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系統識別號 U0002-2601201000422500
中文論文名稱 國際調停之研究─以1994年海地調停及2007年哥倫比亞調停為例
英文論文名稱 Research on International Mediation: the case of Haiti in 1994 and the case of Colombia in 2007
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Latin American Studies
學年度 98
學期 1
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 劉怡琳
研究生英文姓名 Yi-Lin Liu
學號 696310159
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-01-15
論文頁數 145頁
口試委員 指導教授-李大中
委員-熊建成
委員-蔡東杰
中文關鍵字 國際調停  衝突解決  調停者  卡特  查維茲  海地危機  西特拉  烏力貝  哥倫比亞革命武裝力量  人道主義交換 
英文關鍵字 International Mediation  Conflict resolution  Mediator  Jimmy Carter  Hugo Chávez  Crisis in Haiti  Raoul Cedras  Álvaro Uribe Vélez  FARC  humanitarian exchange 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 國際調停具備管理和解決衝突的特性,為衝突兩造提供有效的處理方法,而現今國際社會傾向使用和平的方式解決衝突,準此,國際調停愈發受到國際社會的重視。本論文即是運用國際調停的相關概念來進行案例分析,諸如調停的成熟時機、調停者介入調停的動機、衝突兩造接受調停的動機、調停者的角色與策略、調停者的權力來源以及調停結果等,冀望能藉由案例印證國際調停的相關概念,並藉由案例的分析比較以得出新的發現,為國際調停相關概念進行有意義的補充。

本研究中選用的案例為海地的危機調停以及哥倫比亞的人質調停,在深入案例分析之前,先釐清兩國歷史與衝突的背景,詳述調停相關進程之後,才進行案例分析與探究。兩國的案例屬於不同性質的調停,深入分析後,發現即使不同性質的調停,也能比較出相同點,從中印證國際調停相關概念具備廣泛的分析架構。而藉由比較兩個案例中的差異點,可以觀察案例的不足之處,推斷出調停失敗的因素。
英文摘要 International Mediation possesses the characteristics of Conflict Management and Conflict Solving, which provides an effective manner for solving conflict between antagonistic parties. In addition, current international community tend to resolve conflict in a peaceful manner, therefore, International Mediation is gathering more attention and taken more seriously by the international community.

This thesis applied international mediation related concepts to process case analysis, case such as mediation ripeness, motive of mediator, parties in conflict’s motivation to mediate, mediator’s role and strategy, mediator’s source of power and outcomes of mediation,…etc. With those cases, we wish to exam the theories of international mediation, and also to obtain new thoughts and discoveries by analyzing and comparing those cases, and thereafter, hopefully, supplement relevant theories of international mediation.

This research selected two cases, which are Mediation for Haiti Politic Crisis and Hostage Mediation for Colombia. Before deep into the case analysis, the thesis clarified the background of historical conflict in Haiti and Colombia, after that, it described details in regard of relevant process of mediation thereof, then, it turned back to analysis and study the cases.

Although these two cases are different types of mediation, after in-depth analysis, we had found that even different types of mediation, they might share the same characters; from which, confirms the concept of international mediation associated with a wide range of analytical framework. Moreover, by comparing the difference of those two cases, this research observed the inadequate factors in the case and inferred the reason that caused failure of mediation.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 假設與立論 2
第三節 研究方法 3
第四節 分析架構與章節安排 4

第二章 國際調停相關概念之探討 7
第一節 國際調停、衝突、權力的研析 7
第二節 國際調停的重要概念 16
第三節 拉美地區的調停 22
第四節 小結 25

第三章 海地的危機調停 26
第一節 海地衝突之歷史進程 27
第二節 卡特對海地的危機調停 40
第三節 案例的分析與探討 53
第四節 小結 59

第四章 哥倫比亞的人質調停 61
第一節 哥倫比亞衝突之歷史進程 62
第二節 查維茲對哥倫比亞的人質調停 80
第三節 案例的分析與探討 92
第四節 小結 99

