淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-2606201215250200
中文論文名稱 影響中美雙方貿易的政經因素:以計量經濟學分析為例
英文論文名稱 Assessing the Economic and Political Factors Affecting US- China Trade Flows- An Econometric Analysis
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of The Americas
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 梁其超
研究生英文姓名 David Alexander De Leon Salazar
學號 897250030
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2012-06-01
論文頁數 186頁
口試委員 指導教授-柯大衛
委員-陳思寬
委員-萬哲鈺
委員-張元晨
委員-劉邦典
中文關鍵字 美國  中國  貿易引力模型  進口  出口  政治與金際因素  爭端解決 
英文關鍵字 United States of America  People's Republic of China  Gravity Model  Imports  Exports  Political and Economic Factors  Disputes Settlement 
學科別分類
中文摘要 「影響中美雙方貿易的政經因素:以計量經濟分析為例」運用許多的手法來闡釋影響中國與美國貿易的因素。此篇論文以描述1980到2010年間中國和美國的經濟及政治崛起作為開場,其後以完整的文獻回顧來襯托出影響貿易的重要因素。文獻回顧的內容,包含了書籍、學術論文、研討會論文集、智囊團的研究報告、中國和美國相關的聽證會與政府的報告;文獻資料散佈在美國州,蒐集不易,此篇論文將以計量經濟學的理論加以分析收集到的第一手資料。文中將會解釋地心引力模型,並以此模列來評量中國學美國匯率影響變動的結果。此模型特別適用於分析資料間的交影響。
當人們提到中國和美國兩大主要經濟體時, 對雙方而言重要且有利的是美國降低對中國的貿易逆差。此外,美國對中國的貿易只是影響製造業雇用員工的其中一個因素,另外也包括生產率的提升、服務業的員工流動率及全面貿易逆差。如今我們還不確定有多少的美國產業流向中國或其他薪資更為低廉的國家如:墨西哥、泰國、柬埔寨、寮國及越南等。尤其在美國對中國貿易赤字下,美國大量進口中國或其他國家生產的貨品,包括美國在內的外資企業進入中國設廠的情況下,我們更難判斷到底是誰從其中獲利了。針對如何振興美國國內的經濟,很多學者持不同的意見,制度的改變勢必會使美國和中國某些人獲利,某些人失敗。
論文的最後一章用地心弔力模型來探討和評估從2008到2011年間中國和美國五十州間的關係,並將這些關係製成圖表。此篇論文的重點是探討人民幣的美國進、出口中國產品中的角色爭議,有些學者認為這樣會使美國和中國的經濟再次達到平衡,因而促使中國激發出振興國內需求的政策;同時,此論文也將探討兩國間的國內生產總值。
英文摘要 This dissertation employed numerous research methodologies in analyzing the factors affecting U.S.-China trade. First, a detailed history is complied that chart and clarify the rise of political and economic relations between the U.S. and the People's Republic of China beginning in the 1980s and extending to 2010. Second a aomplete review of the literature is undertaken to properly assess which factors are most important in determining trade flows. This literature is not be limited to academic journal articles, but also include: books, working papers, conference reports, publications of research and policy institutions, as well as all relevant Congressional committee hearings and government research reports on U.S.-China trade issues. Third, comprehensive primary source data on U.S.-China trade is collected and processed for use in econometric models. Much of this data is highly disaggregated, and at the state level. Numerous specifications on a basic gravity model will then be estimated and specific hypotheses dealing with the sensitivity of U.S.-China trade to movements in exchange rates, and other variables will be tested. This model is especially suited to panel data relationships and is less constrained micro-economically.
When on considers the trade between these two major economies, it's on both sides interest perhaps to lower the U.S. trade deficits with China. In addition, U.S. trade with China is only one of a number of factors affecting manufacture employment, including increased productivity growth. Employment shifts to the service sector, and the overall trade deficit. It is also not clear to what extent production in certain industrial sectors has shifted to China from the United States, as opposed to shifting to China from other low-wage countries, such as Mexico, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, etc. The extensive engagement of foreign multilateral corporations in China's manufactured exports further complicated the issues of who really gets benefits from China's trade, as well as the consequence of a rising U.S. trade deficit with China, since a large share of U.S. imports are coming from foreign firms, including U.S. firms, that have shifted production from one country to China. Still there is a considerable debate among scholars over what policy options would promote U.S. economic interest since changes to the current system would produce both winners and losers in the U.S., as well as in China.
