||Applying Nature Dynamics in Design Generations - Water Morphology Transformation
||Department of Architecture
||Emmie Pei-Tzu Huang
||Nature has been the origin of architectural pattern since the Roman and Greek. Its smooth curve and organic form brought aesthetic to the plain surface and orthogonal structure. The pattern of nature has been utilized to an extend that during the evolution in the 1900s, Austrian Adolf Loos stated it as ornament is crime. Besides, speaking of nature pattern, this search investigates possible interrelations between our natural environment and architecture.
Intrigued by David Wade’s book of Li, I selected sixteen Chinese characters that have significance of water as their meaning element and a descriptive element adjacent to make each of them categorized as associative compounds (one of the six categories of Chinese characters). Not only for its symbolic meaning but also the resemblance between the dynamic and its composition. Based on the principle of the making of Chinese characters, the structure consists fundamental radicals, also known as section headers. In another word, the radical of Chinese characters allows us to trace back its origin and dynamic. Each of the sixteen Chinese characters is represented in a series of photographs, whether it is a noun or verb. Capturing the phenomenon of the specific fluid dynamic during the moment of action. The fascinating pattern forms, we perceived in the two dimensional graphics, fluid dynamics have an immediate relationship with time and energy. Theses pattern forms are magnified and redefined into configurations that best articulate their dynamics. Two dimensional diagrams were inspired from the series of photographs, and driven from the iconic vector line drawing. A series of diagrams are produced by Rhinoceros and some are also generated through parametric design tool: grasshopper. Four out of the sixteen characters are chosen to made into models that are considered as diagram machines to produce symbolic diagrams, which relates back to the origin Chinese characters (symbolic representation of the dynamics). In combine of the knowledge I gathered from this research, the four diagram machine of the water dynamic of foam, spray, dissolve and wave are translated into four building projects.
The thesis is rather analytical than experimental. Through the research of sixteen water dynamics and their different types of representation: symbolic, iconic, and analogical, the dynamic patterns I have seen no longer stand for a simple two dimensional graphic meaning. The design outcomes fulfilled the ambition of structuring the series of analytical representation in water dynamics.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Thesis Motivations 1
1.1.1 Personal and Academic Experience 1
1.1.2 Inspiration from A+U: Cecil Balmond 1
1.1.3 Resemblances between the Nature and the Built 2
1.1.4 Architecture versus Environment 2
1.1.5 Integrating Nature Pattern with Computational Design 3
1.1.6 Digital Organism 3
1.2 Thesis Objectives 4
1.2.1 Studies of Natural Pattern and its Organization 4
1.2.2 Observations on Bio-mimicry and its Adaptation 4
1.2.3 Designing Patterns in Living Contexts 4
1.3 Related Fields 5
1.4 Thesis Contents & Structure 6
1.5 Contributions 7
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Precedent Studies 9
2.1.1. Marsyas 9
2.1.2. Park Pergola - Maximapark 10
2.1.3. Material Strategies in Urban Design 10
2.1.4. HyperCataluna 11
2.2 Related Architects 12
2.2.1 N-E-R-V-O-U-S System 12
2.2.2 Tomas Saraceno 12
2.3 Related Readings 13
2.3.1. Frei Otto, Bodo Rasch: Finding Form 13
2.3.2. The Self-Made Tapestry- Pattern formation in Nature 14
2.3.3. Li: Dynamic Form in Nature 16
2.3.4. NOX: Machining Architecture 17
2.3.5. A+U: Cecil Balmond 17
2.3.6. Occupying and Connecting 18
2.4 Related Theory 19
2.4.1. Parametricism 19
CHAPTER III Water Morphology
3.1 Introduction 23
3.1.1 Preface 23
3.2 Dynamics of fluid 23
3.2.1 Fluid in Chinese Characters & their significance 23
3.2.2 Graphic Inspirations - the selected sixteen Chinese characters 40
18.104.22.168 In Photography 40
22.214.171.124 In Drawing 56
3.2.3 Diagrams inspired by the Graphics and the Drawings 66
CHAPTER IV Design Application
4.1 Analogical models 75
4.1.1 Foam 75
4.1.2 Spray 75
4.1.3 Dissolve 75
4.1.4 Wave 75
4.2 Project Location 88
4.2.1 Site 88
4.3 Concept 90
4.3.1 Foam - Structure 90
4.3.2 Spray - Rhythm 90
4.3.3 Dissolve - Density 91
4.3.4 Wave - Form 91
CHAPTER V Conclusion
5.1 Introduction to the conclusion 100
5.2 Contributions 100
5.3 Methodology, Scope and Future Research 100
Figure 1.1:(left) Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2002.
(right) Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2005.
Figure 1.2: Tree vs. columns, of Sagrada Familia Cathedral & Park Guell.
Figure 1.3: (top to bottom) A prototype for an environmental screen – the work is inspired by fractal patterns found in nature. Beast chaise lounge designed by Neri Oxman – 3D object providing multiple seating positions.
Figure 1.4: Designs inspired by nature.
