|| Implementing Context-based Instruction for Word Inferencing in EFL Reading: the effects on Technical College Learners
||Department of English
context-based vocabulary strategy instruction
優點為：(1) 增加閱讀速度、(2) 增強閱讀信心、(3) 簡易閱讀理解、(4) 注意到語境線索使用、 (5) 加強考試作答能力。其中，(1)選擇有趣且相關的閱讀題材，以及(2) 合作式的同儕學習，提昇其語境學習動機和效果。 學習限制分面為：(1) 字彙（能力）不足、(2) 誤用語境線索、(3) 語境線索不明顯、 (4) 練習不充足、 (5) 個人缺乏學習意願。質性分析結果亦反映影響教學成功的要素為: (1)應用學習反思於策略教學過程、 (2)關心學習者情意因素、 (3)合作式教學、 (4)適當的選材 、(5)系統且引導式的練習。
||In the EFL learning context, learners always encounter unknown words in pleasure reading and academic course work. This study was theorized upon the notions of explicit instruction, strategy-based instruction and second/ foreign language learning to bring learners in the technology-oriented university the learning experience of word-solving strategies from context. The researcher hopes that the proposed guidelines can help EFL teachers to incorporate in their daily lessons context-based instruction for inferring the meaning of unknown words.
The quasi-experimental study aimed to investigate the immediate and delayed effects of a fifteen-week context-based instruction on EFL learners in a technological college, in terms of the ability to infer word meanings and reading comprehension, the perception of strategy use and knowledge use for unknown words, as well as the reactions to the benefits and limitations of contextual analysis. Quantitative data included a set of pretests, immediate posttests, and delayed posttests on word inferencing, reading comprehension, self-evaluation survey, and vocabulary strategy questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected from the retrospective written descriptions of guessing processes and learners’ periodical reflective journal entries. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with repeated measures, analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures and a non-parametric test were the three major statistical techniques chosen for this study.
Findings are summarized as follows. Firstly, the effects of treatment were substantially meaningful. The two experimental groups outperformed the comparison group on word inferencing ability, reading comprehension, strategy and knowledge use immediately after the instruction. While the treatment groups at different proficiency level benefited from instruction, the more proficient group suppressed the less capable group. Secondly, the students in the experimental groups and the comparison group used world knowledge (i.e. prior knowledge) frequently for guessing prior to instruction. While the experimental groups’ use of context clues increased in frequencies and varied in types (i.e. discourse knowledge, grammar knowledge, and morphological knowledge) immediately after instruction, the comparison group did not change the way of guessing. Thirdly, while each of the groups degraded with time, the delayed effects still maintained. Finally, qualitative analysis of the learners’ reflective journal entries indicated that learners benefited in: (a) increasing their reading speed, (b) facilitating their reading comprehension, (c) enhancing their confidence and sense of achievement in reading English, (d) developing awareness of context clues surrounding the unknown words, and (e) developing problem-solving ability on tackling test questions. They enjoyed the classroom activities involving (a) selection of appropriate and relevant materials, and (b) cooperative learning on guessing and learning. The limitations of using context clues were identified as: (a) insufficient vocabulary (b) misuse of context clues, (c) insufficient textual clues, (d) insufficient practice, and (e) lower motivation.
This study concludes that inferring word meaning from context is amenable to explicit instruction for a semester and could be a complement for vocabulary acquisition. It further recommends that contextual inferencing be integrated into the reading classes as part of the strategy instruction in EFL learning context.
||TABLE OF CONTENTS
ENGLISH ABSTRACT iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS viii
LIST OF TABLES xi
LIST OF FIGURES xiv
Chapter I. 1
Statement of Research Background 1
The Need for the Current Study 3
Purpose of the Study 5
Research Questions 6
Significance of the Study 7
Definition of Terms 8
Chapter II. 12
Review of Related Literature and Theoretical Background 12
Explicit Instruction 12
Characteristics of Explicit Instruction 12
Components of Explicit Instruction 13
Strategies-based Instruction and Language Learning 18
Explicit Instruction Model for Strategy Instruction 18
The Role of Teacher Explanation 20
Metacognition, Language Learning and Strategy Training 21
Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension 25
Vocabulary Size and Reading Comprehension 25
Vocabulary knowledge and Reading Comprehension 27
Direct Instruction in Word Meaning, the use of a Dictionary, and Inferring from Context in Reading 28
Theoretical Background for Word Inference from Context Clues 31
Depth of Processing Hypothesis in Cognitive Learning 31
The Constructive View of Word Meaning 33
Constructive perspective. 33
Word and meaning as a cognitive process. 35
Context Clues 37
Types of Knowledge and contextual Inference 38
Types of Contextual Clues 39
Limitations of Using Context Clues 43
Instruction of Word Inferencing from Context 47
Current Research on Word Inferencing from Context in Taiwan 52
Summary of Literature Review 54
Rationale of the Present Study 55
Chapter III. 58
Pilot Study 59
The Modifications of the Pilot Study 61
Design of the Study 62
Data Collection & Procedures 73
Implementation of Context-based Instruction 75
Instructional Framework: Explicit Instruction Model 76
Metacognitive Context Approach For Inferring Meaning 78
Instruction Procedures 80
Guided Practice in the Classrooms 85
Teaching Materials 85
Data Analysis 88
Quantitative Analysis 88
Qualitative Analysis 90
Characteristics of Research Design 91
Overview of Research Design 91
Chapter IV. 94
Quantitative Results 95
Pre-experimental Group Differences 95
Immediate Effect on Word Inferring 97