Finally, we have estimated simple gravity models between China and the fifty states of America. The data is paneled, but only extends to four years 2008-2011. The major goal of the empirical work in this dissertation is to try to shed light on the continuing controversy surrounding the effect of changes in the RMB and U.S. exports to and imports from China. Many commentators believe that a rise in the value of the RMB relative to the U.S. dollar would increase U.S. exports to China and reduce U.S. imports from China. They claim this would help to rebalance U.S. trade with China and force China to consider policies to stimulate domestic demand. We were also interested in determining the effect of incomes or GDP on the trade flows between China and the fifty U.S. states.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENT
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Some General Observations on U.S.-China Trade ...................................................... 4
1.2 General Research Methodology ................................................................................... 7
1.3 Research Goals............................................................................................................. 7
2. General Discussion of China and the U.S. ..................................................................... 9
2.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 9
2.2 China Overview ........................................................................................................... 9
2.2.1 Town and County ................................................................................................. 10
2.2.2 The People and Languages .................................................................................. 11
2.2.3 Population ............................................................................................................ 14
2.3 United States of America an Overview ..................................................................... 15
2.3.1 U.S. Economy Overview ..................................................................................... 16
2.4 Historical PRC and USA Relations During 1980 to 2011 ......................................... 18
2.4.1 The Deng Xiao Ping Era ...................................................................................... 18
2.4.2 The Jiang Zeming Era .......................................................................................... 26
a. China Gains the Control of Hong Kong ................................................................. 27
b. China in the XXI Century ...................................................................................... 27
2.4.3 The Hu Jing Tao Era ............................................................................................ 28
2.5 U.S. Trade with China ............................................................................................... 32
2.6 China’s Important Growing Issues ............................................................................ 35
2.7 Tentative Conclusions ................................................................................................ 38
3. Recent Political Relations Between U.S. and China – Theoretical Considerations . 41
3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 41
3.2 Definition and Theoretical Overview ........................................................................ 42
3.2.1 Opportunities and Risks ...................................................................................... 43
3.2.2 Challenges ........................................................................................................... 46
3.3 Balance of Power Theory.......................................................................................... 47
3.3.1 Definitions and Characteristics ........................................................................... 47
3.3.2 Analysis and Applicability .................................................................................. 49
3.3.3 Limitations and Observations ............................................................................. 51
3.4 Interdependence Theory............................................................................................. 52
3.4.1 Definitions and Characteristics ............................................................................ 52
3.4.2 Analysis and Applicability ................................................................................... 55
3.4.3 Limitations and Observations .............................................................................. 59
3.5 Tentative Conclusions ............................................................................................... 61
4. Recent Economic and Trade Relations Between U.S. and China .............................. 63
4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 63
4.2 Trade History Before and After WTO ....................................................................... 63
4.3 Sino-American Trade Disputes .................................................................................. 65
4.3.1 Settle Cases ........................................................................................................... 67
4.3.2 Prevailing Cases .................................................................................................... 71
4.3.3 Utilize Section 301 or other Trade Sanctions ....................................................... 77
4.3.4 Utilize the Dispute Resolution Mechanism in the WTO ...................................... 78
4.4 Apply Estimate of currency Undervaluation to U.S. Antidumping Measures ........... 80
4.4.1 U.S. Safeguard Actions against China .................................................................. 80
4.4.2 U.S. Intellectual Property-Related Actions against China .................................... 81
4.5 Sino- American Trade Flows ...................................................................................... 81
4.5.1 Impact of the Renmimbi on China’s External Surplus ......................................... 85
4.6 Some Recent Academia discussing regarding the Renmimbi .................................... 86
4.7 Tentative Conclusions ................................................................................................... 92
5. Theoretical Framework for Assessing U.S.- China Trade – The Gravity Model .... 95
5.1 Introduction to the Theory ......................................................................................... 95
5.2 A Simple Statistical Motivation for the Gravity Model in Trade ............................ 104
5.3 Tentative Conclusion ............................................................................................... 107
6. Estimation and Testing of the Gravity Model of Trade between the U.S. and China