Figure 1.5: (left to right) Night scene of National Stadium & National Aquatics Center, Beijin, China. Core Hydraulic Integrated Arboury Panel, London, designed by Norman Foster.
Figure 2.1: Construction sequence & symphony performance.
Figure 2.2: Expected result of the pergola.
Figure 2.3: (bottom left to right)Material studies investigating synthetic landscaping and geo-forming; plan of new topographical landform at Randall’s Island; composite drawing showing land-forming strategies along the edges of NYC’s East River; accretion model.
Figure 2.4: Landscape of Cataluna & rendering.
Figure 2.5:Examples of the range of interior network patterns.
Figure 2.6: (left to right) Biennale's main pavilion, Galaxies Forming along Filaments, Like Droplets along the Strands of a Spider's Web (2008). On Space Time Foam in HangarBicocca, Milano. In Orbit at K21 Standenhaus, Dusseldorf.
Figure 2.7: (left to right) Societies on a 200x200 lattice after 200generations that started with 10% cooperators, 90% defectors. Qualitative comparison between the actual urban data and the proposed model.-Berlin: 3 steps of the growth with time of Berlin and surrounding town. Correlated percolation model: Dynamical urban simulations of the proposed model.
Figure 2.8: (right) Rivas. (two in a set, clockwise from left) Concentra, Retiform, Vasculum, Crackle, Fracture, Brancha, Polygonal, Cellular.
Figure 2.9: NOX, Wet String Tower Diagram (after dipping in liquid).
Figure 2.10: Frei Otto, Bodo Rasch: Finding Form
Figure 2.11:The Self-Made Tapestry- Pattern formation in Nature
Figure 2.12: The Self-Made Tapestry- Pattern formation in Nature.
Figure 2.13: Occupying and Connecting: Thoughts on Territories and Spheres of Influence with Particular Reference to Human Settlement.
Figure 3.1: (a) to (d) Variations in lamella frames.
Figure 3.2: Frames (a)-(j) show the progression of the bubble evolution; the emitted sound is plotted on the right in each frame. The drop diameter is 3 mm, and its velocity at impact is 2 m/s. No sound or bubble is produced at drop impact (b). The bubble first appears in (g), just as sound emission sets in.
Figure 3.3: Light through the mist by Rhys Herbert
Figure 3.4: A splash after half a brick hits the water.
Figure 3.5: The drop was of milk, 7.36 mm. in diameter, and fell 100 cm. into water.
Figure 3.6: A diagram of water cohesion.
Figure 3.7: Sequential images indicative of temporal evolution of the impact drop on different surfaces. The water drop is shown (from left to right) before impact, at maximum spreading, in the intermediate stage of retraction, and after departing from the solid surface. The impact velocity was set at 0.54 m/s. The scale bar is 2 mm. The same magnification applies to parts (a)-(d) and is larger than that for part (e).
Figure 3.8: The difference between soluble and insoluble compounds. When a soluble compound dissolves, its constituent atoms, molecules, or ions disperse throughout the solvent (left). In contrast, the constituents of an insoluble compound remain associated with one another in the solid (right).
Figure 3.9 & 3.10: Linear ripples like these are made by well-organized waves or by steady currents that alternate with the tides.
Figure 3.11: Current-formed and asymmetrical wave formed ripple marks from a beach in North Carolina. Because sediment is carried up the gentler slope and dumped down the steeper side, the current flowed from the upper left to the lower right.
Figure 3.12: (top to bottom) A cascade fall. Punchbowl Falls at Eagle Creek, Ore.
Figure 3.13: The Bernoulli Equation can be considered to be a statement of the conservation of energy principle appropriate for flowing fluids. (top)The reduction in pressure which occurs when the fluid speed increases.
Figure 3.14: These images are taken from a painting instruction manual compiled in the late seventeenth century. (From: M.M. Sze (ed.) (1977), The Mustard Seed Garden of Painting.
Figure 3.15: (left top to bottom) At low Reynolds number, the streamlines simply bend around the obstacle. At higher Re, circulating vortices appear behind the cylinder. These grow with increasing Re, until they become highly elongated.
Figure 3.16: (left) Shear flows, one with layers of fluid move past one another at different speeds (a) and one extreme with two layers of fluid moving in two opposite directions (b). This pushes together curves on the convex side of the disturbance over the ‘peaks’ and pulls them apart on the concave side, in the dips (c). Based on Bernoulli’s principle, this sets up a pressure imbalance (d, verticle arrows) at these points, which pushes the peaks outwards.
Figure 3.17: Spherical particles in water. (a) Heavier-than-water hydrophobic spheres. The meniscus between the spheres is below the undisturbed level. Assuming that the contact angle remains ﬁxed, the horizontal component of capillary force moves them toward each other. (b) Lighter-than-water hydrophilic spheres will rise into the elevated section of the meniscus and come together.
Figure 3.18: Pattern formation of neutrally buoyant copolymer spheres d = 1mm cluster.
Figure 3.19: Deep-water waves are formed from particles moving in circles.
