||“Strengthening International Safeguards Nuclear Agreements for Nuclear Disarmament: the Role of the IAEA under the NPT”
||Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
International Atomic Energy Agency
nuclear non-proliferation treaty
||The purpose of this work has been to understanding the current nuclear regime at national and international level. Major questions that have been related to safeguards, noncompliance, and to past and present challenges posed to international security by state and non-state actors, fundamentally incorporate global nuclear non-proliferation issues. Where key elements to seeing the development in time of leading efforts on global disarmament and non-proliferation have concentrated, in particular, on the Non-Proliferation Nuclear Treaty (NPT) that has been supported by the International Atomic Agency (IAEA). What is missing then in central roundtables about nuclear compliance issues and effective violations perpetrated by states and non-state actors? A number of cases have emerged in parallel with failures to recognize unauthorized nuclear programs involved in the manufacturing of nuclear weapons, despite their declared peaceful uses. This work tries to devote a series of argumentations about the IAEA Safeguards in accordance with the NPT, and the confrontations to which it has been faced for the effective management of its verification activities when addressed to signatories Member States for peace and security maintenance worldwide. In essence, I have portrayed an international peace debate, together with legal aspects, about the control of nuclear energy done by the IAEA and transparent initiatives undertaken for disarmament and non-proliferation objectives. Collective initiatives which have been done through cooperation among nuclear weapons states and non-nuclear weapons states for the establishment of confidence-building measures safeguarding safety and security, also in view of development changes of nuclear technologies and their civilian applications, including potential dual uses of nuclear energy, with threatening implications for both NWS and NNWS. Main findings have subsequently been exposed within the IAEA/NPT international legal framework.
Tables & Figures..12
Chapter I Introduction..14
Section 1 – Scope and Statement of the Research Question..15
Section 2 – Research Motives and Objectives..16
Section 3 – Theoretical Approach..17
Section 4 – Research Methodology..19
Section 5 – Research Questions..20
Section 6 – Concept Framework and Chapters Arrangement..21
Chapter II Historical Background and Normative Principles of the NPT
Section 1 – Origins, Purposes, Principles, IAEA and the NPT..35
Section 2 – Legal Aspects of the NPT (Obligations of the NWS and NNWS and their Implications)..38
Section 3 – NPT Review Process: NPT Review Conferences (1975-2005) and Preparatory Committee for 2010..46
Section 3 (a): NPT Preparatory Committees Sessions..60
Chapter III IAEA Integrated Safeguards System
Section 1 – Evolution of the Safeguards System to Strengthen and Implement Control Measures..68
Section 2 – Current Responsibilities that the Agency Performs in Relation to the Protection of International Peace and Security..85
Section 3 – IAEA Reporting and Cooperation..97
Chapter IV Important Mechanisms and Issues Related to the IAEA and the NPT
Section 1 – UNSCR 1540 Counter – Proliferation Initiatives..124
Section 2 – Regional Areas of Nuclear Weapons (NWFZ)..138
Section 3 – The NPT Export Controls, the Nuclear Exporters’ Committee/Zangger Committee, And the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG)..145
Chapter V Case Studies
Section 1 – Theoretical Traditional Assumptions..152
Section 2 – Case Studies: Iran, Iraq, India, and North Korea..167
Chapter VI Final Assessment of Roles of the NPT and IAEA
Section 1 – Prospects of the NPT and Overall Activity of the IAEA..186
Section 2 – Conclusion..197
List of Abbreviations
AP: Additional Protocol
Atom: The basic building block of matter and which cannot be divided or broken up by chemical means.
CD: Conference on Disarmament.
CSA: Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement
CTBT: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.
Fissile material: Material containing atoms capable of undergoing fission. The three main fissile materials are uranium-233, uranium-235 and plutonium-239.
FMCT: Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty.
HEU: High Enriched Uranium.
IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency.
INFCIRC/66/Rev. 2. : The Agency’s Safeguards System (1965, as Provisionally Extended in 1966 and 1968), 1968.
INFCIRC/153 (Corrected). : The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States Required in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 1972.
ITDB: IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database
MPA: Model Protocol Additional
NPT: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Non-proliferation: Measures to ensure that weapons of mass destruction do not spread beyond theexisting possessors.
NPT Review Conference: A meeting of the States Parties to the NPT that occurs every five years to assess the status of the Treaty’s implementation.
Nuclear Fuel Cycle: All operations associated with the production of nuclear energy, including mining, processing and enrichment of uranium, manufacture of nuclear fuel, operation of nuclear reactors (including research reactors), reprocessing of nuclear fuel and storage of waste.
NSG: Nuclear Suppliers’ Group.
Nuclear Weapons: The collective term for atomic and hydrogen weapons of all types and their delivery systems.
NNWS: Non-Nuclear-Weapon States
NWS: Nuclear-Weapon States.
NWFZ: Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zone.
P-5: Permanent Five (members of the UN Security Council).
PrepCom: Preparatory Committee.
RevCon: Review Conference.
Safeguards: Measures applied to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy by the International Atomic Energy Agency to verify that they are not used for military purposes and to prevent the diversion of nuclear materials from nuclear plants.
UNSC: United Nations Security Council.
VOA: Voluntary Offer Agreement
WMD: Weapons of Mass Destruction
Tables & Figures
Table 3.1 – IAEA scheme of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. ……………….……….…………….79
Table 3.2 – Greenpeace matrix historical overview of proposals……………………..….....93
Table 3.3 – European regional repository project vs. multiplicity of groups…….………....96
Table 3.4 – World-wide nuclear power plants………………………………………….......101
Table 3.5 – Proposals for supply assurances……………….………………………….........106
Figure 3.1 – Number of reactors in operation worldwide………………………………......102
Figure 3.2 – Nuclear Power Plants, 2009-10-01……………………...….……………..…...102
Figure 3.3 – Number of reactors under construction worldwide ……………………….......103
Figure 3.4 – Nuclear share in electricity generation, 2008………………….………..……..103
Table 4.1 – Illicit nuclear trafficking agreements …………………….…………….....….…114
Table 4.2 – Physical nuclear protection measures……………………….……………...…...117
Table 4.3 – NWFZ Treaties …………………………………………………………....……127
Table 4.4 – History of the NSG ……………………………………..………….….....….….134
Figure 4.1 – Incidents to the ITDB, 1993 - 2004…………………………………..….……..121
Figure 4.2 – Incidents with related criminal activities, 1993 - 2008 ……………….....……..122
Figure 4.3 – Incidents involving HEU and Pu to the ITDB, 1993 - 2004………....….………124
Figure 4.4 – Incidents involving nuclear materials, 1993- 2004………………........…….….124
Table 6.1 – Proliferation resistance measures…………….………………….……….…...…176
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