淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-2606200723290500
中文論文名稱 運用課堂遊戲於提升國中學生英語學習動機之個案研究
英文論文名稱 A Case Study of Using Educational Games in Class to Raise English Learning Motivation in Secondary School
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 教育科技學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Educational Technology
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 楊曉婷
研究生英文姓名 Hsiao-Ting Yang
電子信箱 playmatad@hotmail.com
學號 794100114
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2007-06-21
論文頁數 179頁
口試委員 指導教授-施如齡
委員-何俐安
委員-廖述聖
中文關鍵字 英語教學  課堂遊戲  學習動機 
英文關鍵字 English teaching  In-Class Games  Learning Motivation Instructional Design  Instructional Model 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學教育學
中文摘要 傳統學校教育注重學業分數的結果,使學習者死記知識以應付考試,偏重知識與事實的記憶訓練,造成學習者被動學習動機低落。現今九年一貫極力推動之政策,目的在於培養孩子能夠有「帶著走」的能力,其政策之落實為教育工作者所努力的目標。目前,新世代的學生從小受到「多元智能」的大環境刺激,思考與學習的方式也趨於多元化。因此,除了在課堂講授之外,配合遊戲的使用,藉由「遊戲」在兒童與青少年娛樂中的重要角色,融入親身體驗的具體感官經驗更能讓學生從做中學、知識內化,以提昇學習者的動機與成效。

本研究運用「課堂遊戲」之方式來實施國中英語課程。課程中採用「課堂遊戲」設計作為啟發孩子學習動機之活動,進行教學。本研究對象為臺北縣市二重國民中學二年級的體育班,進行為期兩個月、共六課的實驗教學。研究設計以康軒版八年級第三冊第四課到第九課為依據,進行六課,共18種不同的課堂遊戲。先對英語教師實施「課堂遊戲」之研究問卷調查,瞭解英語教學課堂遊戲實施的現況及面臨的問題,作為實施課堂遊戲教學活動設計之修正與改進。並在教學前對學生實施「英語學習動機之意見調查」,瞭解學生學習動機是否低落及產生之相關問題。進而採用個案研究法,擬定改進策略、深入教學現場,並進行教學、觀察與焦點訪談;之後,「運用英語教學課堂遊戲於提升學習動機學習意見調查表」為評量工具,再與該班導師以及選定之學生進行訪談,以瞭解教學之成效及改進成果。

最後,本研究對於運用「課堂遊戲」在英語課的教學模式、教學歷程與多樣化的活動設計等方面,由研究者觀察、錄影、記錄,給予深度描述與說明。並將學生言談、反應等參與情形對應文獻理論,檢視是否在英語課運用「課堂遊戲」能對學習動機有效的提升,以提供研究者修正未來教學活動的設計之參考。
英文摘要 This paper presents a case study about the design and implementation of “in-class educational games for English teaching” in secondary school. The goal of the research is to use creative and exciting educational in-class games, such as group discussion, role-play, word lottery, song teaching, sentence making, and so forth, with rewards to enhance students’ motivation.
Classroom participant observation, interviews, and questionnaires are conducted during the period of three months of experimental teaching to one class in Taipei County Er-Chong Junior High School. They are eighth-grade students majoring in physical education, most of who are often invited to various competitions. Eighteen educational in-class games are used in this study. Reflections are made during the teaching-research period that notes of observation, daily record of students’ learning behaviors in class, teacher’s gains, interviews memos, and notes to associated documents are taken. These help to investigate children’s ideas, impressions, changes of learning behavior, and thereafter provide design motification information to the teacher.
The reserch shows that these students often particiate in games without thinking about learning, therefore, while we use the ideas of the in-class games designs, we shall consider: 1.Students’ readiness. Unless students have forced a habit of reviewing after class, teachers should let them fully practice new knowledge before having games. 2. Heterogeneous grouping. Students can learn more effectively from those in higher achievements when they are in the same group. 3. Appropriate rewards. Prevent students from keeping their focus on the rewards than on the learning. 4. Supervise process. Avoid letting the students lose the way during the excitements of the games. 5. Fair competition. Keep the competitions just like encouragements instead of dispute. 6. Scheduling and timing. Give guidance to the games and lay out the rules clearly. Use students’ expectancy to games to lure them into serious learning by conducting activities evey other class..
