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系統識別號 U0002-2602201012015200
中文論文名稱 緬甸撣邦跨國性與人類安全之研究︰批判性安全之觀點
英文論文名稱 A Study of Transnational and Human Security in Shan State, Myanmar: A Critical Security Perspective
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 東南亞研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
學年度 98
學期 1
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 辛心
研究生英文姓名 Katherine Jane Clague
學號 695260256
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-01-27
論文頁數 208頁
口試委員 指導教授-林若雩
委員-李瓊莉
委員-陳牧民
中文關鍵字 緬甸  撣邦  非傳統安全  跨國性安全  人類安全  批判性安全  威爾斯學派  毒品交易  主流化  愛滋病 
英文關鍵字 Myanmar  Shan state  non-traditional security  transnational security  human security  critical security studies  the Welsh school  drug trade  mainstreaming  HIV/AIDS 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 全球化時期的跨國性安全威脅是種「無邊境的問題」。後冷戰時代,隨著單極(unipolar)世界體系的形成,毒品交易逐漸全球化並且亦傾向集中在所謂「失敗國家」的境內,或者在地理上邊陲的地區。緬甸的情形更是嚴峻,毒品交易在這個失敗邊陲國家中所造成的是更深層的非傳統安全威脅。這種威脅與失敗/邊陲國家之間的複雜關係會發展至今日的現況並非巧合,反而突顯了世界政治與經濟體系的嚴重結構性問題 (UN 2000c:11 在 Bhattacharyya 2005: 92);這樣的情勢亦說明了安全與貧窮之間既根生蒂固又不可否認的關連性。隨著學者和決策者開始承認全球貧富差距的擴大以及發展不良等問題,其實就是引起其跨國性安全威脅之主因,與貧窮相關,以人為中心的議題逐漸被安全化,定位為人類安全威脅。然而,雖人類安全與跨國性安全議題均屬於非傳統安全論述的範圍,但是兩者被安全化的目的、指涉對象和收穫者的差異,使著兩者背後被安全化的意義有所明顯不同。

『我們現今所處的環境取決於我們過去所選擇的方式(Booth 1991:35)』。於是經由對過去的反省,可作為創造更好未來之基礎。藉由採取批判性理論思維研究緬甸撣邦跨國性與人類安全威脅,筆者跳脫既存的分析框架,發掘其受威脅的地緣政治歷史背景之根源,並探討為何以新現實主義思考所制定的處理措施及政策無法成功達成目標。從解構階段到重建階段,筆者分析國際層次行爲者回應安全的新面向而企圖重建安全措施的兩個例子:毒品交易和愛滋病。從分析目前重建的個案筆者發現:唯有經過安全論述之深化(deepening),在議題上的擴展才能真正處理當地多面向的威脅來源。由這新的視角可進一步探討如何真正處理從結構或歷史背景而產生的錯誤,繼而在最後提出以人類安全主流化作為解決撣邦地區非傳統安全威脅背後的根源問題之未來途徑。

本論文按照威爾斯學派的安全論述顯示,若透過推動以人爲中心的安全概念,藉著媒體以及其他動能者的「言語行動」,將撣邦人民的安全需求提升到安全領域的層次並納入各層次安全決策的考量之中,就能將安全的最後利益從過去統治者(國家菁英以及國際體系中強權國家)的手中歸回到傳統上「無聲」的弱勢族群,那麽安全反而有潛力成爲正面實踐「人的解放」之概念性工具。
英文摘要 A new generation of trans-national security threats facing us in this Globalised era are borderless in nature; emerging from a remapping of the globe along unipolar lines following the end of the cold war, the illegal drug trade for example has gradually developed into a globalised industry, and the production of this trade has orientated itself towards the territory of so called failed states or economically and geopolitically marginalised areas. The situation in the Shan State, Myanmar, is an exaggerated version of this, as the country’s chronic drug trade has not only deepened and diversified but also led to the emergence of a string of other non-traditional security threats all fuelled by the characteristic poverty and marginalisation of this problem area. The complex connection between this new generation of security threats on the one side and failed or marginalized states on the other is not after all a coincidence but rather an indication of the deep-seated structural problems laying often dormant within the World political and economic system (UN 2000c:11 Bhattacharyya 2005: 92), revealing a deep and undeniable link between security and poverty. In recent years many of these human centred, poverty fuelled security threats have been defined in international security literature as part of a human security discourse. However, despite the fact that trans-national and human security are both part of this new non-traditional security discourse, they are in reality drastically different in terms of motivation and referent object for their securitization.