第五章 案例之比較分析 101
第一節 調停者之比較 101
第二節 衝突兩造之比較 108
第三節 調停事件之比較 110
第四節 小結 115

第六章 結論 116

參考文獻 122

附錄一:海地調停事件表 138

附錄二:哥倫比亞調停事件表 142

附錄三:《卡特若納桑協議》(Carter-Joassaint accord) 144

圖目次:
圖1-1 研究流程圖 5
圖2-1 導致調停結果的因素 21
圖3-1 海地危機調停事件相關行為者示意圖 54
圖4-1 安全、經濟、社會發展之良性循環圖 73
圖4-2 哥倫比亞人質調停事件相關行為者示意圖 93

表目次:
表2-1 第三者的類型 8
表2-2 衝突形成示意表 13
表2-3 權力 15
表2-4 關於調停的成熟時機:三種解釋 17
表2-5 冷戰過後拉丁美洲地區相關調停事件 24
表3-1 美洲國家組織與聯合國調停進程的主要參與者 40
表3-2 代表團調停進程的主要參與者 49
表4-1 哥倫比亞陣線與人數表 69
表4-2 美國與歐盟對哥倫比亞政策的差異 78
表4-3 哥倫比亞革命武裝力量與政府協商一覽表 81
表4-4 人質調停進程的主要參與者 86
表5-1 卡特與查維茲的介入動機及形象 103
表5-2 卡特與查維茲扮演的角色及使用的策略 104
表5-3 卡特與查維茲擁有的權力來源─查特曼與托佛 105
表5-4 卡特與查維茲擁有的權力來源─魯賓 107
表5-5 卡特與查維茲柔性權力的差異 107
表5-6 調停者的公正與偏頗帶來的結果 108
表5-7 衝突兩造接受調停的共同動機 110
表5-8 案例的事件本質之異同 111
表5-9 調停成熟時機的誘因 113
表5-10 兩個案例的調停結果分析 114
參考文獻 壹、中文部份
一、專書

丘宏達,《現代國際法》,(臺北市:三民書局,1995年)。

李少軍,《國際政治學概論》,(上海:上海人民出版社,2002年)。

白風森,《祕魯》,(北京:社會科學文獻出版社,2006)。

朱浤源主編,《撰寫碩博士論文實戰手冊》,(台北:正中書局股份有限公司,1999年)。

貝坦古特(Ingrid Betancourt),林怡君、何修瑜、杜志娟譯,《別為我哭泣》,(台北:商周出版,2003年)。

奈伊(Joseph S. Nye, Jr.),吳家恆、方祖芳譯,《柔性權力》,(台北市:遠流,2006年)。

阿爾康塔拉賽茲(Manuel Alcantara Saez),熊建成、洪紋惠譯,《拉丁美洲政治體制》,(台北市:國立編譯館,1998年)。

柯林頓(Bill Clinton),伊德瀚等譯,《我的人生─柯林頓回憶錄》,(臺北市:時報文化,2004年)。

張家哲,《拉丁美洲:從印地安文明到現代化》,(北京:中國青年出版社,1999年)。

徐世澄,《拉丁美洲政治》,(北京:中國社會科學出版社,2006年)。

徐寶華,《哥倫比亞》,(北京:社會科學文獻出版社,2004年)。

俞寬賜,《國際法新論》,(台北縣新莊市:啟英文化,2006年)。

陳小雀,《加勒比海諸國史 : 海盜與冒險者的天堂》,(臺北市:三民書局,2007年)。

蒲寧、陳曉東,《國際衝突研究》,(北京:時事出版社,2007年)。

閻學通、孫學峰,《國際關係研究實用方法》,(北京:人民出版社,2001年)。

鮑爾(Colin L. Powell)、波斯科(Joseph E. Persico),蕭美惠譯,《我的美國之旅─鮑爾國務卿自傳(下)》,(台北:智庫,2001年)。

二、專書中論文

吳建德、張蜀誠、朱家敏,〈國際衝突與危機處理〉,翁明賢、吳建德、江春琦總主編《國際關係》,(台北:五南,2006年),頁227-261。

邁因哈特‧施洛德(Meinhard Schröder),〈第七章:國家責任、國際刑法、爭端解決與制裁〉,維霍(Wolfgang Graf Vitzhum)主編,吳越、毛曉飛譯,《當代西方國際法:德國的觀點》,(台北縣永和市:韋伯文化,2006年),頁637-710。