We believe that “educational in-class games” brings more positive attitude English-learning attitude out of the students. They are more willing to practice pronounctions, and more familiar with vocabularies and sentence pattern. The more the stuedents involve in physical movements games, the more they improve their learning attitudes.
This research describes in-depth the process and effectiveness of vaious in-class games used for English learning. Hoping the experience of teaching process and strategies as well as students’ responses to the teaching can be a reference for future practices of “educational in-class games instruction.”
論文目次 目次
第一章 緒論...........................................................................................................................................1
第一節 研究背景與動機....................................................................................................................1
壹、研究背景................................................................................................................................1
貳、研究動機................................................................................................................................2
第二節 研究目的與待答問題............................................................................................................4
壹、研究目的................................................................................................................................4
貳、研究問題................................................................................................................................5
第三節 名詞解釋................................................................................................................................5
壹、英語教學................................................................................................................................5
貳、學習動機................................................................................................................................5
參、課堂遊戲................................................................................................................................6
第四節 研究範圍與限制....................................................................................................................6
壹、研究範圍................................................................................................................................6
貳、研究限制................................................................................................................................6
第二章 文獻探討...................................................................................................................................8
第一節 學習動機與英語教學之相關理論........................................................................................8
壹、學習動機................................................................................................................................8
貳、英語教學法..........................................................................................................................13
第二節 英語教學遊戲與學習動機之相關研究..............................................................................18
壹、遊戲的定義、價值與特性...................................................................................................19
貳、教師對使用遊戲的態度.......................................................................................................22
參、第二外語(EFL)的教與學之遊戲....................................................................................23
肆、透過英語教學遊戲提升學習動機.......................................................................................24
第三章 研究設計與實施......................................................................................................................28
第一節 研究方法..............................................................................................................................28
壹、個案研究的起源及定義.......................................................................................................29
貳、個案研究的特徵...................................................................................................................30
參、個案研究實施的步驟...........................................................................................................30
第二節 研究對象..............................................................................................................................31
第三節 研究架構與程序..................................................................................................................32
壹、研究步驟與流程...................................................................................................................32
貳、研究歷程..............................................................................................................................34
第四節 研究資料蒐集方法..............................................................................................................36
壹、文獻分析..............................................................................................................................36

貳、觀察法.................................................................................................................................36
參、焦點團體訪談法...................................................................................................................38
肆、開放訪談法..........................................................................................................................38
伍、意見調查..............................................................................................................................39