With the Welsh School of Critical Security Studies (CSS) as its theoretical base, this thesis argues that any discussion of constructing new security measures at a localized level should be contingent on the deconstructing of the top-down hegemony which currently exists in mainstream security discourse. By stepping out of the given local and global framework, this critical project has sought out the roots of insecurity in the geopolitical historical context of Myanmar’s Shan States: the deep-seated conflict existing between the indigenous collective images of the region and the modern shared inter-subjective ideas which have become the ‘reality’ of the realist school of security studies. Following this process of deconstruction, this paper analyzes two attempts at an international level to reconstruct security measures for addressing trans-national security threats in the light of their roots in poverty and underdevelopment: the drug trade and HIV/AIDS. Through probing into the counterproductive effects of realist informed measures and policies, formulated in response to the emergence of these trans-national security threats, it becomes evident that only by first deepening the security discourse to include human-centred means with emancipatory ends, can policymakers and actors begin to address the multiple sources of insecurity threatening the Shan State which have been highlighted by the broadening of security to include new non-traditional issues.

Finally this thesis discusses the potential of mainstreaming human security as a future direction for policymakers and security actors alike. Emphasising the dual advantages of this approach in its potential to improve the human security situation in the region and in turn reduce the amount of trans-national threats emerging from its borders, while at the same time working to restore both the Shan State and Myanmar to their respective political communities through a process of communicative action; while through the process of promoting cooperation and interaction between national and local governments and civil society within Myanmar, taking the first tentative step in establishing a bottom-up political community for the future.
論文目次 序 …………………………………………………………………III
第一章:緒論 ……………………………………………………1
第一節:研究動機 ………………………………………………3
第二節:研究目的…………………………………………………6
第三節:文獻回顧 ………………………………………………….13
第四節:研究架構與研究方法……………………………………23
一、運作定義…………………………………………23
二、理論架構: 研究範例與觀點……………………24
三、研究方法 …………………………………………31
四、研究範圍與限制 ……………………………………………34
第二章:從解構撣邦歷史發展對「人」的安全所造成的威脅,揭示跨國性安全威脅之歷史根源 …38
第一節:撣邦地緣政治模式的擺動性為傳統朝貢體系之重要特色39
第二節: 撣邦居民的權利和自決權因殖民時代而遭到弱化………42
第三節:撣邦地區成為後殖民時期外來勢力常劫掠和剝削之對象 47
第四節: 以撣邦封閉狀態為全球化時期「無邊境問題」之來源…54
第三章:以撣邦禁毒措施為例,解析跨國性安全處理措施之傳統安全困境.…69
第一節:跨國性與人類安全概念及定義在國際層次之發展………72
第二節:根除罌粟與替代種植措施之實際限制與人類安全之困境76
第三節:以中緬替代種植合作為撣邦人民剝削之新開端…………90
第四節:從批判性脈絡分析撣邦跨國性安全取決於人類安全之困境…94
第四章: 以愛滋病毒/愛滋病因應措施為建立合作平台的共同目標…100
第一節:愛滋病毒/愛滋病定位為安全議題之背景與趨勢………101
第二節:國際非政府組織之因應措施、方法及計劃………………106
第三節:緬甸政府之角色 …………………………………………114
第四節:愛滋病毒/愛滋病為全球傳染性疾病之「主角」一把雙刃劍.….121
第五章:針對人類安全威脅因應措施主流化之脈絡分析…………126
第一節:撣邦人類安全主流化内在潛力之層次分析……………129
第二節:四面向分析人類安全主流化之改善潛力…………………142
第三節:以人類安全主流化爲未來走向之限制與難題……………151
第四節:國際層次援助與制裁對落實撣邦人類安全之限制與未來走向…154
第六章:結論 ……………………………………………………….167
第一節:研究發現 ………………………………………………..167
第二節:解放性未來走向:建構「另類世界」的三個發展前途…175
第三節:期許與省思…………………………………..182
參考獻 ………………………………………………………….184
附錄 ……………………………………………………………….201
縮寫字表 ………………………………………………………… 205
中英特殊詞表 …………………………………………………… 207

圖表目次

1.1 安全研究範圍之比較…………………………………………24
1.2緬甸地圖…………………………………………………………36
1.3撣邦地圖…………………………………………………………36
3.1 2004 – 2008年撣邦種植罌粟面積之分布圖…………………78
3.2 原無種植和原有種植罌粟村莊之負債比較…………………83
3.3 毒品氣球效應…………………………………………………87
5.1 三層次安全威脅的惡性循環…………………………………133


1.1田野調查之訪談模式…………………………………………34
3.1 原有種植罌粟村莊的稻米短缺程度…………………………79
3.2原本未種植罌粟村莊的稻米短缺程度………………………79
4.1撣邦就學情況………………………………………………146
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期刊:

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報告:

Baldwin, S. (2006) The situation in Myanmar: drugs, their use and the impact
they have on individuals and communities, Burnet Institute: Unpublished article.
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Development Agency Perception’ (a study commissioned by the UK DID Southeast Asia) UK Department for ID (retrieved 2009.04.01).http://www.dfid.gov.uk/mdg/aid-effectiveness/newsletters/burma-report.pdf.
Juo-yu Lin (2007) Non-traditional security issues – energy, health, environment,
terrorism, narcotics,An Emerging East Asia and the Next American Administration,
-------- (2003) “Security cooperation framework and mechanism in Southeast Asia”,
presented at 2003 Forum on Prospects in Asia Security and Development in the East Asian Region? Taipei: the Asia Foundation, 15th November.
Ministry of Health – Myanmar (2006) ‘Myanmar National Strategic Plan on HIV and AIDS’, Naypyidaw: Ministry of Health, Naypyidaw Government of the Union of Myanmar.
Medecins San Frontieres (2008) ‘A Preventable Fate: The failure of ART scale up in Myanmar’, http://doctorswithoutborders.org/publications/article.cfm?id=3204&cat=special-report
Myanmar Agriculture Service Crop Substitution Sector (2006) Achievement of
crop substitution activities in Myanmar, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Government of the Union of Myanmar.
Othman, Zarina, (2002) Human Security in Southeast Asia: A Case Study of
Illicit Drug Trafficking as a Transnational Threat in Myanmar (Burma), (PHD
Thesis) ProQuest Information and Learning Company.
Paller, Michael. (2007) ‘Towards Governance Reform: A Critical Review of Foreign
Assistance to Burma’, Masters Thesis: Chulalongkorn University Thailand.
Progress of Border Areas and National Races Department (PBANRDA) (2007)
Measures taken for the development of border areas and national races by the Ministry for Progress of Border Areas and Development Affairs: Ministry for Progress of Border Areas and National Races and Development Affairs.
Reid, G. and Constigan, G. (2002) ‘Revisiting the Hidden Epidemic: A Situation
Assessment of Drug Use in Asia in the Context of HIV/AIDS’, Fairfield – Australia, Centre for Harm Reduction, Burnet Institute.
Renard, R.D.; Gebert, R.; Redon, P.; U Tin Aung. (2003) Terminal evaluation report.
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effects of drugs, trafficking, migration and poverty. World Concern (Myanmar). Unpublished report.
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網際網路及新聞:

Din, Aung (2009) “Will Change Come to Burma?” Far Eastern Economic Review,
http://www.feer.com/international-relations/20098/april55/Will-Change-Come-to-Burma; 取得:2009/12/01
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March), from The Economist print edition, (Available online) URL:http://www.economist.com/printedition/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=10795714
Frontline (2006) “An incubator of new HIV strains”,
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/aids/countries/mm.html
Hirsch, Steve (2003) Interview UNODC Myanmar Representative
Jean-Luc Lemahieu, http://dassk.org/index.php?topic=1207.0;wap2:
accessed 2009/11/12
Humanitarian Practice Network (2008). “HIV Programming in Myanmar”, Humanitarian Exchange Magazine, Issue 41 Decemember 2008, accessed 2009/10/02, http://www.odihpn.org/report.asp?ID=2971
International Crisis Group (ICG). “Myanmar: The HIV/AIDs Crisis”: Asia Briefing.
Bangkok/Brussels: ICG, 2 April 2002
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Bangkok/ Brussels: ICG, April 2002.
-------. “Myanmar: Sanctions, Engagement or Another Way Forward?” Asia Report.
No. 78 Yangon/ Brussels: ICG, April 2004.
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Qin Chaoying, Golden opportunities in Northern Myanmar,Asia Times, (accessed
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Lintner, Bertil, “UN fiddles while Myanmar burns”, Asian Times
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AsiaTimes http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/IH23Ae01.html
(accessed 2007/10/23).
Myanmar Govenment, (2004/02) “CNC of US acknowledges Myanmar’s efforts to
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Parker, Clive. (2005/09/02) “International Community Seeks to Overcome Global
Fund Setback”, Irradwaddy in BurmaNet News
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二、中文資料