Figure 3.20: Diagrams of wave motion and depth. A floating object is observed to move in perfect circles when waves oscillate harmoniously sinus-like in deep water. If that object hovered in the water, like a water particle, it would be moving along diminishing circles, when placed deeper in the water. At a certain depth, the object would stand still. This is the wave's base, precisely half the wave's length. Thus long waves (ocean swell) extend much deeper down than short waves (chop). Waves with 100 metres between crests are common and could just stir the bottom down to a depth of 50m.
Figure 3.21: Permeability is a property that has the floor to transmit water and air in addition to that is one of the most important properties.
Figure 3.22: The relationship between the SAR(sodium adsorption ration) of the irrigation water and probable ESP(exchangeable sodium percentage) of the soil, as well as interpretation.
Figure 3.23 -26: Photographs of foam.
Figure 3.27 -31: Photographs of bubble.
Figure 3.32 -33: Photographs of mist.
Figure 3.34 -38: Photographs of spray.
Figure 3.39 -41: Photographs of splash.
Figure 3.42 -45: Photographs of cohesion.
Figure 3.46 -50: Photographs of droplet.
Figure 3.51 -55: Photographs of dissolve.
Figure 3.56 -59: Photographs of ripple.
Figure 3.60 -63: Photographs of fall.
Figure 3.64 -66: Photographs of flow.
Figure 3.67 -70: Photographs of swirl.
Figure 3.71 -76: Photographs of curve.
Figure 3.77 -83: Photographs of float.
Figure 3.84 -87: Photographs of wave.
Figure 3.88- 93: Photographs of permeate.
Figure 3.94: Above (left to right), a plan and two sections are digitally produced foam diagrams.
Figure 3.95: Above, the density of foam diagrams increases from left to right. The shape of each unit varies from top to bottom.
Figure 3.96: Above (top and bottom), two plans and two sections are digitally produced bubble diagrams.
Figure 3.97: Above, diagrams generated by Metaball and Voronoi.
Figure 3.98: Right, two plans and a section are digitally produced mist diagrams.
Figure 3.99: Right (top to bottom), two plans and two sections are digitally produced spray diagrams.
Figure 3.100: (top to bottom)Three plans and two sections are digitally produced splash diagrams.
Figure 3.101: Above (left to right), two plans and two sections are digitally produced cohesion diagrams.
Figure 3.102: Left (top to bottom), two plans and three sections are digitally produced droplet diagrams.
Figure 3.103A: Left, two digitally produced diagrams of plan in dissolving.
Figure 3.103B: Above, two digitally produced diagrams of section in dissolving.
Figure 3.104: Above, two digitally produced diagrams of plan and section in ripple.
Figure 3.105: Above, two digitally produced diagrams of section and plan in falling .
Figure 3.106: Above (from left to right), two digitally produced diagrams of plan and one of section in flowing.
Figure 3.107: Left (top to bottom), two digitally produced diagrams of plan and section in swirling.
Figure 3.108: Above, the geometry of swirl diagrams varies from left to right. The shape of rotating center influences the curvature of the phenomenon.
Figure 3.109: Above, three digitally produced diagrams of plan and two of section in curve.
Figure 3.110A: Below, two digitally produced diagrams of plan and a series of triangulate parametric pattern of floating.
Figure 3.110B: Left, two digitally produced diagrams of section in floating.
Figure 3.111: Left (top to bottom), three digitally produced diagrams of plan and section in wave. Bottom, the geometry of wave diagrams varies from left to right.
Figure 3.112: Above (top to bottom), two digitally produced diagrams of plan and section in permeating.
Figure 4.1A: (top to bottom) Perspective, front view and side view of foam.
Figure 4.1B: (following page) Decomposing the making of model- foam.
Figure 4.2A: (top to bottom) Perspective, front view and side view of dissolve.
Figure 4.2B: (following page) Decomposing the making of model- dissolve.
Figure 4.3A: (top to bottom) Perspective, front view and side view of wave.
Figure 4.3B: (following page) Decomposing the making of model- wave.
Figure 4.3C: (following page) Parametric design inspired by wave.
Figure 4.4A: (top to bottom) Perspective, front view and side view of spray.
Figure 4.4: (following page) Illustration of the relative site location in Taipei City.
Figure 4.5: Above, Site plan of DaJia Riverside park.
Figure 4.6A: Above, The diagram of the project inspired by the dynamic of foam.
Figure 4.6B: Top, section of the building inspired by dynamic of foam.
Figure 4.7A: From left to bottom right, top view, elevation and roof plan of the project inspired by the dynamic of spray.
Figure 4.7B: Top, section of the building inspired by dynamic of spray.
Figure 4.8A: Above (top to bottom), from pattern to form of the project inspired by the dynamic of dissolve.
Figure 4.8B: Top, section of the building inspired by dynamic of dissolve.
Figure 4.9A: Left (top to bottom), elevations of the unrolled building roof, dividing walls between the interior spaces, building form, transluscent building form, and elevation of the project inspired by the dynamic of wave.
Figure 4.9B: Top, section of the building inspired by dynamic of wave.
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