陸、實物分析法..........................................................................................................................40
第五節 資料整理與分析..................................................................................................................40
壹、資料的整理..........................................................................................................................40
貳、資料的分析..........................................................................................................................43
第六節 研究倫理與信效度之檢核..................................................................................................48
壹、研究倫理..............................................................................................................................48
貳、研究之信效度檢核...............................................................................................................49
第四章 課程設計.................................................................................................................................51
第一節 課程設計歷程......................................................................................................................51
壹、進入現場之前.......................................................................................................................51
貳、進入研究現場.......................................................................................................................52
參、退出研究現場.......................................................................................................................54
第二節 課程設計說明......................................................................................................................54
壹、教案設計方式.......................................................................................................................54
貳、學習活動設計說明...............................................................................................................59
參、課堂遊戲之教案設計...........................................................................................................64
肆、課堂獎勵方式對象...............................................................................................................82
第三節 遊戲融入教學之實施說明..................................................................................................83
壹、遊戲融入教學之學習目標...................................................................................................83
貳、遊戲融入教學之實施的流程步驟.......................................................................................84
第五章 實施與分析..............................................................................................................................89
第一節 學習歷程:從課堂遊戲起步學習......................................................................................89
壹、學習回應正面積極-課堂遊戲教學活動能明顯改善學生的學習行為..............................90
貳、多元、活潑的活動設計能吸引學生興趣.........................................................................102
第二節 教學歷程:「課堂遊戲教學」之構想與實施.................................................................. 110
壹、教學設計............................................................................................................................ 110
貳、班級經營............................................................................................................................ 117
參、實施課堂遊戲教學活動的困境.........................................................................................125
第三節 學習環境:人、事、物對「課堂遊戲教學」的影響....................................................129
壹、課程之實施與評量方式.....................................................................................................130
貳、學生本身與他人之影響.....................................................................................................135
參、學習環境與教學之關係.....................................................................................................139
第六章 結論與建議............................................................................................................................143

第一節 遊戲融入教學之教學流程................................................................................................143
壹、教學流程之實施前.............................................................................................................145
貳、教學流程之實施中.............................................................................................................149
參、教學流程之實施後.............................................................................................................151
第二節 學生學習歷程與影響........................................................................................................152
壹、學習者的學習歷程.............................................................................................................152
貳、對學習者的影響.................................................................................................................156
第三節 遊戲融入教學之建議........................................................................................................158
壹、對採用課堂遊戲教學的建議.............................................................................................158
貳、實施遊戲式融入英語教學的省思.....................................................................................160
參、對未來研究建議.................................................................................................................160
參考書目.............................................................................................................................................161
一、中文部分............................................................................................................................161