專書及專書論文

林若雩,2006年6月,〝地緣政治與中共對東南亞之外交戰略〞,
(與陳鴻瑜、黃奎博、陳佩修合著),收錄於中華歐亞基金會<地緣政治與中共外交戰略>(本書經「政治學專書出版聯合審查委員會」審查通過)專書第三章,台北:大屯出版社。
箴言31:8 - 9,聖經(和合本),香港.漢語聖經協會有限公司,2005
Sorensen, George, 最新民主與民主化,黃德福 主編,偉伯文化中文出版,
2002年 (ibid)。
伯楊,《金三角.黃成》,文化事業有限公司,民國77年11月
保羅.佛萊雷,被壓迫者教育學,華東師範大學出版社,2001年
郭懷舜,(2007),威爾斯學派之批判性安全研究,國立中山大學政治學研究所
碩士班碩士論文。
蔡育岱和譚偉恩,(2008)「從「國家」到「個人」:人類安全概念與分析」
http://iir.nccu.edu.tw/attachments/journal/add/1/47-1-6.pdf,取得:2009/11/12,,問題與研究 第47卷 第1期 民囯97年3月。
陳牧民,(2009)《國際安全理論-權力、主權與威脅》,第三章從實證到後
實證主義,29 – 49頁,五南圖書出版股份有限公司
張中勇,(2006),「東南亞區域非傳統安全威脅之發展、因應與影響」,
「2006亞太和平觀察」研究計畫分支計畫。研究報告參見:蕭新煌、劉復國主編,「2006亞太和平觀察」,中央研究院亞太區域專題研究中心出版,民國95年12月,153-188頁。

期刊論文

林若雩,2000年11月,「人權外交-外交實踐之另一選擇」,理論與政策
季刊,第十四卷第三期,台北:理論與政策研究社。
芒芒坦,(2005),〈緬甸政治展望,東盟各國政治局勢〉,《東南亞 縱橫》
2005年。
鄭先武,(2004),〈人的解放與「安全共同體」〉- 威爾斯學派的「批判安全
研究」探悉,《現代國際關係》,第6期,55 – 61頁。
祁苑玲,(2005),「依託大湄公河次區域合作消除 金三角 的貧困和毒 品」,
《東南亞縱橫》 。
金榮永,(2003)〈國際社會對於緬甸朝野對峙的困境與前景〉,《問題與研
究》,42卷,民國92年5-6月﹚,頁103-117。
劉志軍和劉民權,(2006年01期)〈人類安全:概念與內涵〉,國際觀察。
李瓊莉 ,(2006)東南亞安全中的經濟因素: 從亞洲風暴到巴厘協議, 國立政
治大學國際關係研究中心。
------(2008)「從緬甸風災國際救援行動談「保護責任」與對我新政府外
交政策之啟示」,戰略安全研析,第三十八期,民國 97年 6月,
28 – 32頁
http://iir.nccu.edu.tw:8080/cscap/pic/newpic/%E6%88%B0%E7%95%A5%E5%AE%89%E5%85%A8%E7%A0%94%E6%9E%90No.38.pdf;取得:2009/11/12

研討會論文

林若雩,2009.11.21-22,建構主義下東協組織的政經發展:由服膺冷戰霸權、
權力平衡到多邊合作之過程,2009年台灣政治學會年會暨學術研討會-「動盪年代中的政治學:理論與實踐」
張中勇 & 許文傑,(2009),「東南亞區域合作防制」台灣的東南亞區域研究
年度研討會發表的。

網際網路

何新華,(2006),試析清代緬甸的藩屬國地位問題,歷史檔案。
新華網,「雲南幫助緬甸發展罌粟替代種植緬積90萬畝」,2006年8月25日
http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2006-08/25/content_5007775.htm,取得: 2008/02/16。
熊光楷(中國國際戰略學學長),協力應對非傳統安全威脅的挑戰,2004年03月
25日http://big5.china.com.cn/chinese/zhuanti/xxsb/993390.htm,取得:2009/03/24
劉子瑜,〈緬甸近來在區域與國際的互動發展〉, 
http://www.ncku.edu.tw/~cseas/report%20SEA/MYN/mya5liuziyu.pdf,取得:2008 02 07
雲南省禁毒委員會辦公室,「緬甸撣邦北部動古地區罌粟替代種植情況」 ,
2004年5月28日,http://big5.ynjd.gov.cn:81/pubnews/doc/read/tdfz/887010123.107449071/index.asp,取得:2007/10/15
鄺芷人教授,東海大學哲學系主任 ,公民社會與民主教育,
http://edu.thu.edu.tw/meeting/meeting3/speaker06.htm,2007年05月29日
www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Publications_myanmar.pdf,取得:2009/4/29
大紀元新聞,歐巴馬促緬政府釋翁三蘇姬,2009年11月17日
http://news.epochtimes.com.tw/9/11/17/126305.htm
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