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系統識別號 U0002-2607200711144700
中文論文名稱 肝病、就業與收入關聯性之兩篇探討
英文論文名稱 Liver,employment and earnings
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 產業經濟學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Economics
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 楊振德
研究生英文姓名 Chen-Te Yang
學號 694510578
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-06-09
論文頁數 45頁
口試委員 指導教授-胡登淵
委員-林俊宏
委員-陳世能
中文關鍵字 肝病  就業  薪資  WESML  trivariate probit 
英文關鍵字 liver  employment  earnings  WESML  trivariate probit 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學經濟學
中文摘要 第一篇:由於肝病在我國是非常流行的慢性疾病,因此我們利用NHIS的資料並使用計量方法來找出就業與肝病之間的關係。其中,我們考量了肝病與飲酒習慣分別對於就業的內生性問題,並且在trivariate probit模型中使用工具變數來得到一致性的估計結果,最後,我們利用WESML (weighted exogeneous sampling maximum likelihood)的估計方式來修正因為選取某特定樣本,所造成估計結果缺乏代表性的問題。實證的結果發現:無論對於男性或者女性,肝病對於就業皆存在一個顯著的負向影響效果。
第二篇:本文將同樣利用國家衛生研究院,民國90年國民健康訪問調查資料(National Health Interview Survey, NHIS),建立一個兩階段具有樣本選擇(sample selection)的ordered probit模型來進行分析,其中第一階段為樣本的就業選擇問題,而第二階段為樣本在有就業的情況下,肝病將如何影響勞動者的收入,且由於問卷資料特性問題,本研究所取得的收入資料為區間資料,因此以ordered probit模型來進行分析。我們的實證結果發現:肝病對於運輸通訊業、政府服務業與專門服務業的男性薪資收入相對於農業部門的男性薪資有負向的影響,但對於其他行業的男性的薪資而言,則有正向的影響效果;在女性方面,我們則發現肝病對於政府服務業之女性薪資相對於農業部門之女性薪資有負向的影響,在其他行業中肝病則對薪資無顯著的影響。
英文摘要 Essay 1:Because the liver disease in our country has being serious epidemic disease, we analyze the NHIS data of 2001 to find out the relationship between the employment and liver disease. In consideration of endogeneity problems, we use the trivariate probit model which estimate three equations- employment, liver disease and drinking . Finally we used WESML (weighted exogeneous sampling maximum likelihood) method to correct the bias caused by choosing specific sample. Our empirical results indicate that liver disease has a significantly negative effect on both male’s and female’s employment probability.

Essay 2:This article used the NHIS data of 2001 to find out the relationship between the earnings and liver disease. Because the earnings data isn’t a continuous, we used ordered probit model with selection to examine the relationship between earnings and liver disease. Our empirical results indicate that liver disease has a negative effect on men’s earnings in transportation communication, government service and the professional service industry relative to agriculture. In other industries, liver disease has a positive effect on male’s earnings relative to agriculture. Finally, we found that liver disease only has a negative effect on women’s earnings in government relative to agriculture. We also dealt with the selection bias by using Heckman’s two stage method after transforming the earnings data into continuous data.
論文目次 目錄
目錄 I
表目錄 II
第一篇 肝病與就業關聯性之探討 1
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 資料出處與變數設定 3
第一節 資料來源 3
第二節 資料處理 4
第三節 變數說明與敍述統計 5
第三章 計量模型 9
第四章 實證結果 14
第五章 結論 23
第一節 研究結果 23
第二節 研究限制與未來研究方向 24
第二篇 肝病與收入關聯性之探討 25
第一章緒論 25
第二章 資料出處與變數定義 27
第一節 資料來源 27
第二節 資料處理 27
第三節 變數定義與敘述統計 28
第三章 實證模型設定 36
第四章 實證結果與分析 38
第五章 結論 41
參考文獻 43