三、期刊

李大中,〈小國調停:挪威與以、巴奧斯陸協商〉,《兩岸與國際事務協商》,第4卷第1期,2008年1月,頁59-103。

向駿,〈從南美外交危機看美洲政經版圖重組〉,《國際關係學報》,第26期,2008年7月,頁169-178。

向駿,〈從海地大選看拉美民主危機〉,《歷史月刊》,第219期,2006年,頁76-80。

祝文馳,〈海地人民鬥爭的勝利與前景〉,《拉丁美洲研究》,第3期,1986年,頁47-50。

四、學位論文

林柏宇,《哥倫比亞和平進程之研究(1982-2002):政府與游擊隊團體間互動關係之分析》,(台北縣淡水鎮:淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所,2003年)。

許偉君,《哥倫比亞和平進程之研究:游擊隊活動對哥倫比亞國家與區域安全之影響與政府政策(1998-2008)》,(台北縣淡水鎮:淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所,2009年)。

五、網路資料

林華,〈烏里韋成功連任總統右翼政治力量繼續把持哥倫比亞政壇〉,《中國社會科學院拉丁美洲研究所》,頁1-9,(http://ilas.cass.cn/sspl_fj/20061020165905-1.pdf),檢閱日期:2009年10月22日。

六、報紙

〈化解宏國政治危機 美支持哥斯大黎加扮調人〉,《Yahoo奇摩新聞》,2009年7月8日,(tw.news.yahoo.com/article/url/d/a/090708/19/1mnxq.html),檢索日期:2009年10月8日。

〈拉美三國握手言和 查韋斯籲團結〉,《BBC中文網》,2008年3月8日, (http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/trad/hi/newsid_7280000/newsid_7284700/7284795.stm),檢閱日期:2008年10月27日。

〈查韋斯:哥倫比亞武裝應結束抗爭〉,《BBC中文網》,2008年6月9日。(http://news8.thdo.bbc.co.uk/chinese/simp/hi/newsid_7440000/newsid_7443200/7443239.stm),檢閱日期:2008年10月27日。

郭篤為,〈賽拉亞突潛返 宏國政局緊繃〉,《中國時報》,2009年9月23日,A3。

〈哥武裝組織被列入販毒名單〉,《BBC中文網》,2004年2月20日,(http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/trad/hi/newsid_3500000/newsid_3505700/3505703.stm),檢索日期:2009年10月15日。

〈哥倫比亞向叛軍提出交換人質〉,《BBC中文網》,2004年8月19日,(http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/trad/hi/newsid_3570000/newsid_3578600/3578620.stm),檢閱日期:2008年10月26日。

〈哥倫比亞叛軍證實領袖死訊〉,《BBC中文網》,2008年5月25日, (http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/trad/hi/newsid_7410000/newsid_7419500/7419547.stm),檢閱日期:2008年10月27日。

〈哥倫比亞救援行動受到讚揚〉,《BBC中文網》,2008年7月3日。(http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/trad/hi/newsid_7480000/newsid_7487900/7487928.stm),檢閱日期:2008年10月27日。

〈哥倫比亞舉行大規模反暴力示威〉,《BBC中文網》,2007年07月06日。(http://news.bbc.co.uk/chinese/trad/hi/newsid_6270000/newsid_6275900/6275938.stm),檢索日期:2008年10月26日。

〈賽拉亞將離開宏都拉斯 前往墨西哥〉,《Yahoo奇摩新聞》,2009年12月10日,(http://tw.news.yahoo.com/article/url/d/a/091210/58/1wmj1.html),檢索日期:2009年12月23日。

〈獲聯合國任命為海地特使 柯林頓:榮幸〉,《Yahoo奇摩新聞》,2009年5月20日,(http://tw.news.yahoo.com/article/url/d/a/090520/19/1jt5q.html),檢閱日期:2009年11月30日。

貳、西文部份
一、專書

Aureli, Filippo and Frans B.M. de Waal, Natural conflict resolution (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).

Ballard, John R., Upholding democracy: the United States military campaign in Haiti, 1994-1997 (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1998).

Bennett, A. Leroy, James K. Oliver, International Organizations: Principles and Issues (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall International, 2001).

Burns, E. Bradford and Julie A. Charlip, Latin America: An Interpretive History (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007).

Bushnell, David, The Making of Modern Colombia: A nation in Spite of Itself (California: University of California Press, 1993).

Carter, Jimmy, Beyond the White House: waging peace, fighting disease, building hope (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007).