二、英文部分............................................................................................................................164
附 錄.............................................................................................................................................170
附件一:英語教師實施「課堂遊戲」之意見調查問卷..............................................................170
附件二:「英語學習動機之意見調查」........................................................................................173
附件三:學習意見調查表.............................................................................................................175
附件四:「課堂遊戲提升學習動機」之個案研究教學同意書....................................................176
附件五:「英語課實施課堂遊戲」學生訪談大綱........................................................................177
附件六:課堂遊戲觀察評量表.....................................................................................................178
附件七:實習老師教學日誌.........................................................................................................179

表次
表3-4-1 觀察實施記錄表.....................................................................................................................36
表3-4-2 焦點團體訪談實施規劃表......................................................................................................38
表3-4-3 開放訪談實施記錄表..............................................................................................................38
表3-5-1 文件編碼表.............................................................................................................................42
表3-5-2 英語學習動機問卷統計範例..................................................................................................44
表3-5-3 學生興趣與學習意見調查表統計範例..................................................................................45
表4-2-1 課程內容規劃設計表..............................................................................................................55
表4-2-2「課堂遊戲」活動類型歸納表...............................................................................................60
表4-2-3 課堂遊戲之教案設計表..........................................................................................................64
表4-3-1「課堂遊戲融入教學」之學習目標.......................................................................................83
表5-1-1 學習回應類型歸納表..............................................................................................................91
表5-1-2 課堂遊戲觀察評量表範例......................................................................................................92
表5-1-3 英語學習動機問卷結果統計................................................................................................102
表5-1-4 教案活動設計大綱................................................................................................................104
表5-1-5 學生興趣學習意見調查表統計結果....................................................................................107
表5-2-1 課堂參與表(O01-G13) .................................................................................................... 112
表5-3-1 活動實施的過程...................................................................................................................130
圖次
圖3-1-1 研究流程圖.............................................................................................................................33
圖4-1-1 體育班教室位置圖..................................................................................................................53
圖4-3-1 實施課堂遊戲教學的實況......................................................................................................87
圖5-1-1 單字賓果表.............................................................................................................................92
圖5-2-1 報佳音時全體齊聲合唱........................................................................................................ 116
圖5-2-2 製作祈願樹分工合作............................................................................................................ 116
圖5-2-3 努力完成感恩卡................................................................................................................... 116
圖5-2-4 將祈願卡貼到祈願樹上........................................................................................................ 116
圖5-2-5 製作感恩卡獲勝頒獎喜悅的表情........................................................................................121
圖5-2-6 報佳音結束主任給糖果餅乾...............................................................................................121
圖5-2-7 學生成績登記表...................................................................................................................129
圖6-1-1 課堂遊戲融入英語教學之教學設計流程............................................................................144



參考文獻 一、中文部分
金樹人(1979)。國中學生動機水準、工作難度、合作與競爭對工作表現及焦慮狀態之影響。國立臺灣師範大學教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北。
王文科(1997)。學校需要另一種補充的課程:發展學校本位課程。載於中華民國課程與 教學學會及比較教育學會主編:課程改革的國際比較:中日觀點,頁67-86。台北:師大書苑。
朱敬先(1997)。教育心理學——教學取向。台北:五南。
李文瑞(1990)。介紹激發學習動機的阿課思(ARCS)模型教學策略。台灣教育,479,22-24。
李伯黍等譯,A. S. Reber原著(2003)。心理學詞典。臺北:五南圖書出版股份有限公司。頁136。
李欣蓉(1993)。溝通式教學,台北市國民教育輔導團國中英語科輔導資料叢書I,24-29。
李詠吟、單文經(1997)。教學原理。台北:遠流。
林蕙蓉(1999)。淺談國小兒童的外語學習動機。 班級經營,4(2),20-24。
吳清山(2002)。創意教學的重要理念與實施策略。臺灣教育,614,2-8。
吳雅慧(2001)。國小英語教學活動與學童學習動機之研究——以仁仁國小四年甲班為例。國立花蓮師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,花蓮。
吳建華、謝發昱、黃俊峰、陳銘凱(2004)。個案研究。載於潘慧玲主編,教育研究的取徑:概念與應用(PP. 199-236)。臺北:高等教育文化事業有限公司。PP. 201-201。
洪新春(2002)。教育改革vs.創意教學。台灣教育,614,54-58。
徐貞美 (1993)。如何提高國中低成就學生學習英語的動機與興趣。人文與社會學科教學通訊,4(4),6-14。
黃政傑(1987)。課程評鑑。台北市:師大書苑。
黃瑞琴(1997)。質性教育研究方法。台北:心理出版。
黃雲輝(1998)。兒童英語教材教法介紹—全肢體反應教學法。國教天地,127,47-48。
