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系統識別號 U0002-2607200614082300
中文論文名稱 液化地盤樁基之靜力分析模式研究
英文論文名稱 Study on Static Modeling of Pile Foundation in Liquefied Soils
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 葉健輝
研究生英文姓名 Chien-Hui Yeh
學號 693310905
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-06-26
論文頁數 173頁
口試委員 指導教授-張德文
委員-林三賢
委員-黃俊鴻
中文關鍵字 液化  樁基  側潰  LSPILE  破壞 
英文關鍵字 liquefaction  pile foundation  lateral spreading  LSPILE  failure 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 本研究係以日本道路協會(JRA)與Tokimatsu建議之方法,模擬液化地盤下樁基礎受側潰流動影響之靜態反應。研究採溫氏基礎模式進行分析,並以有限差分法和矩陣技巧求解,藉Fortran程式語言開發LSPILE程式為分析工具。另利用閉迴式割線法模擬土壤與樁體之非線性行為,以了解側潰地盤下樁基礎之變形行為與破壞機制。研究結論如下:(1)JRA法所建議之土壓力模式與Tokimatsu法所建議之地盤變位模式皆可合理地估計基樁之變形與內力分佈狀況,JRA法參數選取較Tokimatsu法簡易且明確,但Tokimatsu法較為保守。(2)針對未液化底層土壤之處理模式,本研究建議將Ishihara土壓力模式納入考量,以取代傳統完全束制之模擬方式。(3)液化土層中樁基結構系統之破壞模式將同時與彎矩和剪力破壞有關,樁頂束制條件亦有影響。(4)樁體行為受液化土層和其上方非液化土層厚度影響至為明顯,故分析者須切實掌握液化潛能評估分析結果以避免分析誤差。(5)研究所得樁體最大位移量將發生於樁頂,而最大彎矩將發生於非液化與液化土層交界處;該項模擬可適用於液化所引致近地表土層流動時對樁基所產生之影響。
英文摘要 This study following the methodology suggested by JRA and Tokimatsu, is to study the pseudo-static pile behavior under the liquefaction. It applies the programming language of Fortran to exploit the analysis of LSPILE. The research result is essentially founded on the model of wrinkler’s foundation. The difference equations and the matrix technique are used to solve the problem. With the employment of closed-form linear solution to model the nonlinear soil-foundation behavior, this study aims to examine the deformation and destruction of the pile foundation. Five research results are derived in this conclusion: First, both of the lateral earth pressure recommended by JRA and the subgrade reaction method by Tokimatsu can evaluate the deformation and distribution of the bending moment and shear force of pile foundation precisely. And that the parameters derived from the JRA method is more precise and definite than that of the Tokimatsu, but relatively JRA method is conservative for Tokimatsu method. Second, this study suggests adopting Ishihara’s theory of lateral earth pressure, in replace of the traditional fixed head, into consideration in order to access non-liquefiable and based layer. Third, the occurrence of failure type of the liquefiable layer’s pile foundation is found affected by the bending moment, shear force, and boundary condition. Four, the study shows that pile behaviors are mostly affected by thickness of the liquefiable layer as well as the non-liquefiable layer above it. Hence researcher should be make clear command on the evaluation of soil liquefaction. Five, the result of this study shows that the maximum deformation is at the pile head, while the maximum bending moment is on the border between liquefiable and non-liquefiable layers. Such simulation is applicable to study the influences on pile foundation by the floating of surface layer caused by liquefaction.