Centeno, Miguel Angel, Blood and Debt: War and the Nation-State in Latin America (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002).

Coupeau, Steeve, The history of Haiti (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2008).

Friesendorf, Cornelius, US Foreign Policy and the War on Drugs: Displacing the cocaine and heroin industry (London: Routledge, 2007).

Girard, Philippe R., Clinton in Haiti: the 1994 U.S. invasion of Haiti (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004).

Girard, Philippe R., Paradise Lost: Haiti’s Tumultuous Journey from Pearl of the Caribbean to Third World Hot Spot (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, England: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).

Hallward, Peter, Damming the flood: Haiti, Aristide, and the politics of containment (London; New York: Verso, 2007).

Henriksen, Thomas H., Clinton's foreign policy in Somalia, Bosnia, Haiti, and North Korea (Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, Stanford University, 1996).

Kline, Harvey F., Chronicle of a Failure Foretold: The peace Process of Colombian President Andrés Pastrana (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2007).

Lewicki, Roy J., and Joseph A. Littere, Negotiation (Homewood, Ill.: Richard D. Irwin, 1985).

Livingstone, Grace, Inside Colombia: drugs, democracy and war (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2004).

Moore, Christopher W., The mediation process: practical strategies for resolving conflict (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003).

Murillo, Mario A. and Jesus Rey Avirama, Colombia and the United States: war, unrest, and destabilization (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004).

Niblack, Preston, The United Nations Mission in Haiti: Trip Report (Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand, 1995).

Reid, Michael, Forgotten continent: the battle for Latin America's soul (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007).

Richani, Nazih, Systems of violence: the political economy of war and peace in Colombia (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002).

Rochlin, James F., Vanguard revolutionaries in Latin America: Peru, Colombia, Mexico (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003).

Rotberg, Robert I., Haiti’s Turmoil: Politics and Policy under Aristide and Clinton (Cambridge, Mass.: World Peace Foundation, 2003).

Schoen, Douglas and Michael Rowan, Threat Closer to Home: Hugo Chavez and the War Against America (New York: Free Press, 2009).

Stotzky, Irwin P., Silencing the guns in Haiti: the promise of deliberative democracy (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1997).

Will, Emily Wade, Haiti (San Diego: Lucent Books, 2001).

Zartman, I. William, Negotiation and Conflict Management: Essays on theory and practice (London: Routledge, 2008).

二、專書中論文

Bellegarde-smith, Patrick, “Resisting Freedom: Cultural Factors in Democracy-The Case for Haiti,” in Robert I. Rotberg (ed.), Haiti Renewed: political and economic prospects (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1997), pp. 27-46.

Bercovitch, Jacob and Allison Houston, “The Study of International Mediation: Theoretical Issues and Empirical Evidence,” in Jacob Bercovitch (ed.), International Relations: Multiple approaches to Conflict (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publisher, Inc., 1992), pp. 11-35.

Bercovitch, Jacob, “The Structure and Diversity of Mediation in International Relations,” in Jacob Bercovitch and Jeffrey Z. Rubin, (eds.), Mediation in International Relations: Multiple Approaches to Conflict Management (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992), pp. 1-29.

Carnevale, Peter J. and Sharon Arad, “Bias and Impartiality in International Mediation,” in Jacob Bercovitch (ed.), International Relations: Multiple approaches to Conflict (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publisher, Inc., 1992), pp. 39-53.

Chamberlain, Greg, “Haiti’s “Second Independence”: Aristide’s Seven Months in Office,” in Deidre McFadyen, Pierre LaRamée and Mark Fried (eds.), Haiti: dangerous crossroads (Boston, Mass.: South End Press, 1995), pp. 51-56.

Chernick, Marc, “Negotiating Peace amid multiple Forms of Violence: The Protracted Search for a Settlement to Armed Conflicts in Colombia,” in Cynthia J. Arnson (ed.), Comparative Peace Processes in Latin America (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1999), pp. 159-196.

Crocker, Chester A., Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall, “Introduction,” in Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall (eds.), Herding Cats: Multiparty Mediation in a Complex World (Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1999), pp. 3-17.

Crocker, Chester A., Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall, “Multiparty Mediation and the Conflict cycle,” in Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall (eds.), Herding Cats: Multiparty Mediation in a Complex World (Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1999), pp. 19-45.

