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系統識別號 U0002-2606201214233100
中文論文名稱 新加坡與馬來西亞之環境政策
英文論文名稱 The Environmental Policies of Singapore and Malaysia
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 賈士華
研究生英文姓名 Joshua David Friednash
學號 698330361
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2012-05-25
論文頁數 195頁
口試委員 指導教授-林若雩
委員-王高成
委員-左正東
中文關鍵字 新加坡  馬來西亞  環境政策  環境管理 
英文關鍵字 Singapore  Malaysia  Environmental Policy  Environmental Governance 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 長久以來,科學家及環境學家曾指出環境污染問題,這些問題將會持續,也是身為國家公民的我們該面對的。本研究試圖點出馬來西亞與新加坡現存的環境政策重要的觀點,並比較兩國在此議題上的成就,最後判定新馬兩國那一國的環境政策較出色。歷史上及政策上文獻之回顧,以及過去修習有關新馬兩國環境政策課程所做的研究是支持學生下定決心撰寫本論文的動機。更具體的來說,本研究旨在透過新馬兩國政府在政策上評估、設計、執行、培育政策以及決策者內部互動情形來鑑定新馬兩國政府的角色以及政府的可信度。
在審慎的權衡後,評估新馬兩國環境計劃之利弊是否符合國際標準。為了收集所需的資料,文獻回顧是必要的。本論文的資料來源包括許多學者的文章、專書以及政府官方所發佈的網路資源。本研究發現新馬兩國設計的政策以及目標能是可延續的,然而決定性的發現是透過比較後分類歸納得知的。在支持環境化的國家,這也有助於最後政策的產生。學生研究的發現的根據是由於新加坡致力於成為環境化的國家,這比起其競爭的鄰國馬來西亞還要更有環保意識。
在最後比較兩國的環境政策,新加坡無疑地在面對環境政策上的挑戰時,能夠有令人滿意的評估,主要是因為新加坡認知其是一個小國家並且大量依賴進口能源。接者,新加坡擁有較優秀的政策,像新加坡綠能計劃不但可以清理新加坡河的水源,還可以處理新加坡人所製造出的廢料。在環境政策上,新加坡政府在設立目標與實踐上成績顯著,因此新加坡在未來可以提高目標。新加坡執行國家政策上也佔有優勢,這可能是因為新加坡人民懼怕政府的原因;另外一方面,也可能是比起馬來西亞在國土面積上比馬來西亞小的關係。透過發揚環境日以及提高廢料處理的意識,新加坡政府在教育公民以及訓練私人企業方面也有顯著成績。
馬來西亞在最後的比較中劣於新加坡有幾個原因。馬國的確有能力評估環境上的挑戰並且面對它。然而,馬國似乎認為經濟成長更重要,因為馬國過去經濟並不好。雖然馬國能夠創造環境政策,如: 2020年大馬計劃,但是馬國卻無法達成其政府過去所設立的目標。馬國也無法執行其環境政策,因為馬國內的聯邦無權使用國土並且無法執行各聯邦內想推行的環境政策。至於在訓練課程及教育方面,馬國內部腐敗成風,而且在主要的政府機關常常出現人手不足的現象,以致於無法分配訓練提倡環境上的政策。
英文摘要 For years Scientists and other environmental experts have warned us about the effects of pollution, and other environmental problems that have and will continue to face us as global citizens. This study was conducted in order to identify other important aspects of existing environmental policies of the countries of Malaysia and Singapore to compare the two in an effort to see which had the better environmental policy. Historical and policy review, and actions through projects over the course of the two countries environmental life was a tool used for basing my decision. Specifically, this research aimed to identify the role and reliability of the countries governments based on the perspectives of how well they could assess, create, implement, and train policy and policy makers within their countries.
