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系統識別號 U0002-2602201015012400
中文論文名稱 從加強國際核子安全看核武軍備裁撤協議:國際原子能總署在“核不擴散條約”下的角色
英文論文名稱 “Strengthening International Safeguards Nuclear Agreements for Nuclear Disarmament: the Role of the IAEA under the NPT”
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 98
學期 1
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 阿瑪托
研究生英文姓名 Silvia Amato
學號 696330371
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2010-01-14
論文頁數 233頁
口試委員 指導教授-李大中
委員-盧業中
委員-王高成
委員-李大中
中文關鍵字 防護  國際原子能總署  核不擴散條約  不擴散  核子武器 
英文關鍵字 Safeguards  International Atomic Energy Agency  nuclear non-proliferation treaty  non-proliferation  nuclear weapons 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 本論文的目的是在於了解現階段國家以及國際層面上對於核子能的建制。主要的問題則是有關於防護以及不服從,以及過去還有現在國家或是非國家行動者對於國際安全的挑戰,跟本地對於全球核不擴散議題的不合作。對於球性裁減武器以及不擴散等發展進程主要的關鍵已然集中於由國際原子能總署所支持的核不擴散條約。然而,究竟在國家或非國家行動者對於核子服從議題以及有效的違背之間究竟又有何遺漏?數個類似的案例當中,未經許可的核能計畫被錯誤地認定為涉及製造核子武器,儘管他們宣稱是為和平的用途。本篇論文試著闡述一系列有關於國際原子能總署根據核不擴散條約所建立防護機制的論點,以及確認何種機制能有效地管理與辨別行動以確保簽約國的和平與世界安全。主要地,我試圖表示出對於由國際原子能總署所落實的核子能控管與為了武器裁減與不擴散所採取的透明倡議,對於國際和平的辯論。透過核武國家以及非核武國家之間合作為了測量防護安全所建立的集體倡議,也由於核子技術的發展和民間的需求,包含了潛在的雙重使用,對於核武國家與非國家具有威脅性的暗示。本文主要的貢獻在於國際原子能組織/核不擴散條約國際法理性的框架。
英文摘要 The purpose of this work has been to understanding the current nuclear regime at national and international level. Major questions that have been related to safeguards, noncompliance, and to past and present challenges posed to international security by state and non-state actors, fundamentally incorporate global nuclear non-proliferation issues. Where key elements to seeing the development in time of leading efforts on global disarmament and non-proliferation have concentrated, in particular, on the Non-Proliferation Nuclear Treaty (NPT) that has been supported by the International Atomic Agency (IAEA). What is missing then in central roundtables about nuclear compliance issues and effective violations perpetrated by states and non-state actors? A number of cases have emerged in parallel with failures to recognize unauthorized nuclear programs involved in the manufacturing of nuclear weapons, despite their declared peaceful uses. This work tries to devote a series of argumentations about the IAEA Safeguards in accordance with the NPT, and the confrontations to which it has been faced for the effective management of its verification activities when addressed to signatories Member States for peace and security maintenance worldwide. In essence, I have portrayed an international peace debate, together with legal aspects, about the control of nuclear energy done by the IAEA and transparent initiatives undertaken for disarmament and non-proliferation objectives. Collective initiatives which have been done through cooperation among nuclear weapons states and non-nuclear weapons states for the establishment of confidence-building measures safeguarding safety and security, also in view of development changes of nuclear technologies and their civilian applications, including potential dual uses of nuclear energy, with threatening implications for both NWS and NNWS. Main findings have subsequently been exposed within the IAEA/NPT international legal framework.
論文目次 Foreword..3
Acknowledgements..9
Abbreviations..10
Tables & Figures..12

Chapters Overview

Chapter I Introduction..14

Section 1 – Scope and Statement of the Research Question..15
Section 2 – Research Motives and Objectives..16
Section 3 – Theoretical Approach..17
Section 4 – Research Methodology..19
Section 5 – Research Questions..20
Section 6 – Concept Framework and Chapters Arrangement..21

Chapter II Historical Background and Normative Principles of the NPT

Introduction..33
Section 1 – Origins, Purposes, Principles, IAEA and the NPT..35
Section 2 – Legal Aspects of the NPT (Obligations of the NWS and NNWS and their Implications)..38
Section 3 – NPT Review Process: NPT Review Conferences (1975-2005) and Preparatory Committee for 2010..46
Section 3 (a): NPT Preparatory Committees Sessions..60
Summary..66

Chapter III IAEA Integrated Safeguards System

Introduction..68
Section 1 – Evolution of the Safeguards System to Strengthen and Implement Control Measures..68
Section 2 – Current Responsibilities that the Agency Performs in Relation to the Protection of International Peace and Security..85
Section 3 – IAEA Reporting and Cooperation..97
Summary..121