....................................................................................................................................... 109
6.1 Introduction and Empirical Modeling ....................................................................... 109
6.2 Data Considerations .................................................................................................. 115
6.3 Panel Regression Model and Basic Assumptions ..................................................... 122
6.4 Model Estimation and Diagnostic Evaluation .......................................................... 125
6.5 Tentative Conclusions ............................................................................................... 140
7. Conclusions ..................................................................................................................... 143
Resources ............................................................................................................................. 151
Books ............................................................................................................................. 151
Articles ........................................................................................................................... 161
Electronic Sources ......................................................................................................... 162
Appendix .............................................................................................................................. 167
Abbreviations ................................................................................................................. 168
Tables ............................................................................................................................. 169
Charts ............................................................................................................................. 180

TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Relative Importance of China and U.S. As Imports and Exports Markets .............. 5
Figure 2. Economic Indicators ............................................................................................... 18
Figure 3. China’s Current Account Surplus, Growth Rate Relative to World Growth, and
Lagged Real Effective Exchange Rates ................................................................................. 85
Figure 4. Imports and Exports ............................................................................................. 106
Figure 5. U.S. Imports from China and Exports to China by State as a Percentage of Total
Average Chinese Imports and Exports to U.S. 2008-2011 .................................................. 118
Figure 6. Average Gasoline Prices for each U.S. State 2008-2011 ..................................... 121
Figure 7. Real Export Shock ................................................................................................ 185
Figure 8. U.S. Trade Balance with the World and Various Trading Partners: 2010 ........... 185
Figure 9. China’s Holding of U.S. Treasury Securities: 2002-2010 .................................... 186

TABLE INDEX
Table A-1 OLS Regressions – Dependent Variable: In (US Imports from China) ............. 169
Table A-2 OLS Regressions – Dependent Variables: In (US Imports from China) ............ 170
Table B-1 Panel Regressions – Dependent Variables: In (US Imports from China) ........... 171
Table B-2 Panel Regressions – Dependent Variable: In (US Imports from China) ............ 172
Table C-1 OLS Regressions - Dependent Variables: In (US Exports to China) ................. 173
Table C-2 OLS Regressions – Dependent Variables: In (US Exports to China)................. 174
Table D-1 Panel Regressions – Dependent Variables: In (US Exports to China) ............... 175
Table D-2 Panel Regressions – Dependent Variables: In (US Exports to China) ............... 176
Table E-1 Pseudo-Co-Integration and Error Correction Models ......................................... 177
Table E2-A Pseudo-Co-Integration and Error Correction Models ...................................... 178
Table E2-B Pseudo-Co-Integration and Error Correction Models ...................................... 179
參考文獻 RESOURCES

Books
Aberbach, Joel D., David Dollar, and Kenneth L. Sokoloff. The Role of the State in Taiwan’s Development. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1993.
Angresano, James. Comparative Economics. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1992.
Akawe, Dee. “Globalization and Internationalization: Different or Equal”. Globalization and New World Configuration, Tamkang University (2005):25-42.
Allan, Pierre and Christian Schmidt. Game Theory and International Relations. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Arnold, Roger A.. Economics. Ohio: Thomson South-Western, 2004
Baylis, John and Steve Smith. The Globalization of World Politics: An introduction to international relations. New York: Oxford University Press. 2001.
Baldwin, David A. Neorealism and Neoliberalism, Contemporary Debate. New York: Columbia University, 1993.
Bush, George W. Decision Points. New York: Crown Publishers, 2010.
Burgess, Andrea, et. al., The Economist: Pocket World in Figures. The Economist Newspaper Ltd., London, 2012.
Brady, Linda P. The Politics of Negotiation, America’s Dealings with Allies, Adversaries, and Friends. North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
Clinton Olson, William. The Theory and Practice of International Relations. 9th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1994.
Cooper, William H. Free Trade, Current Issues and Prospects. Edited by Arnold S. Miller. New York: Novinka Books, 2004.
Czinkota, Michael R., Ilkka A. Ronkaimen and Bob Donath, Mastering Global Markets, Strategies for Today’s Trade Globalist, Ohio, Thomson South Western, 2004.
Dent, Christopher M. New Free Trade Agreements in the Asia Pacific. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2006.
Dev Gupta, Satya. The political Economy of Globalization. Massachussetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.
Devlin, Robert, Antoni Estevadeordal, and Andres Rodriguez Clare, The Emergence of China, Opportunities and Challenges for Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank, 2006.
Destler, I.M. American Trade Politics. Washington DC, Intitute for International Economics, 2005.
Dolman, Antony J., Jan van Ettinger. Partners in Tomorrow, Strategies for a New International Order. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1978.
Estevadeordal, Antoni and Carolyn Robert. The Americas without Barriers. Washington D.C.: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, 2001.
Evan, Graham, Richard Newnham. The Penguin Dictionary of International Relations. The Penguin Books, London, England, 1999.