夏林清譯(1997)。Al t r i c h t e r , Po s c h &Some k h 著。行動研究方法導論- - - 教師動手做研究。5-6。
陳向明(2002)。教師如何做質的研究。台北:紅葉文化。
陳李綢、郭妙雪(1998):教育心理學。台北:五南。
陳希聖(1998)。英語魔法師:英語教學法辨變便。台北市,文鶴出版股份有限公司。
陳伯璋(1989)。教育研究方法的新取向:質的研究方法。臺北:南宏圖書公司。頁 18-19。
陳秀慧(民73):高中學生英文學習態度與方法之研究。國立台灣師範大學教育研究所碩士論文。未出版,台北。
陳美玲、徐定華(2001)。字彙課堂遊戲教學。教學探討與研究,190-197。
陳須姬(1995)。英語教學法的沿革。中等教育,46(2),20-25。
陳龍安(1999)。活潑快樂的創意教學。教師天地,102,13-19。
陳淳麗(1998)。適用於國小英語教學的教學法。國民教育,39(1),6-12。
邱才銘(1998)。高雄市國小英語教學之研究——教育實況之觀察、訪問與問卷調查。國立高雄師範大學教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,高雄。
施元佑(2000)。溝通式教學法與廣讀。ET Guide 美語教學雜誌,2,20-22。
施玉惠、朱惠美(1999)。國小英語課程之精神與特色。教育研究資訊,7(2),1-5。
施良方(1996)。學習理論。高雄:麗文。
胡幼慧、姚美華(1996)。一些質性方法上的思考:信度與效度?如何抽樣?如何收集資料、登錄與分析?載於胡幼慧(主編):質性研究-理論、方法及本土女性研究實例。台北:巨流圖書。
胡幼慧(1996)。多元方法:三角交叉檢視法,收於質性研究—理論、方法及本土女性研究實例。台北:巨流圖書,頁271-285。
胡金枝(1994)。國小資優生的學習動機、批判思考與其國語科學業成就之關係。國立台中師範學院初等教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,台中。
張玉茹(1997)。國民中學學生英語學習動機、英語學習策略與英語學習成就相關之研究。國立高雄師範大學教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,高雄。
張春興(1989)。動機與情緒。心理學概要。台北:東華書局,頁231-233。
張春興(1992)。現代心理學。台北:東華書局。
張春興(2000)。張氏心理學辭典。台北:東華書局,頁103。
張湘君(2000)。淺談國小英文情境教育。國民教育,41(2),11-17。
彭美玲(1995)。台北市國小校內團體活動兒童英語組實施現況之研究。國立台北師範學院初等教育研究所碩士論文。
溫世頌(1997)。教育心理學。台北:三民。
葉重新(2001)。教育研究法。臺北:心理出版社。頁214。
劉世閔(2005)。淺談研究倫理(一)。教育研究月刊,139(11),126。
劉遠城等譯(1997)。語言教學法。台北:五南。
賈馥茗(1992)。經驗與教育/杜威(John Dowey)原著。台北市:五南。
詹餘靜(1999)。從教學法的沿革談有效的國小英語教學(上)。教師之友,40(2),7-23。
詹麗馨(2001)。創意教學-英語篇。幼獅。
楊郁文譯(1998)。默示教學法入門。台北市,書林出版有限公司。
楊懿麗譯(1988)。自然教學法。台北:幼獅文化。
蔡美華譯(2003)。行動研究法。臺北:學富。
蔡清田(2003)。教育行動研究。台北:五南書局。
鍾麗文(2003)。國小英語教學遊戲化的省思。師說:中華民國全國教育會月刊,174,52。
潘淑滿(2003)。質性研究:理論與應用。台北:心理出版。
歐用生(1994)。提昇教師行動研究的能力。研習資訊,10(4),1- 6。
鄭肇楨(1980)。數學遊戲。商務印書館
蘇秋碧(2000)。國小六年級被同儕拒絕兒童其被同儕拒絕因素之研究。台中師範學院國民教育研究所。
羅葆善(1993)。提升兒童語言能力的方法。國教世紀,28(5),32-35。

二、英文部分
Atake, K. (2003). Using games to teach English in Japanese junior high school. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Ed 479748)
Bettoil, E. (2001). Can learners be motivated to speak a foreign language through the use of games? Linguagem em Discurso, 2(1), 75-77..
Brandt, Peter D. R. (2002). The power of play – play and games in language teaching. TESOL Greece Newsletter. Retrieved May 30, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://www.tesolgreece.com/nl/74/7405.html.
Brophy, J. (1987). Synthesis of research on strategies for motivating students to learn. Educational leadership, 45, 40-48.
Brown, H. D. (1980). Principles in language learning and teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Brown, H. D. (1987). Principles of language learning and teaching. (2nd ed.) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Brown, H. D. (1994). Teaching by principles: An approach to language pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Carrier, Michael. (1980). Take 5: games and activities for the language learner. Surrey, UK: Nelson and Son Ltd.
Dempsey, J. V., Rasmussen, K., & Lucassen. B. (1994). Instructional gaming:implication for technology.(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ368345)
Dempsey, J. V., Lucassen, B., Aynes, L., & Casey M. (1996). Instructional applications of computer games. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED394500)
Devries, D. L. & Edwards, K.J. (1972). Learning games and student teams: Their effects on classroom processes. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED070019)
DeVries, R., & Klohberg, L. (1987). Programs of early education:the constructivist view. New York: Longman.
Dickinson, L. (1995). Autonomy and motivation : A literature review. System, 23(2), 165-74.
Dobson, J. M. (1996). Effective techniques for English conversation groups. Washington DC: English Teaching Division, Educational and Cultural Affairs, Interactional Communication Agency.
Dornyei, Z. (1994). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal,78(3),273-284.
Driskell, J. E., Willis, R. P., & Cooper, C. (1972). Effect of overlearning on retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 615-622.
Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (1994). Educational psychology: Classroom connections. New York: Macmillam College Publishing Company.
Erosz, A. (2000). Six games for the EFL/ESL classroom. The Internet TESL journal, 1(6). Retrieved June 16, 2004 from the World Wide Web: http://iteslj.org/lessons/Ersoz-Games.html.
Garcia-Carbonell, A., Rising, B., Montero, B., & Watts, F. (2001). Simulation/gaming and the acquisition of communicative competence in another language. Simulation & Gaming, 32(4).
Good, T. L., & Brophy, J. (1995). Contemporary educational psychology. New York: Longman.
Harmer, J. (1983). The Practice of English Language Teaching.New York: Longman.
Hadfield, J. (1984). Elementary communication games: a collection of games and activities for elementary students of English. Surrey, UK: Nelson.
Hootstein, E. (1998). Motivating the unmotivated child. Teaching Pre K-8, 29(3), 58-60.
Hughes, F. P. (1991). Children, play and development. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Hunt, C. (1979). Child’s play: Non-competitive games in the classroom. Retrieved June 16, 2004 from the World Wide We:
Huyen, N. T. & Nga, K. T. (2003). Learning vocabulary through games: the effectiveness of learning vocabulary through games. Asian EFL Journal. Retrieved May 3, 2004 from the World Wide Web : http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/dec_03_sub.Vn.htm
Isenberg, J. P. & Jalongo, M. R. (1993). Creative expression and play in the early childhood curriculum. New York: Macmillian Publishing Company.