Einaudi, Luigi R., “The Ecuador-Peru Peace Process,” in Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall (eds.), Herding Cats: Multiparty Mediation in a Complex World (Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1999), pp. 405-429.

Fauriol, Georges A., “Haiti: The Failures of Governance,” in Howard J. Wiarda, Harvey F. Kline (eds.), Latin American Politics and Development (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2007), pp.565-590.

Gómez, Leonel Narváez, “Twenty Years of Negotiation Peace: A Recipe of Sticks and Carrots,” in Eileen F. Babbitt and Ellen L. Lutz (eds.), Human Rights and Conflict Resolution in Context: Colombia, Sierra Leone, and Northern Ireland (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 2009), pp. 46-69.

Ives, Kim, “The Lavalas Alliance Propels Aristide To Power,” in Deidre McFadyen, Pierre LaRamée and Mark Fried (eds.), Haiti: dangerous crossroads (Boston, Mass.: South End Press, 1995), pp. 41-45.

Ives, Kim, “The Unmaking of a President,” in Deidre McFadyen, Pierre LaRamée and Mark Fried (eds.), Haiti: dangerous crossroads (Boston, Mass.: South End Press, 1995), pp. 65-88.

McDougall, Barbara, “Haiti: Canada’s Role in the OAS,” in Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall (eds.), Herding Cats: Multiparty Mediation in a Complex World (Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1999), pp. 389-404.

Moore, Christopher W., “The Mediation Process,” in Lawrence E. Susskind and Larry Crump (eds.), Multiparty Negotiation V.2 Theory and Practice of Public Dispute Resolution (London: Sage, 2008), pp. 162-189.

Pastor, Robert A., “More and Less Than It Seemed: The Carter-Nunn-Powell Mediation in Haiti, 1994,” in Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall (eds.), Herding Cats: Multiparty Mediation in a Complex World (Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1999), pp. 505-525.

Pérez, Orlando J., “U.S. Security Policy and U.S.-Venezuelan Relations,” in Brian Loveman (ed.) Addicted to Failure: U.S. security policy in Latin America and the Andean Region (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006), pp.80-102.

Ridgeway, James, “The Ruling Families: Haiti’s Family Affairs,” in James Ridgeway (ed.), The Haiti files: decoding the crisis (Washington, DC: Essential Books/Azul Editions; East Haven, CT: Distributed by InBook, 1994), pp. 29-34.

Rodríguez-Garavito, César, “Colombia: The New Left: Origins, Trajectory and Prospects,” in Patrick Barrett, Daniel Chavez and César Rodríguez-Garavito (eds.), The New Latin American Left: Utopia Reborn (London: Pluto, 2008), pp. 129-157.

Schulz, Donald E., “Political Culture, Political Change, and the Etiology of Violence,” in Robert I. Rotberg (ed.), Haiti Renewed: political and economic prospects (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1997), pp. 93-115.

Sweig, Julia E. and Michael M. McCarthy, “Colombia: Staving Off Partial Collapse,” in Russell Crandall, Guadalupe Paz, and Riordan Roett (eds.), The Andes in focus: security, democracy, and economic reform (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2005), pp. 11-43.

Zartman, I. William and Saadia Touval, “International Mediation: Conflict Resolution and Power Politics,” in Lawrence E. Susskind and Larry Crump (eds.), Multiparty Negotiation V.4 Organizational and International Negotiation (London: Sage, 2008), pp. 220-234.

Zartman, I. William and Saadia Touval, “International Mediation in the Post-Cold War Era,” in Crocker A. Chester, (eds.), Managing Global Chaos: Sources of and Responses to International Conflicts (Washington D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1996), pp. 445-461.

Zartman, I. William and Saadia Touval, “Mediation: The Role of Third-Party Diplomacy and Informal Peacemaking,” in Shery J. Brown and Kimber M. Schraub, (eds.), Resolving Third World Conflict: Challenges for a New Era (Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1992), pp. 239-261.

三、期刊

Bercovitch, Jacob, “International Mediation,” Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1991, pp. 3-6.

Becovitch, Jacob, “Third parties in conflict management: the structure and conditions of effective mediation in international relations,” International Journal, Vol. 40, No. 4, 1985, pp. 736-752.

