肥胖probit模型估計結果 17
表六 就業與肥胖的bivariate probit模型估計結果 20
表七 變數定義表 30
表八 男性敘述統計表 33
表九 女性敘述統計表 34
表十 ordered probit model with sample selection估計結果 39
表十一 Heckman’s two-stage model估計結果 40
表十二 就業、肥胖與依賴小孩的trivariate probit 模型估計結果 45
表十三 就業與肥胖的bivariate probit模型估計結果─WESML 47
表十四 就業、肥胖與依賴小孩的trivariate probit 模型估計結果─WESML 48

參考文獻 第一篇 肥胖與就業關聯性之探討
中文部分
1. 鄒孟婷、鄒孟文(2003)「健康知識、教育程度與肥胖之關係」,《台灣衛誌》22(4):295-307。
2. 葉玫君(2004)「肥胖與職業─肥胖女性是否較可能無業?」,碩士論文,淡江大學產業經濟研究所。
英文部分
3. Angrist J. D. and Evans W. N. (1998),” Children and their parents’ labor supply: evidence from exogenous variation in family size,” The American Economic Review, 88, 3:450-477.
4. Averett, S. and Korenman, S.(1996),”The economic reality of The Beauty Myth,” Journal of Human Resources, 13, 2: 304-330.
5. Baum II, C. L. and Ford, W. F. (2004),”The wage effects of obesity: a longitudinal study,” Health Economics, 13, 885-899.
6. Brown III, H. S., Pagan J.A. and Bastida E. (2005)”The impact of diabetes on employment: genetic IVs in a bivariate probit,” Health Economics, 14: 537–544.
7. Carpenter, Christopher S.(2006),”The effects of employment protection for obese people,” Industrial relations, 45, 3, 393-415.
8. Carr, D. and Friedman, M. A. (2005),”Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46, 3, 244-259.
9. Cawley, J. (2004),” The impact of obesity on wages,” The journal of human resources, 39, 2, 451-474.
10. Cawley, J. and Danziger, S. (2005),”Morbid obesity and the transition from welfare to work,” Journal of policy and management, 24, 4, 727-743.
11. Even, W. (1988),”Testing exogeneity in a probit model,” Economic Letters, 26, 125-28.
12. Feng, W., Zhou, W., Butler, J. S., Booth, B. M., and French, M. T.(2001),”The impact of problem drinking on employment,” Health economics,10, 509-521.
13. French, M. T.(2002),”Physical appearance and earnings: further evidence,” Applied Economics, 34, 569-572.
14. Gage, A.(2005),”The interrelationship between fosterage, schooling, and children’s labor force participation in Ghana,” Population Research and Policy Review, 24, 431-466.
15. Greene, W. H. (1998)”Gender economics courses in liberal arts colleges: further results,” Journal of Economic Education, 29(4): 291–300.
16. Greene, W. H. (2003), Econometric Analysis (5th edn), Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
17. Knapp, L.G. and Seaks T. G.. (1998)”A Hausman test for a dummy variable in probit,” Applied Economics Letters, 5:321–323.
18. Lakdawalla, D. and Phillipson, T.(2007), “Labor supply and weight,” The journal of human resources,85-116.
19. Loh, E. S. (1993),”The economic effects of physical appearance ,” Social science quarterly, 74, 2, 420-438.
20. Maddala, G. S. (1983), Limited-Dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
21. Manski, C. F. and Lerman, S. R. (1977),”Estimation of choice probabilities from choice-based samples,” Econometrica, 45: 1977–1989.
22. Norton, E. C., Bieler, G. S., Ennett, S. T. and Zarkin, G. A. (1996),”Analysis of prevention program effectiveness with clustered data using generalized estimating equations,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 5, 919-926.
23. Register, C. A. and Williams, D. R. (1990),”Wage effects of obesity among young workers,” Social science quarterly, 71, 1, 130-141.
24. Trujillo, A. J. (2003),” Medical care use and selection in a social health insurance with an equalization fund: evidence from Colombia,” Health Economics, 12, 231-246.
第二篇 肥胖與收入關聯性之探討
英文部分
1. Averett, S. and Korenman, S.(1996),”The economic reality of The Beauty Myth,” Journal of Human Resources, 13, 2: 304-330.

2. Baum II, C. L. and Ford, W. F. (2004),”The wage effects of obesity: a longitudinal study,” Health Economics, 13, 885-899.
3. Cawley, J. (2004),” The impact of obesity on wages,” The journal of human resources, 39, 2, 451-474.
4. French, M. T.(2002),”Physical appearance and earnings: further evidence,” Applied Economics, 34, 569-572.
5. Loh, E. S. (1993),”The economic effects of physical appearance ,” Social science quarterly, 74, 2, 420-438.
6. Mincer, J.(1974),”Schooling, experience, and earnings,” New York: NBER press.
7. Mohnen, P. and Hoareau, C. (2003),” What type of enterprise forges close links with universities and government labs? Evidence from CIS 2,” Managerial and decision Economics, 24, 133-145.
8. Register, C. A. and Williams, D. R. (1990),”Wage effects of obesity among young workers,” Social science quarterly, 71, 1, 130-141.
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