論文目次 目 錄
中文摘要 一
英文摘要 二
本文目錄 I
表目錄 IV
圖目錄 IV
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機與目的 1
1-2 研究方法與內容 2
第二章 研究背景 4
2-1 前言 4
2-2 土壤液化發生之機制與影響因素 6
2-2-1 土壤液化之定義 6
2-2-2 土壤液化之機制 8
2-2-3 土壤液化之影響因素 9
2-3 液化損壞型態 14
2-4 液化潛能評估方法 17
2-4-1 簡單準則評估法 17
2-4-2 簡易經驗評估法 20
2-4-3 總應力分析法 27
2-4-4 有效應力分析法 28
2-5 土壤液化之簡易模擬 29
2-5-1 靜態土壓力法 31
2-5-2 地盤反力分析法 34
2-6 彈性基礎梁分析模式 37
2-7 樁基礎非線性行為模擬 39
2-7-1 API建議之p-y曲線法 39
2-7-2 樁體之撓曲剛度特性 46
2-8 基礎之破壞機制檢核 49
2-9 樁基礎耐震之動力分析 55
2-9-1 波動方程於樁基礎地震反應之發展 55
2-9-2 地震下樁基之波動方程分析 59
第三章 理論推導與方法 65
3-1 前言 65
3-2 公式建立與推導 66
3-3 採用JRA法之分析模式 73
3-3-1 液化底層土壤之分析模式 73
3-3-2 樁體與土壤非線性處理模式 75
3-4 採用Tokimatsu法之分析模式 77
3-4-1 液化土壤之分析模式 78
3-4-2 樁體與土壤非線性處理模式 80
3-5 程式建構與應用 83
3-6 分析模式比較 85
3-6-1 分析模式比較之案例介紹 85
3-6-2 分析模式比較結果 88
3-6-3 參數研究 96
第四章 案例研究 102
4-1 前言 102
4-2 案例一 日本新潟NHK大樓 103
4-3 案例二 日本神戶TANK TA72 114
4-4 案例三 日本神戶Pier211 130

第五章 結論與建議 146
5-1 結論 146
5-2 展望與建議 148
參考文獻 149
附錄 161


表 目 錄

表2-1 初步研判土層液化潛能之參數 19
表2-2 液化潛能指數分級與災害示意表(摘自 Iwasaki et al., 1982) 24
表2-3 日本道路協會規範(1990)之土質參數折減係數DE 26
表2-4 日本道路協會規範(1996)之土質參數折減係數DE 26
表2-5 日本建築學會規範(1998)之土質參數折減係數DE 26
表2-6 依離水際線距離變化之修正係數cS 33
表2-7 非液化土層中流動力之修正係數cNL 33
表2-8 不同稠度黏土 之代表值(摘自 Reese, 1983)
41
表3-1 LSPILE程式之輸入檔參數 83
表3-2 LSPILE之副程式功能 84
表3-3 土壤的基本性質(假設土層) 87
表3-4 樁基礎之基本參數性質(假設基礎) 87
表3-5 底層土壤彈簧模數對樁身位移之影響(JRA法) 89
表3-6 底層土壤彈簧模數對樁身位移之影響(Tokimatsu法) 89
表4-1 土壤之基本材料參數(摘自 林三賢等人,2005) 104
表4-2 樁基之基本參數性質(摘自 林三賢等人,2005) 104
表4-3 人工回填島之土壤參數表(TANK TA72) 115
表4-4 基樁材料性質參數(TANK TA72) 115
表4-5 現地土壤參數表(Pier 211) 131
表4-6 基樁材料性質參數(Pier 211) 131

圖 目 錄

圖1-1 研究分析流程圖 3
圖2-1 飽和沙土不排水試驗液化潛能狀態示意圖
( 重繪自Castro, 1669 ) 9
圖2-2 邊坡滑動破壞示意圖 15
圖2-3 結構體常見的損壞型態 16
圖2-4 土壤液化評估方法分類(重繪自 翁作新等人, 2004) 18
圖2-5 美國液化評估簡易法之發展概要(重繪自 翁作新等人, 2004) 21
圖2-6 日本液化評估簡易法之發展概要(重繪自 翁作新等人, 2004) 22
圖2-7 中國大陸液化評估簡易法之發展概要
( 重繪自 翁作新等人, 2004 ) 22
圖2-8 液化土層中樁-土-結構互制示意圖
(重繪自 Tokimatsu and Asaka, 1998) 30
圖2-9 水底高程差及離水際線的距離(摘自 JRA, 1996) 31
圖2-10 流動力之計算模式(摘自 JRA, 1996) 33
圖2-11 地震時之最大反覆剪應變(摘自 Tokimatsu and Asaka, 1998) 35
圖2-12 側潰範圍與河岸線水平位移關係圖
(摘自 Tokimatsu and Asaka, 1998) 36