Martin, Ian, “Haiti: International Force or National Compromise?,” Journal of Latin American Studies, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1999, pp. 711-734.

Kleiboer, Marieke, “Ripeness of Conflict: A Fruitful Notion?,” Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1994, pp. 109-116.

Kleiboer, Marieke, “Understanding Success and Failure of International Mediation,” The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1996, pp. 360-389.

Rubin, Jeffery Z. and Jeswald W. Salacuse, “The problem of Power in International Negotiations,” International Affairs, Vol. 12, No 12, 1990, pp. 24-34.

Sanín, Francisco Gutiérrez, “Tellin the Difference: Guerrilla and Paramilitaries in the Colombian War,” Politics & Society, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2008, pp. 3-34.

Topel, David J., “Hostage Negotiation in Colombia and the FARC: Deconstructing the Problem,” Iberoamerica Global, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2009, pp. 24-38.

Wall Jr., James A. and Ann Lynn, “Mediation: A Current Review,” The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1993, pp. 157-180.

四、研討會論文

Petrásh, Vilma E., “Venezuela’s National Security Policy Under The Chávez Regime: The Impact Of Changed Perceptions and Practices On Venezuelan Regional Dynamics,” REDES 2001 (Washington DC: Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies, 2001), pp. 1-32.

五、學位論文

Torres, Diana Fernanda, Negotiated settlements and armed groups in Colombia: a comparative analysis of the AUC and the FARC (Netherlands: University of Amsterdam, 2008).

六、報紙

“A president's duty: Why Colombia's Álvaro Uribe should rule out a third term in office,” The Washington Post, December 15, 2009, (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/12/14/AR2009121402990.html), available: 2009/12/21.

Apple Jr., R. W., “Showdown in Haiti: In Perspective; Preaching to Skeptics,” New York Times, September 16, 1994, (http://www.nytimes.com/1994/09/16/world/showdown-in-haiti-in-perspective-preaching-to-skeptics.html?scp=3&sq=HAITI&st=nyt), available: 2009/11/26.

Carrigan, Ana, “Colombia: Pawns of War - The Hostage Crisis,” Inter Press Service, November 02, 2007, (http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=39902), available: 2008/10/26.

“Chavez: FARC insists on demilitarized zone before possible prisoner swap,” Associated Press, September 18, 2007,(http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/09/19/america/LA-GEN-Venezuela-Colombia-FARC.php), available: 2008/10/26.

“Chavez offer on FARC is rejected,” BBC NEWS, September 12, 2007, (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/6990514.stm), available: 2008/10/26.

“Chavez to meet Colombian rebels in renewed mediation,” Xinhua, October 13, 2007, (http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/90852/6282430.html), available: 2008/10/26.

“Colombia frees Farc rebels,” Mecca Time, June 05, 2007, (http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/A4BEDD39-AB1A-4304-B2A4-4A60107E90E9.htm), available: 2008/10/26.

“Colombia’s FARC rebels in Venezuela for talks with Chavez, French envoy,” Associated Press, November 5, 2007, (http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/11/05/america/LA-GEN-Venezuela-Colombia.php?WT.mc_id=rssap_america), available: 2008/10/26.

“Colombia’s most powerful rebels,” BBC NEWS, September 19, 2003, (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1746777.stm), available: 2009/10/15.

“Colombia’s Uribe says rebel leader will be killed if emerges from hiding for talks,” Associated Press, November 13, 2007, (http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/11/13/america/LA-GEN-Colombia-Rebels.php), available: 2008/10/26.

“Colombian FARC Rebels Release Four Hostages to Venezuelan Officials,” Associated Press, February 27, 2008, (http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,332951,00.html), available: 2008/10/26.

“Colombian Guerrilla Leader Contacts Chavez as Venezuelan President Seeks to Mediate,” Fox News, September 08, 2007, (http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,296178,00.html), available: 2008/10/26.

“Colombian mediator seeks to discuss FARC prisoner exchange with US,” DPA, September 19, 2007, (http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/110580.html), available: 2008/10/26.

“Colombia puts stop to Chavez mediation with leftist guerillas,” DPA, November 22, 2007, (http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/146175.html), available: 2008/10/26.

“Colombia sets tight limit for prisoner swap with rebels,” Associated Press, November 19, 2007, (http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/11/20/america/LA-GEN-Colombia-Rebels.php), available: 2008/10/26.