Ferdinand, Peter. Take-Off for Taiwan? United Kingdom: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1996.
Fernandez Duran, Ramon, Miren Etxezarreta, y Manolo Saez. Globalizacion Capitalista, luchas y resistencias. 2a ed. Espana: Imprenta LUNA, 2001.
Gandolfo, Giancarlo. International Trade Theory and Policy. Germany: Springer, 1998.
Fenby, Jonathan. The Penguin History of Modern China, The Fall and Rise of Great Power 1850-2009. Penguin Books Limited, New York, 2009.
Fisher, Glen. International Negotiation, A Cross-Cultural Perspective. U.S.A.: Intercultural Press Inc., 1980.
Goldstein, Joshua S. International Relations. Washington: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1994.
Goldstein, Joshua S. and John R. Freeman. Three-Way Street: Strategic Reciprocity in World Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1990.Hansson, Gote. Trade, Growth and Development, the Role of Politics and Institutions. New York: Routledge 1991.
Goldstein, Morris and Nicholas R. Lardy. Debating China’s Exchange Rate Policy. Washington, DC. Peterson Institute for International Economics. 2008.
Hall, Robert E., Marc Lieberman. Economics: Principles and applications. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., 2003.
Hasenclever, Andreas, Peter Mayer, and Volker Rittberger. Theories of International Regimes. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Hastedt, Glen and Kay Knickrehm. Toward the Twenty-First Century, a Reader in World Politics. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1994.
Henderson,Hazel. Beyond Globalization, Shaping a sustainable global economy. Conneecticut: Kumarian Press, 1999.
Hirst, Monica, et al. Imperio, Estados e Instituciones. Argentina: Editorial Altamira, 2004.
Hufbauer, Gary Clyde and Jared C. Woollacott. Trade Disputes Between China and the United States: Growing Pains so Far, Worse Ahead?. Washington, DC: Peterson Institute of International Economics, December 2010.
Hughes, Barry B.. Continuity and Change in World Politics : Competing perspectives. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2000.
Jackson, Robert and Georg Sorensen. Introduction to International Relations, Theories and Approaches. 3rd edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Jovanovic, Miroslav N. The Economics of International Integration, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Massachusettts, USA, 2006.
Jurg, Martin Gabriel. Worldviews and Theories of International Relations. United Kingdom: St. Martin’s Press, 1994.
Kaufman, Daniel J., Jay M. Parker, Patrick V. Howell, Grant R. Doty. Understanding International Relations, The Values of Alternative Lenses. 5th ed. United States Military Academy: Mc. Grall Hill, 1994.
Kegley, Charles W. Jr. and Eugene R. Wittkopf. World Politics, Trend and Transformation. 6th ed. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.
Keohane, Robert O. and Joseph S. Nye, Power and Interdependence, World Politics in Transition. 2nd ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1989.
Kiang, Clyde. The Hakka Odyssey & Their Taiwan Homeland. Elgin, Pensylvania. Allegheny Press, 1992.
Kissinger, Henry. Years of Renewal, The Third Volume of this Classic Memoirs. Simon & Schuster UK Ltd. London, 1999.
Kofman, Eleonore and Gillian Youngs. Globalization: Theory and Practice. Great Britain: Continuum, 2003.
Lampton, David M. Same Bed Different Dreams: Managing US-China Relations 1989-2000. Los Angeles, California. University of California Press, 2002.
Lardy, Nicholas R. and Daniel H. Rosen. Prospects for a US-Taiwan Free Trade Agreement. Washington D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 2004.
Lake, David A. Power, Protection, and Free Trade, International Sources of U.S. Commercial Strategy, 1887-1939. New York: Cornell University Press, 1990.
Lechner, Frank J. and John Boli. The Globalization Reader. Massachusetts: Balackwell Publishers, 2000.Miller, Arnold S. Free Trade, Current Issues and Prospects. New York: Novinka Books, 2004.
Lentner, Howard H. International Politics. Minneapolis: West Publishing Company, 1997.
Lovell, Julia. The Opium War. Drugs and Making of China. Macmillan Publishers Limited, London, 2011.
Macridis, Roy C. Foreign Policy in World Politics. 6th ed. Washington: Prentice-Hall, 1985.
Matsushita, Mitsuo, Dukgeun Ahn and Tain-Jy Chen, The WTO Trade Remedy System: East Asian Perspectives. London. United Kingdom University Press Cambrige. 2006.