Delayed Effects On Word Inferencing 102
Immediate Effects On Reading Comprehension 104
Delayed Effects on Reading Comprehension 110
Results of Self-Evaluation Questionnaire 111
Effects On the Use of Strategies and Knowledge Sources for Lexical Inferencing 114
Change in cognitive strategy use. 114
Change in the use of metacognitive strategies. 118
Change in the use of knowledge sources. 123
Qualitative Results 132
Benefits of Explicit Instruction of Context Clues and Contextual Analysis. 132
Limitations of Explicit Instruction of Context Clues and Contextual Analysis 141
Summary of Findings 145
Chapter V. 148
Discussion, Conclusions and Implications 148
Immediate Effects of Context-based Instruction on Word Inferencing Ability 148
Delayed Effect of Context-based Instruction on Word Inferencing Ability 152
Effect of Context-based Instruction on Reading Comprehension 154
Effects of Context-based Instruction on Strategy and Knowledge Use 155
Characteristics of A Meaningful Context-based Instruction Program 158
Limitations and Delimitations 166
Implications for Instruction 167
Implications for Future Research 169
Appendix A: Permission License for Photocopy Duplication Use 189
Appendix B: Word Inferencing Test and Reading Comprehension 191
Appendix C: Vocabulary Strategies for Unknown Words 201
Appendix D: Self-Evaluation Questionnaire 203
Appendix E: Guideline for Learning Reflective Journal 204
Appendix F: Instructional Content for Experimental Groups 205
Appendix G: Clues Coding Scheme 206
Appendix H: Teaching Reflective Journal 207
Appendix I: Checking List for Teaching Observation 207
Appendix J: Parameter Estimates on Lexical Inferencing 208
Appendix K: Post Hoc Tests for Pre-experimental Differences 209
Appendix L: Chinese Originals of the Quotations from Reflective Journals 210
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3- 1. Demographic overview for total sample 67
Table 3-2. Tests administered at the pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest 75
Table 3-3. Overview of research design 92
Table 4-1. Mean and standard deviation of pre-experimental group differences for reading comprehension and word inferring ability 95
Table 4-2. Summary table for ANOVA on the pre-experimental difference for reading comprehension and word inferring ability 96
Table 4-3. Summary table for repeated measures ANCOVA for the word inferring test 98
Table 4-4. Adjusted means, standard errors and 95% confidence interval on the word inferencing test 99
Table 4-5. The mean of the combined immediate and delayed posttest scores forthe experimental groups and the comparison group 100
Table 4-6. Result of LSD test on the combined posttests for the experimental groups the comparison group 102
Table 4-7. Summary table for repeated measures ANCOVA for the reading comprehension test 105
Table 4-8. Adjusted means, standard errors and 95% confidence interval on the reading comprehension 106
Table 4-9. Between-group differences on the reading comprehension test on the immediate posttest and the delayed posttest 108
Table 4.10. Within-group differences on the reading comprehension test on the pretest, immediate posttest and delayed posttest 109
Table 4-11. The comparison of the overall response on the context-based instruction for the experimental groups 112
Table 4-12. The comparisons of the response between the experimental groups A and B on each part of the self-evaluation survey 113
Table 4-13. Summary table for two-way ANOVA with repeated measures on the cognitive strategy use 115
Table 4-14. Means and standard errors for cognitive strategy use on the pretest, immediate posttest, and delayed posted 115
Table 4-15. Results of post hoc test on mean differences of reported cognitive strategy use on the pretest, immediate posttest, and delayed posttest 117
Table 4-16. Summary table for two-way ANOVA with repeated measures on the metacognitive strategy use 119
Table 4-17. Means and standard errors for metacognitive strategy use on the pretest, immediate posttest, and delayed posted 119
Table 4-18. Results of post hoc test on mean differences of reported metacognitive strategy on the pretest, immediate posttest, and delayed posttest 122
Table 4-19. Total frequency and types in the use of context clue as knowledge source for lexical inferencing prior to and after instruction 125
Table 4-20. Descriptive statistics for the frequency of using knowledge resources on the pretest, immediate posttest, and delayed posttest 126
Table 4-21. Mean and median differences in frequency of using knowledge sources for each group at different times 127
Table 4-22. The observed significance levels of the comparisons on the frequency of using knowledge sources for each group at two different times 127
Table 4-23. Summary statistics for the types of using knowledge sources for for each group at two different times 130
Table 4-24. The observed significance levels of the comparisons on the types of using knowledge sources for each group at two different times 130
Table 4-25. Major themes of learners’ feedback toward the benefits of learning context clues and contextual analysis for word inferencing 133
Table 4-26. Major themes of learners’ feedback toward the limitations of learning context clues and contextual analysis for word inferencing 141
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2-1..Learning framework 15
Figure 2-2. Instructional design components of explicit instruction. 17
Figure 2-3. Instructional delivery componets of explicit instruction. 14
Figure 3-1. Metacognitive context approach for word inferencing………79
Figure 3-2. The flow chart for the research design…… ……………….. 91
Figure 4-1. Estimated marginal means of word inferencing for the combined posttests 101
Figure 4-2. Estimated marginal means of the word inferencing test 103
Figure 4-3. Estimated marginal means of the reading comprehension test 107
Figure 4-4. Estimated marginal means of the use of cognitive strategies 116
Figure 4-5. Estimated marginal means of the use of metacognitive strategies 121
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