圖2-13 海岸距離與地盤水平位移關係
(摘自 Tokimatsu and Asaka, 1998) 36
圖2-14 樁基礎側向荷載之溫氏基礎模式
(摘自 Prakash and Sharma, 1990) 38
圖2-15 Matlock(1970)建議之軟弱黏土p-y曲線(摘自 Reese, 1983) 41
圖2-16 Reese and Welch(1975)建議之硬黏土p-y曲線
(摘自 Reese, 1983) 42
圖2-17 O’Neill et al.(1984)建議之砂土p-y曲線關係圖 44
圖2-18 砂土之初始彈性模數(摘自API, 1993) 45
圖2-19 樁體彎曲特性三線型模式(摘自 JRA, 2002) 48
圖2-20 樁體彎曲特性雙線型模式(摘自 JRA, 2002) 48
圖2-21 箍筋圍束下混凝土應力與應變模式(摘自 Kent and Park, 1971) 49
圖2-22 慣性矩I II對彎矩-轉角關係的影響(摘自 楊宗勳,2000) 52
圖2-23 基樁之有效長度概念(重繪自Bhattacharya et al., 2004) 54
圖2-24 樁體破壞試驗結果(摘自Knappett and Madabhushi, 2005) 54
圖2-25 受地震加速度擾動之SDOF系統 60
圖2-26 間接分析法示意圖 60
圖2-27 地盤轉換理論分析法模型示意圖 61
圖2-28 地盤轉換函數分析流程圖 62
圖2-29 自由場集中質量分解模擬示意圖 63
圖2-30 樁基結構系統受震分割示意圖 64
圖3-1 樁頂之節點編號 67
圖3-2 樁頂內一點之節點編號 67
圖3-3 樁底之節點編號 67
圖3-4 樁底內一點之節點編號 67
圖3-5 樁頂邊界條件(自由端) 69
圖3-6 樁頂邊界條件(剛性端) 70
圖3-7 JRA法-底層地盤完全束制分析模式示意圖 74
圖3-8 JRA法-底層地盤採Ishihara and Cubrinovski(2004)建議之分析模式示意圖 74
圖3-9 採JRA法之非線性分析流程 76
圖3-10 樁基礎利用p-y曲線簡化之擬靜態法分析示意圖
(重繪自 Tokimatsu and Asaka, 1998) 77
圖3-11 Tokimatsu法-底層地盤完全束制分析模式示意圖 79
圖3-12 Tokimatsu法-底層地盤採Ishihara and Cubrinovski(2004)建議之分析模式示意圖 79
圖3-13 採Tokimatsu法之非線性分析流程 82
圖3-14 基樁與地盤之情境模式 86
圖3-15 混凝土樁之彎矩-曲率圖(假設基礎) 86
圖3-16 JRA法之樁體變位、彎矩、剪力圖
(基樁為線性,底層地盤完全束制) 90
圖3-17 Tokimatsu法之樁體變位、彎矩、剪力圖
(基樁為線性,底層地盤完全束制) 91
圖3-18 JRA法之樁體變位、彎矩、剪力圖
(基樁為線性,底層地盤採Ishihara and Cubrinovski之建議) 92
圖3-19 Tokimatsu法之樁體變位、彎矩、剪力圖
(基樁為線性,底層地盤採Ishihara and Cubrinovski之建議) 93
圖3-20 JRA法之樁體變位、彎矩、剪力圖
(基樁為非線性,底層地盤採Ishihara and Cubrinovski之建議) 94
圖3-21 Tokimatsu法之樁體變位、彎矩、剪力圖
(基樁為非線性,底層地盤採Ishihara and Cubrinovski之建議) 95
圖3-22 假設樁長為40公尺所得之位移、彎矩、剪力分佈圖(JRA法) 97
圖3-23 假設樁長為40公尺所得之位移、彎矩、剪力分佈圖
(Tokimatsu法) 97
圖3-24 假設液化土層厚度為4公尺所得之位移、彎矩、剪力分佈圖
(JRA法) 98
圖3-25 假設液化土層厚度為4公尺所得之位移、彎矩、剪力分佈圖(Tokimatsu法) 98
圖3-26 假設非液化土層厚度為1公尺所得之位移、彎矩、剪力分佈圖(JRA法) 100
圖3-27 假設非液化土層厚度為1公尺所得之位移、彎矩、剪力分佈圖(Tokimatsu法) 100
圖3-28 假設流動化範圍之內摩擦角為28度所得之位移、彎矩、剪力分佈圖(JRA法) 101
圖3-29 假設流動化範圍之內摩擦角為28度所得之位移、彎矩、剪力
分佈圖(Tokimatsu法) 101
圖4-1 液化後新潟地區永久位移量分佈圖 105
圖4-2 現場調查斷樁破壞示意圖(NHK Building) 105
圖4-3 樁基礎破壞模式及簡化分析模式(NHK Building) 106