Mayer, Frederick W. Interpreting NAFTA, The Science and Art of Political Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
McCarthy, Denis M.P. International Economic Integration in Historical Perpective. Routledgle Taylor & Franbcis Group, New York, 2006.
McGregor, James. One Billion Customers, Lessons from the Front Lines of doing Business in China. Wall Street Journal Book, Publishers Free Press, New York, 2005.
Menges, Constantine C. Partnership for Peace, Democracy and Prosperity. Washington D.C. The George Washignton University, 1996.
Milner, Helen V. Interest, Institutions, and Information: Domestic Politics and International Relations. New Jersey: Princeton University, 1997.
Mirsky, Jonathan. The Britannica guide to: Modern China. A Comprehensive Introduction to the World’s New Economic Gains. United States: Running Press Books Publishers, 2008
Mittelman, James H. Globalization, critical reflections. Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., 1997.
Monzon Garcia, Samuel Alfredo. Introduction to the Research Process. Guatemala: Editorial Oscar de Leon Palacios, 2000.
Morgenthau, Hans J. Politics Among Nations, The Struggle for Power and Peace. United States of America: McGraw Hill, 1993.
Nau, Henry R. Trade & Security, U. S. Policies at Cross-Purposes. Washington: American Enterprise Institute Press, 1995.
Nicholson, Michael. Formal Theories in International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Nicholson, Michael. International Relations: A concise introduction,New York: New York University Press, 1998.
Nye, Joseph S. Soft Power, The Means To Success in the World Politics. United States of America: PublicAffairs, 2004.
Ocampo, Jose Antonio and Juan Martin. Globalization and Development, a Latin American and Caribbean Perspective. Chile: Standford University Press, 2003.
Odgaard, Liselotte. The Balance of Power in Asia-Pacific Security: US-China policies on regional order. United States of America, 2004.
Ravenhill, John. Global Political Economy. Great Britain: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Rawnsley, Gary D. Taiwan’s Informal Diplomacy and Propaganda. New York: Palgrave, 2000.
Rein, Shaun. The End of Cheap China, Economic and Cultural Trends that Will Disrupt the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New Jersey, 2012.
Reynolds, P.A. An Introduction to International Relations. 3rd ed. Malaysia: Longman, edition, 1994.
Roach, Stephen. The Next Asia: Opportunities and Challenges for a New Globalization. New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2009.
Ross Sorkin, Andrew. Too Big to Fail: The Inside story of how Wall Street and Washington Fought to save the financial system and themselves. New York, Penguin Books. 2010.
Russet, Bruce and Harvey Starr. World Politics, The menu for choice. 4th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1992.
Schott, Jeffrey J. Free Trade Agreements: US Strategies and Priorities. Washington DC. Institute for International Economics. 2004.
Schott, Jeffrey J. Prospects for Free Trade in the Americas. Washington, DC.: Institute for International Economics, 2001.
Stiglitz, Joseph E. and Andrew Charlton. Fair Trade For All, How Trade Can Promote Development. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Stiglitz, Joseph E. Making Globalization Work. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2007.
Sullivan, Michael P. Theories of International Relations : Transition vs. persistence. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
Sutter, Robert G. U.S. Chinese Relations: Perilous Past, Pragmatic Present. Maryland, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2010.
Tselichtchev, Ivan. China versus The West, The Global Power Shift of the 21st Century. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore, 2012.
Viotti, Paul R. and Mark V. Kauppi. International Relations and World Politics, Security, Economy, Identity. 3 ed. New Jersey: Pearson, Prentice Hall, 2007.
Viotti, Paul R. and Mark V. Kauppi. International Relations Theory Realism, Pluralism, Globalism, and Beyond. 3 ed. Massachusetts: Longman Publishers, 1999.
Vogel, Ezra F. Deng Xiaoping: And the Transformation of China. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. London, England, 2011.
Walter, Carl E. and Fraser J. Howie. Red Capitalism. The Fragile Financial Foundation of China’s Extraordinary Rise. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore, 2012.
Winckler, Edwin A. Contending Approaches to the Political Economy of Taiwan. ed. Edwin A. Winckler and Susan Greenhalgh. New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 1988.
Winters, L. Alan and Shahid Yusuf. Dancing with Giants, China, India, and the Global Economy. Washington D.C.: World Bank, 2007.

Articles
Dionysopoulos, Thomas. “Integration is the Key for Pure Alpha Investors”. Professional Investor, The Official Journal of the UK Society of Investment, Vol. 16, Issue 9, (Nov. 2006): pp.10-12.