表目錄
表格 1 男性敘述統計表 7
表格 2 女性敘述統計表 8
表格 3 WESML 權數表 13
表格 4 univariate probit (男性) 15
表格 5 univariate probit (女性) 16
表格 6 Man-FILM estimates of employment 、liver and drink 19
表格 7 Woman-FILM estimates of employment 、liver and drink 20
表格 8 Man-WESML estimates of employment 、liver and drink 21
表格 9 Woman-WESML estimates of employment 、liver and drink 22
表格10 變數定義 31
表格11男性敘述統計表 34
表格12女性敘述統計表 35
表格13 Ordered probit with sample-selection實證結果 40
表格14 Heckman’s two stage model 41

參考文獻 中文部分:
羅淇(2003)「補習與教育成就」,碩士論文,淡江大學產業經濟研究所。

英文部分:
1. Angrist J. D. and Krueger A. B. (1991),”Does compulsory school attendance affect schooling and earning?” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106, 4: 979-1014.
2. Angrist J. D. and Evans W. N. (1998),” Children and their parents’ labor supply: evidence from exogenous variation in family size,” The American Economic Review, 88, 3:450-477.
3. Averett, S. and Korenman, S.(1996),”The economic reality of The Beauty Myth,” Journal of Human Resources, 13, 2: 304-330.
4. Bastida, E. and Pagan, J.A. (2002),”The impact of diabetes on adult employment and earnings of Mexican Americans: findings from a community based study,” Health Economics, 11(5): 403–413
5. Baum II, C. L. and Ford, W. F. (2004),”The wage effects of obesity: a longitudinal study,” Health Economics, 13, 885-899.
6. Brown III, H. S., Pagan J.A. and Bastida E. (2005)”The impact of diabetes on employment: genetic IVs in a bivariate probit,” Health Economics, 14: 537–544.
7. Even, W. (1988),”Testing exogeneity in a probit model,” Economic Letters, 26, 125-28.
8. French, M. T.(2002),”Physical appearance and earnings: further evidence,” Applied Economics, 34, 569-572.
9. Gage, A.(2005),”The interrelationship between fosterage, schooling, and children’s labor force participation in Ghana,” Population Research and Policy Review, 24, 431-466.
10. Greene, W. H. (1998)”Gender economics courses in liberal arts colleges: further results,” J Econ Educ ;29(4): 291–300.
11. Greene, W. H. (2003), Econometric Analysis (5th edn), Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
12. Grogger, J. (1990), ”A simple test for exogeneity in probit, logit, and possion regression models,” Economics Letters, 33, 329-33.
13. Hamilton, V. H., Merrigan P. and Dufresne E. (1997),” Down and out: Estimating the relationship between mental health and unemployment,” Health Economics, 6, 397–406
14. Knapp, L.G. and Seaks T. G.. (1998)”A Hausman test for a dummy variable in probit,” Applied Economics Letters, 5:321–323.
15. MacDonald, Z. and Shields, M. A. (2004),” Does problem drinking affect employment? Evidence from England,” Health Economics, 13, 139-155.
16. Maddala, G. S. (1983), Limited-Dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
17. Manski, C. F. and Lerman, S. R. (1977),”Estimation of choice probabilities from choice-based samples,” Econometrica, 45: 1977–1989.
18. Mohnen, P. and Hoareau, C. (2003),” What type of enterprise forges close links with universities and government labs? Evidence from CIS 2,” Managerial and decision Economics, 24, 133-145.
19. Norton, E. C., Bieler, G. S., Ennett, S. T. and Zarkin, G. A. (1996),”Analysis of prevention program effectiveness with clustered data using generalized estimating equations,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 5, 919-926..
20. Norton, E. C., Lindrooth, R. C. and Ennett, S.T. (1998),” Controlling for the Endogeneity of peer substance use on adolescent alcohol and tobacco use,” Health Economics, 7, 439-453.
21. Trujillo, A. J. (2003),” Medical care use and selection in a social health insurance with an equalization fund: evidence from Colombia,” Health Economics, 12, 231-246.
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