French, Howard W., “Standoff In Haiti; As U.S. Ships Arrive, Haiti General Refuses to Budge,” New York Times, October 18, 1993, (http://www.nytimes.com/1993/10/18/world/standoff-in-haiti-as-us-ships-arrive-haiti-general-refuses-to-budge.html?scp=4&sq=Cedras&st=nyt&pagewanted=1), available: 2009/11/25.

“INTERPOL releases Forensic Report requested by Colombia on seized FARC computers and hardware,” INTERPOL media release, May 15, 2008, (http://www.interpol.int/Public/ICPO/PressReleases/PR2008/PR200817.asp), available: 2008/10/27.

Jehl, Douglas, “Showdown in Haiti: Carter; Carter's Diplomatic Mission Was a Last-Minute Gamble,” New York Times, September 19, 1994, (http://www.nytimes.com/1994/09/19/world/showdown-in-haiti-carter-carter-s-diplomatic-mission-was-a-last-minute-gamble.html?scp=3&sq=HAITI&st=nyt&pagewanted=all), available: 2009/11/30.

Kraul, Chris, “Border incursion was Colombian gamble,” Time, March 04, 2008, (http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-fg-bordermess4mar04,0,6135493.story), available: 2008/10/27.

Kraul, Chris, “Colombia OKs Venezuelan role in hostage release,” Los Angeles Times, December 27, 2007, (http://articles.latimes.com/2007/12/27/news/fg-chavez27), available: 2008/10/26.

Kraul, Chris, “Chavez seeks to free hostages,” Los Angeles Times, September 01, 2007, (http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-chavez1sep01,0,6072226.story), available: 2008/10/26.

Lyons, Richard D., “U.N. Authorizes Invasion of Haiti to Be Led by U.S.,” New York Times, August 1, 1994, (http://www.nytimes.com/1994/08/01/world/un-authorizes-invasion-of-haiti-to-be-led-by-us.html?scp=4&sq=HAITI&st=nyt&pagewanted=all#), available: 2009/11/25.

Márquez, Humnerto, “COLOMBIA-VENEZUELA: Possibly the Bitterest Conflict in a Century,” Inter Press Service, November 26, 2007, (http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=40220), available: 2008/10/26.

“Mother of French-Colombian hostage wants Chavez back as mediator,” Associated Press, December 2, 2007, (http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/12/02/america/LA-GEN-Venezuela-Colombia-Hostages.php), available: 2008/10/26.

Murphy, Helen, “Colombia Captives' Families Undaunted by Talks Delay,” Bloomberg, October 04, 2007, (http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601086&sid=aVhQaTQ9GbNs&refer=latin_america), available: 2008/10/26.

Muse and Ian James, “Chávez seeks role in Colombian hostage standoff,” Associated Press, August 30, 2007, (http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2003859905_chavez30.html), available: 2008/10/26.

O’Grady, Mary Anastasia, “The FARC File,” The Wall Street Journal, March 10, 2008, (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120510858118323265.html), available: 2009/10/26.

Padgett, Tim, “Chavez’s new Diplomatic Defeat,” Time, January 01, 2008, (http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1699179,00.html?xid=rss-world), available: 2008/10/26.

Padgett, Tim, “Colombia Hostages: Free This Time,” Time, January 10, 2008, (http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1702508,00.html?iid=sphere-inline-sidebar), available: 2008/10/26.

Rohter, Larry, “Showdown in Haiti: In Haiti; A Cloudy Future for the Military Leaders,” New York Times, September 16, 1994, (http://www.nytimes.com/1994/09/16/world/showdown-in-haiti-in-haiti-a-cloudy-future-for-the-military-leaders.html?scp=8&sq=HAITI&st=nyt&pagewanted=all), available: 2009/11/26.

Romero, Simon, “Colombia Ends Venezuela’s Hostage Mediation Efforts,” New York Times, November 23, 2007, (http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/23/world/americas/23chavez.html?ei=5088&en=d281465c2df06410&ex=1353474000&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&pagewanted=print), available: 2008/10/26.

Rueda, Jorge, “Chavez Meets With FARC Representative,” Associated Press, November 08, 2007, (http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=3840360), available: 2008/10/26.