Fuller, Thomas. "In the East, Many EU Work Rules Don't Apply." New York Times, June 15, 2005. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/14/world/europe/14iht-europe.
html?_r=1
Quiros, Maricruz. “En la Cultura China, el exito se alcanza por la educacion y no por la riqueza”. FEM Magazine, Vol. 65, No. 6 (Agosto 2007): pp. 64-65.
Granados, Jaime and Rafael Cornejo. “Converge in the Americas: Some Lessons from the DR-CAFTA Process”. The World Economy. Vol 29, Issue 7, July 2006.Kroll, John A. “The Complexity of Interdependence”. International Studies
Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 3 (1993): pp. 321-347.
Kearney, A.T. “The Globalization Index”. Foreign Policy Magazine, November- December 2006, pp. 74-81.
Masterson, Aracelis. “China in Panama”, Lottery Cultural Journal, Vol. 459, No. 1(March- April 2005): pp. 73-86.
Wade, Robert H. “Questions of Fairness, In Search of a Just International Economic Order”. Journal of Foreign Affairs, Vol. 88, No. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 2006): pp.136-143.

Electronic Sources
“A Basic Guide for Free Trade Agreements”. [Database online]. [Cited 15 November 2010]. Available from http://www.mfat.govt.nz/downloads/ trade/FTAart.pdf
Browne, Stephen. “Fair Trade on ITC’s Radar Screen”. International Trade Forum. [Database online]. [Cited 20 November 2010]. Available from http://www.tradeforum.org/
CIA, The World Factbook, “China”, [database online] – [Cited 29 March 2012]; available from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/ the-worldfactbook/
geos/ch.
“Chicago-Style Quick Guide”. [Database online]. – [cited November 23 2010]. Available from http://www.chicago manualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html.
Dam, Kenneth W. “Cordell Hull, the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act, and the WTO”. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2004. [Database online]. [Cited 12 November 2010]. Available from http://www.law.uchicago.edu/Lawecon/WkngPprs226-50/228-kd-hull.pdf.
“Developing countries in disadvantage with free trade agreements”. [Database online]. [Cited 03 November 2010]. Available from http://www.citizenstrade.org
/freetradeandeconomictheoryexplained.php.
International Cooperation and Development Fund, “ICDF SME Development Work:
Fast Track to Economic Growth” ICDF. [Database online]. [Cited 20 November 2010]. Available from http://www.icdf.org.tw/web_pub/20020516162921P22-28.pdf
International Monetary Fund Website, [database online] – [Cited 30 March 2012]; available from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html
IR Theory, “IR Paradigms, Approaches and Theories”. [Database online]. September 5-2006. – [cited 20 November 2010]. Available from http://www.irtheory.com/.
Kaplan Norton. “Strategy Maps”. 12 Manage Rigor and Relevance. [Database online]. [Cited 01 November 2010]. Available from http://www.12manage.com/methods_strategy_ maps_strategic_communication.html
Ministry of Economic Affairs, Republic of China (TAIWAN), “Policy Goals and Guiding Principles”. [Database online]. [Cited 20 October 2010]. Available from http://www.moea.gov.tw/
New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “A Basic Guide to Free Trade Agreements”. July 2006. [Database online]. [Cited 06 November 2008]. http://www.mfat.govt.nz/
The Conference Board, Total Economy database, [database online] – [Cited 30 March 2012]; available from: http://www.conference-board.org/data/economydatabase/
The World Bank Group, “Globalization”. [Database online]. [Cited 06 November 2008]. Available from http://www1.worldbank.org
San Jose State University, “China”, [database online] – [Cited 29 March 2012]; available from http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/china2.htm
United States Census Bureau Website, [database online] – [Cited 30 March 2012]; available from http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/top/ dst/current/balance.html
U.S.-China Business Council, "U.S.-China Trade Statistics and China's World Trade Statistics," http://www.uschina.org/statistics/tradetable.html, updated October 28,2011.
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. [Database online]. [Cited 22 November 2008]. Available from http://www.walter.gehr.net/ wvkengl.html.
World Trade Organization, “Understanding the WTO, abbreviations”. [Database online]. [Cited 01 November 2008]. Available from http://www.wto.org/english/
Yarger, H. Richard. “Towards a Theory of Strategy: Art Likke and the Army War College Strategy Model”. [Database online]. [Cited 20 November 2008]. Available
from http://dde.carlisle.army.mil/authors/ stratpap.htm.
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2012-07-04公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2012-07-04起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信