Jin, L., & Cortazzi, M. (1996). Teaching reading and writing by using visual frameworks. In D. Dai & P. Chen (Ed.) Papers from the fourth international symposium on English teaching (pp. 173-203). Taipei: ETAROC.
Jin, L., & Cortazzi, M. (1998). Supporting bilingual learners in the classroom: Principles, methods and materials. English Teachers’ Association, I, 69-79.
Kamii, C., & DeVries, R. (1980). Group games in early education: implications of Piaget’s theory.. Washington, DC: National Education Association.
Keller, J. M. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth(Ed.), Instructional design theories and models. Hillsdale, NJ:Erlbaum.
Keller, J. M. (1987a). Strategies for stimulating the motivation to learn. Performance and Instruction ,26(8),1-7.
Kovalik, D. L., & Kovalik, L. M. (2002). Language learning simulations: A piagetian perspective. Simulation & Gaming, 33(3), 345-352.
Krashen, S. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Krulik , S. & Rudnick , J. A. (1983). Strategy game and prolemsolving-an instructional pair whose time has come!.The A rithmetic Teacher,83(12),p26-28 .
Littlewood, W. (1981). Communicative language teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lorie, A. (2000). Theatre in the classroom—a creative way toteach and learn. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service NO. ED 445357)
Maehr, M. L., & Archer, J. (1987). Motivation and school achievement. In L. G. Katz (Ed.) Current topics in early childhood education (pp.85-107). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Main, R. G. (1993). Integrating motivation into instructional design process. Educational technology, 33(12), 37-41.
Matheidesz, M. (1988). Communication games: are they really effective? (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Ed 299820)
Nemerow, L. G. (1996). Do classroom games improve motivation and learning? Teaching and Change, 3(4).
Pajares, F. (1992). Teachers' beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307-332.
Paul, D. (2003). Teaching English to children in Asian. Hong Kong: Pearson Education North Asia Limited.
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital game-based learning. NY: McGraw-Hill.
Quinn, C. (2000). Mlearning:Mobile, Wireless,In-Your-Pocket Lerning Retrieved November 25, 2003 from the WWW:
http://www.linezine.com/2.1/features/cqmmwiyp.htm
Randel, J. M., Morris, B. A., Wetzel, C. D. & Whitehill, B. V. (1992). The effectiveness of games for educational purposes: a review of recent research. Simulation & Gaming, 23(3), 261-276.
Richards, J. & Rodgers, T. (1986) Approaches and Method in Language Teaching: A Description and Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Richard J. C., Gallo, P., & Renandya, W. A. (1999). Exploring teachers’ beliefs and the processes of change. Retrieved January 14, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://www. professirjackrichards.com/pdfs/exploring-teacher-change-pdf.
Rixon, S. (1981). How to use games in language teaching. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan Publishers Ltd.
Sawyers, J. K., & Rogers, C. S. (1988). Helping young children develop through play: a practical guide for parents, caretakers, and teachers. Washington D. C.: National association for education of young children.
Shie,Jian – Shiang(1991). Aspect of EFL game. Taipei, Taiwan: The Crane Publishing Co. Ltd.
Slavin, R. E. (1994). Educational psychology: Theory and practice. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Small, R. V.,& Gluck, M.(1994). Educational technology research section – The relationship of motivational conditions to effective instructional attributes:a magnitude scaling approach. Educational Technology,34(8),33-40.
Sobel, J. (1983). Everybody wins: Non-competitive games for young children. New York: Walker.
Spitzer, D. R. (1996). Motivation: The neglected factors in instructional design. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service NO. EJ 524 806)
Stipek, D. J. (1993). Motivation to learn: From theory to practice.Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Swartz, R. (1974) Education as entertainment and irresponsibility in the classroom. Science Education, 58, p. 119-25.
Tan, A. G. (1998). An exploratory study of Singaporean primarypupils’ desirable activities for English lessons. Educational Journal,26(1), 59-76.
Uberman, A. (1998). The use of games for vocabulary presentation and revision. Forum, 36(1).
Woods, D. (1996). Teacher Cognition in Language Teaching: Beliefs,Decision-Making and Classroom Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.

論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2007-07-02公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2007-07-02起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信