Chapter IV Important Mechanisms and Issues Related to the IAEA and the NPT

Introduction..124
Section 1 – UNSCR 1540 Counter – Proliferation Initiatives..124
Section 2 – Regional Areas of Nuclear Weapons (NWFZ)..138
Section 3 – The NPT Export Controls, the Nuclear Exporters’ Committee/Zangger Committee, And the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG)..145
Summary..150

Chapter V Case Studies

Introduction..152
Section 1 – Theoretical Traditional Assumptions..152
Section 2 – Case Studies: Iran, Iraq, India, and North Korea..167
Summary..184

Chapter VI Final Assessment of Roles of the NPT and IAEA

Section 1 – Prospects of the NPT and Overall Activity of the IAEA..186
Section 2 – Conclusion..197

Bibliography..202

Annexes..222

List of Abbreviations
AP: Additional Protocol
Atom: The basic building block of matter and which cannot be divided or broken up by chemical means.
CD: Conference on Disarmament.
CSA: Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement
CTBT: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.
Fissile material: Material containing atoms capable of undergoing fission. The three main fissile materials are uranium-233, uranium-235 and plutonium-239.
FMCT: Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty.
HEU: High Enriched Uranium.
IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency.
INFCIRC/66/Rev. 2. : The Agency’s Safeguards System (1965, as Provisionally Extended in 1966 and 1968), 1968.
INFCIRC/153 (Corrected). : The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States Required in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 1972.
ITDB: IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database
MPA: Model Protocol Additional
NPT: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Non-proliferation: Measures to ensure that weapons of mass destruction do not spread beyond theexisting possessors.
NPT Review Conference: A meeting of the States Parties to the NPT that occurs every five years to assess the status of the Treaty’s implementation.
Nuclear Fuel Cycle: All operations associated with the production of nuclear energy, including mining, processing and enrichment of uranium, manufacture of nuclear fuel, operation of nuclear reactors (including research reactors), reprocessing of nuclear fuel and storage of waste.
NSG: Nuclear Suppliers’ Group.
Nuclear Weapons: The collective term for atomic and hydrogen weapons of all types and their delivery systems.
NNWS: Non-Nuclear-Weapon States
NWS: Nuclear-Weapon States.
NWFZ: Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zone.
P-5: Permanent Five (members of the UN Security Council).
PrepCom: Preparatory Committee.
RevCon: Review Conference.
Safeguards: Measures applied to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy by the International Atomic Energy Agency to verify that they are not used for military purposes and to prevent the diversion of nuclear materials from nuclear plants.
UNSC: United Nations Security Council.
VOA: Voluntary Offer Agreement
WMD: Weapons of Mass Destruction
Tables & Figures
Table 3.1 – IAEA scheme of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. ……………….……….…………….79
Table 3.2 – Greenpeace matrix historical overview of proposals……………………..….....93
Table 3.3 – European regional repository project vs. multiplicity of groups…….………....96
Table 3.4 – World-wide nuclear power plants………………………………………….......101
Table 3.5 – Proposals for supply assurances……………….………………………….........106
Figure 3.1 – Number of reactors in operation worldwide………………………………......102
Figure 3.2 – Nuclear Power Plants, 2009-10-01……………………...….……………..…...102
Figure 3.3 – Number of reactors under construction worldwide ……………………….......103
Figure 3.4 – Nuclear share in electricity generation, 2008………………….………..……..103
Table 4.1 – Illicit nuclear trafficking agreements …………………….…………….....….…114
Table 4.2 – Physical nuclear protection measures……………………….……………...…...117
Table 4.3 – NWFZ Treaties …………………………………………………………....……127
Table 4.4 – History of the NSG ……………………………………..………….….....….….134
Figure 4.1 – Incidents to the ITDB, 1993 - 2004…………………………………..….……..121
Figure 4.2 – Incidents with related criminal activities, 1993 - 2008 ……………….....……..122
Figure 4.3 – Incidents involving HEU and Pu to the ITDB, 1993 - 2004………....….………124
Figure 4.4 – Incidents involving nuclear materials, 1993- 2004………………........…….….124
Table 6.1 – Proliferation resistance measures…………….………………….……….…...…176
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• Open CRS (Congressional Research Reports for the People): Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments: http://opencrs.com/document/RL33548/2008-09-18/

• U.S. Department of State: http://www.state.gov/t/isn/c12743.htm

• U.N. Prepcom 2009: Preparatory Committee for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference: http://www.un.org/disarmament/WMD/Nuclear/NPT2010Prepcom/PrepCom2009/index.html

• UNODA: U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs: Official Documents for the 2000 Review Conference: http://www.un.org/disarmament/WMD/Nuclear/2000-NPT/OfficialDocs1.shtml

• UNODA: U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs:1995 Review and Extension Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: http://www.un.org/disarmament/WMD/Nuclear/1995-NPT/1995NPT.shtml

• U.N. Security Council Resolutions – 1998 at: http://www.un.org/Docs/scres/1998/scres98.htm
• The White House: Office of the Press Secretary: Remarks by President Barack Obama: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-By-President-Barack-Obama-In-Prague-As-Delivered/
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