圖4-4 混凝土基樁彎矩-曲率之關係圖(NHK Building)
(摘自 林三賢等人,2005) 106
圖4-5 樁身位移與彎矩分佈圖(摘自 Meyersohn, 1994) 107
圖4-6 樁身位移與彎矩分佈圖(摘自 林三賢等人,2005) 107
圖4-7 抗液化安全係數與孔隙水壓力比分佈圖(NHK Building) 108
圖4-8 樁身位移剖面分佈圖(NHK Building) 110
圖4-9 樁身彎矩剖面分佈圖(NHK Building) 111
圖4-10 樁身剪力剖面分佈圖(NHK Building) 112
圖4-11 位移與彎矩分佈比較圖(NHK Building) 113
圖4-12 Mikagehama Island地理位置圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 116
圖4-13 人工島上儲油槽Tank TA72位置示意圖
(摘自 Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 116
圖4-14 儲油槽結構剖面與土層分佈概況
(摘自 Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 117
圖4-15 液化地盤之簡化分析模式(TANK TA72) 118
圖4-16 高強度預鑄混凝土樁之彎矩-曲率圖
(摘自 Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 118
圖4-17 No.2(a)與No.9(b)基樁之側向位移及樁身損害示意圖 119
圖4-18 樁身位移分佈圖(摘自 Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 120
圖4-19 樁身彎矩分佈圖(摘自 Ishihara and Cubrinovski, 2004) 120
圖4-20 抗液化安全係數與孔隙水壓力比分佈圖(TANK TA72) 121
圖4-21 JRA法之樁身位移剖面分佈圖(TANK TA72) 123
圖4-22 JRA法之樁身彎矩剖面分佈圖(TANK TA72) 124
圖4-23 JRA法之樁身剪力剖面分佈圖(TANK TA72) 125
圖4-24 Tokimatsu法之樁身位移剖面分佈圖(TANK TA72) 126
圖4-25 Tokimatsu法之樁身彎矩剖面分佈圖(TANK TA72) 127
圖4-26 Tokimatsu法之樁身剪力剖面分佈圖(TANK TA72) 128
圖4-27 位移與彎矩分佈比較圖(TANK TA72) 129
圖4-28 Osaka與Kobe之高速公路系統圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 132
圖4-29 地層高低輪廓示意圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 132
圖4-30 Hanshin公路破壞示意圖 133
圖4-31 地表永久變位圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 133
圖4-32 碼頭結構與樁基系統示意圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 134
圖4-33 Pier 211之樁基彎矩與曲率關係圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 135
圖4-34 樁基損害示意圖(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 135
圖4-35 樁身位移與彎矩分佈曲線(摘自 Ishihara, 2003) 136
圖4-36 抗液化安全係數與孔隙水壓力比分佈圖(Pier 211) 137
圖4-37 JRA法之樁身位移剖面分佈圖(Pier 211) 139
圖4-38 JRA法之樁身彎矩剖面分佈圖(Pier 211) 140
圖4-39 JRA法之樁身剪力剖面分佈圖(Pier 211) 141
圖4-40 Tokimatsu法之樁身位移剖面分佈圖(Pier 211) 142
圖4-41 Tokimatsu法之樁身彎矩剖面分佈圖(Pier 211) 143
圖4-42 Tokimatsu法之樁身剪力剖面分佈圖(Pier 211) 144
圖4-43 位移與彎矩分佈比較圖(Pier 211) 145
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