“U.S. can help in Colombia hostage crisis: Chavez,” AFP, September 27, 2007, (http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=153837), available: 2008/10/26.

“Venezuela’s Chavez wants talks with Colombian rebels,” Reuters, August 07, 2007, (http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSN05356880), available: 2008/10/26.

“Venezuela president mediates Colombia hostage crisis,” AFP, August 31, 2007, (http://www.turkishpress.com/news.asp?id=191975), available: 2008/10/26.

Vieira, Constanza, “Colombia: Door ‘Definitively’ Closed on Chávez’s Mediation,” Inter Press Service, November 23, 2007, (http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=40191), available: 2008/10/26.

七、雜誌

“Hostage, but to whom?,” Economist, Vol. 384, No. 8545, 2007, p. 39.

八、官方組織文件

Embassy of Colombia, “The Uribe Administration's Democratic Security and Defense Policy (PDF),” Presidenca de la República de Colombia, pp. 1-2, (http://www.presidencia.gov.co/sne/visita_bush/documentos/security.pdf), Available: 2009/10/20.

Ministerio de Defensa de Colombia, “The FARC At Their Worst Moment In History,” Ministerio de Defensa de Colombia, pp. 1-14, (http://www.mindefensa.gov.co/descargas/Documentos_Descargables/ingles/THE%20FARC%20AT%20THEIR%20WORST%20MOMENT%20IN%20HISTORY.PDF), available: 2008/10/27.

Ministerio de Defensa Nacional República de Colombia, “Policy for the Consolidation of Democratic Security,” Ministerio de Defensa Nacional República de Colombia, p. 1-45. (http://www.mindefensa.gov.co/descargas/Documentos_Descargables/ingles/Policy_for_the_Consolidation_of_Democratic_Security.pdf), available: 2009/10/22.

九、非官方組織文件

Carter Center, “Assessment Mission to Haiti,” Carter Center, January 1995, pp. 1-31, (http://www.cartercenter.org/documents/642.pdf), available: 2009/11/29.

Carter Center, “Waging Peace Fighting Disease Building Hope,” Carter Center, pp. 1-2, (http://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/about/cc_overview_flier_08.pdf) available: 2009/11/30.

DeShazo, Peter, Tanya Primiani, and Phillip McLean, “Back from the Brink: Evaluating Progress in Colombia, 1999-2007,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, pp. 1-55, (http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/071112-backfromthebrink-web.pdf), available: 2009/10/22.

International Crisis Group, “Hostages For Prisoners: A Way To Peace In Colombia?,” Latin America Briefing, No.4, March 8, 2004, pp. 1-12.

International Crisis Group, “Tougher Challenges Ahead for Colombia’s Uribe,” Latin America Briefing, No.11, October 20, 2006, pp. 1-19.

International Crisis Group, “Colombia: Making Military Progress Pay Off,” Latin America Briefing, No.17, April 29, 2008, pp. 1-11.

International Crisis Group, “Colombia’s Elusive Quest for Peace,” Latin America Report, No. 1, March 26, 2002, pp. 1-48.

International Crisis Group, “Colombia: President Uribe's Democratic Security Policy,” Latin America Report, No. 6, November 13, 2003, pp. 1-29.

International Crisis Group, “Colombia’s Borders: The Weak Link in Uribe’s Security Policy,” Latin America Report, No. 9, September 23, 2004, p. 1-33.

International Crisis Group, “Colombia: President Politics and Peace Prospects,” Latin America Report, No. 14, June 16, 2005, pp. 1-34.

International Crisis Group, “Uribe’s Re-election: Can the EU Help Colombia Develop a More Balanced Peace Strategy?,” Latin America Report, No. 17, June 8, 2006, pp. 1-29.

Kurtenbach, Sabine, “Europe and the Colombian Conflict,” Inter-American Dialogue, p. 1-15, (http://www.thedialogue.org/PublicationFiles/Europe%20and%20Colombia,%20Kurtenbach%20%28June%202005%29.pdf), available: 2009/10/23.

十、網路資料

Clinton, William J., “Address to the Nation on Haiti,” The American Presidency Project, September 15, 1994, (http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=49093#), available: 2009/11/26.

The FARC. Press communiqué, “Bolivarian Platform for a New Colombia,” (http://bolivarsomostodos.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=462&Itemid=85), available: 2009/10/24
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