Advantages and disadvantages of both countries projects were weighed and assessed to see if they could meet their goal criteria. To gather the needed data, a review was used. This required the use of many scholarly articles, books, and online resources presented by some of the countries governmental bodies. The results showed that both the countries of Malaysia and Singapore created policies and goals for becoming more sustainable. This in turn resulted in a final comparison of the two countries through various categories. This helped in creating a final decision regarding the more environmentally friendly nation. The basis of my findings resulted in showing that Singapore has done more to become more environmentally aware and friendly than their competing neighbor.
After the final comparison was done, it was clear that Singapore had better assessed the environmental challenges facing them as they recognized that they were a smaller nation that relied heavily on imported energy. Next, Singapore was better at better policies like the Singapore Green Plans, cleaning up the Singapore River, and found a way to deal with the waste that they did create. Singapore was also successful in meeting their goals in which they set, and therefore could aim higher for the future. Singapore also gained an edge as they could better implement their countries polices, perhaps based on the idea that the people of Singapore fear their government and perhaps that because they are smaller in size as compared to Malaysia.
Malaysia in the final comparison proved secondary to Singapore for several reasons. Malaysia did have the ability to assess the environmental challenges facing it. However, it seemed as if they felt that economic growth was more important. This was already something that they failed to learn from in the past. While Malaysia could create environmental policies like the Malaysia 2020 plan, they could not meet the goals needed to reach it in the years before. Malaysia also failed in implementation as states in Malaysia have the right to use land and implement policies headed down as they see pleased. As for training and education Malaysia also faced corruption and was heavily understaffed in key offices that allotted training and environmental promotion.

論文目次 Table of Contents
Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………………………i
Abstract (in Chinese)…………………………………………………………………………………ii
Abstract (in English)……………………………………………………………………………iii
Table of contents…………………………………………………………………………………v
Preface 1
Chapter 1…………………………………………………………………………………………4
Malaysia’s Renewable Energy Policy……………………………………………..………….5
Singapore’s Renewable Energy Policy…………………………………………….………7
Framework and objectives 12
Literature Review……………………………………………………....................................15
Chapter Arrangement………………………………………………………………………..22
Chapter 2 General Tools & Instruments for Environmental Policy…………………........23
Sustainable Development and Policy………………………………………………………..27
Managing Sustainable Development………………………………………………………..29
Threat to Management………………………………………………………………………..37
Tools for Sustainability………………………………………………………………………..46
Chapter 3 Malaysia: Money First Environment Later………………………………..........66
Sustainable Development…………………………………………………………………….80
Challenges in Implementing Environmental Protection……………………………………94
Chapter 4 Singapore Growing Green ……..……………………………………………....105
Governance…………………………………………………………………………………...106
Land Use.……………………………………………………………………………………..112
The Singapore River…………………………………………………………………………117
Lack of NGOs…………………………………………………………………………………138
Renewable Energy Usage…………………………………………………………………..141
Innovation for sustainability…………………………………………………………………149
Chapter 5 Assessment....…………………………………………………...………………161
Comparing two countries………………………………………………………..…………..174
Conclusion………..………………………………………………………………………......184
Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………. 189
Table of Figures
Figure 1 Making Environmental/Green Policy………………………………………………11
Figure 2 Goals for Management…………………………………………………..…………30
Figure 3 Strategies for Decision Making…………………………………………………….35
Figure 4 EIA Process………………………………………………………………………….55
Figure 5 EIA Uses in Malaysia……………………………………………………………….77
Figure 6 Characteristics of Good Governance……………………………………………109
Figure 7 Sequence of Land Use Planning .………………………………………………112
Figure 8 Singapore River Developments…………………………………………………123
Figure 9 SGP 2012 Areas & Targets………………………………………………………143
Table of Charts
Chart 1 Convention on Biological Diversity…………………………………………………86
Chart 2 Urban Governance………………………………………………………………….108
Chart 3 SPA Objectives……………………………………………………………………..152
Chart 4 Sustainable Singapore Blueprint………………………………………………….154
Chart 5 Environmental Policies of Singapore…………………………………………….156
Chart 6 Comparing Two Countries………………………………………………………..175
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