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系統識別號 U0002-2606201211303500
中文論文名稱 中國智慧財產權執行不力下之國際合資問題研討
英文論文名稱 INTERNATIONAL JOINT VENTURES IN LIGHT OF WEAK INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT LAW ENFORCEMENT IN THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際企業學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Department Of International Business
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生中文姓名 潘啟明
研究生英文姓名 Michael Epand
電子信箱 mepand@gmail.com
學號 699551429
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
第二語文別 中文
口試日期 2012-06-04
論文頁數 56頁
口試委員 指導教授-林宜男
指導教授-簡仁德
委員-蔡政言
中文關鍵字 國際合資  直接投資  智慧財產權  侵犯  保護 
英文關鍵字 joint venture  foreign direct investment  intellectual property rights  infringement  protection 
學科別分類
中文摘要 國際合資是當今許多企業欲在海外市場營運所選用的模型。該模型顯著的優點在於低投資成本及政府的獎勵措施。然而在智慧財產權保護制度不彰的國家,鑒於專利被侵犯的高風險,合資僅被視為在外人直接投資模型之下的次選項。企業傾向選擇外商獨資的做法;其以對資產的有力控制及智財權的掌握為顯著優勢。

本研究主要有兩個目的:第一個目的探討為何合資較外商獨資企業承受更高的風險,故使外籍企業放棄合資的方式並採取外商獨資企業。此議題首先從技術外流的面向審查再從使技術外流各個不同之因素。而有鑑於在中國實施合資其相對高風險的本質以及智慧財產權保護的匱乏,本研究第二個目的為提供國家特定的智財權保護措施,以避免專利受侵害。

本研究先為回顧因國際合資造成技術外流現象之文獻。根據回顧內容歸結出:在兩種外資的模型中,國際合資相對更容易導致技術外流;進一步則會產生智財權受侵害的風險。其原因在於國際合資模型中企業與合作對象及上游廠商的密切往來。與外來合作對象的密切接觸使本土企業從而習得合作營運的經驗;如此的經驗將有助於本土企業提升其知識和能力的水平,使企業本身更具國際競爭力。然在日後,本土企業知識的應用可能形成與國外企業競爭之局勢;甚至產生侵權的問題。基於上述理由,在外人直接投資的模型中,國際合資較外商獨資更具風險。

因為智慧財產權保護的匱乏本研究為有意在中國採行國際合資的企業,從文獻中整合出保護智財權作法之建議。具體做法可分為兩大類。第一類是藉由發展特定的技術,使競爭對手難以觀察到己企業競爭優勢的來源。具體做法包括:關鍵技術維持機密、增加技術的複雜度及提升專門性、同時強調購買正版產品的利益;教育客戶購買正版。第二類在於創新以及內外關係之維繫;換言之,以互信與友誼建立合作關係基礎,用社會關係形成的防禦機制、從而抑止侵權行為的發生。
英文摘要 International joint venture (IJV) is a mode of investment chosen by many firms, seeking to operate in foreign markets. It is chosen because it offers substantially lower costs of entry, and other government incentives. However, in countries with poor intellectual property right (IPR) protection regimes, JVs are a secondary choice as a mode of foreign direct investment (FDI). Due to a high risk of IPR infringement, firms prefer wholly foreign owned enterprises (WFOEs) which offer granular control over the entire venture and most important the use and dispersion of its intellectual property.

This study has two main goals. The first is to understand why IJVs are risker than WFOEs thus leading most foreign investors to abandon the IJV as a mode of FDI in China. This is examined from the angle of technology spillover and then from that of the various elements that make technology spillover more likely to occur in IJVs. Due to the riskier nature of IJVs and the poor IPR protection regime in China, the second goal, is to offer country specific IPR protection methods that can be used by foreign firms in order to avoid IPR infringement.

This study reviews the literature pertaining to technology spillover that results from IJV. Based on this review, we conclude that of the two modes of FDI, IJVs are more likely to result in technology spillover, and consequently a higher risk of IPR infringement. This occurs because of the closer contact firms in IJVs have with their partners as well as upstream industries that supply the JV. The proximity with foreign partners, gives local firms an opportunity to learn from the experience of being in a joint operation. This learning experience, in turn, allows firms to advance their knowledge and capabilities and raise their stature to international levels. However, this knowledge may later be used to compete with the foreign firm, and can be especially harmful if this knowledge includes the foreign partner’s intellectual property. For these reasons, IJVs are riskier than WFOEs as a mode of FDI.

To address the risky nature of IJV, this study synthesizes IPR protection recommendations from the literature for firms that want invest via IJV in China. In this study we offer five IPR protection methods that do not rely on IPR law and law enforcement system in China. These protection methods are separated into two groups. The first is aimed at making it more difficult for other firms to recognize the source of a company’s competitive advantage, with particular emphasis on the company’s technology. These methods include: keeping key elements of a technology secret; purposely making the technology more complex or specialized; and lastly, educating customers in ways that they find it more beneficial to purchase original products. The second group includes the creation and maintenance of internal and external guanxi. That is, crafting relationships based on trust and friendship with stakeholders within as well as without of the JV, thus creating social barriers to reduce the chances of IPR infringement.
論文目次 Acknowledgement I
English Abstract II
中文提要 III
List of Figures V
1. Introduction 1
1.1. Objective 2
1.2. Scope and Thesis Outline 4
1.3. Research Methodology and Restrictions 4
2. Joint Ventures and Intellectual Property Right in China 5
2.1. IPR Protection In China 5
2.1.1. Social-Cultural Reasons for Lack of Enforcement 6
2.1.2. Trends of Intellectual Property Rights in China 10
2.2. Joint Ventures in China 14
2.2.1. Types of IJVs Existing in China 14
2.2.2. Current condition of Joint Ventures in China 15
2.2.3. The Benefits of Joint Venture as an Investment Mode in International Markets 18
3. Technology Spillover in International Joint Ventures 20
3.1. Technology Spillover 20
3.2. Risk of Technology Spillover in International Joint Venture 22
3.2.1. FDI and Technology Spillover 22
3.2.2. Joint Ventures and Technology Spillover 24
3.2.3. Joint Ventures in the IPR Literature 25
3.3. What Makes Joint Ventures Vulnerable to Technology Spillover 26
3.3.1. Why Firms Choose Joint Venture 26
3.3.2. Learning Between Partners 27
3.3.3. Non-Tangible Technologies (Know-how) 28
3.3.4. Absorptive Capacity 29
3.3.5. Why Firms do not Choose Joint Venture 31
4. Protecting Intellectual Property in Sino-foreign Joint Ventures 33
4.1. Ineffectiveness of the Patent Law Enforcement System in China 33
4.2. IPR protection in Joint Ventures 35
4.2.1. De facto Protection Methods for International Joint Ventures 37
4.3. Summary of Recommendation 45
5. Conclusion 47
Bibliography 51
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