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系統識別號 U0002-2509202011333000
中文論文名稱 參數化竹構築設計
英文論文名稱 Parametric Bamboo Tectonic Design
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生中文姓名 丁子婧
研究生英文姓名 Zi-Jing Ding
學號 607364022
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2020-06-28
論文頁數 107頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳珍誠
共同指導教授-游雅婷
委員-陳宏銘
委員-蕭吉甫
中文關鍵字 竹材  構築  參數化模型  竹構造  網格結構 
英文關鍵字 Bamboo  Tectonic  Parametric modeling  Bamboo structure  Grid structure 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 隨著科學技術的進步和工業革命的發展,人類控制和改造自然的能力不斷地提高,導致人類活動對自然資源的浪費和對自然環境的破壞日益嚴重,一直被視為高能耗、高污染的建築業面臨考驗與革新。在建築材料方面,竹子作為一種可持續建築材料的優勢逐漸被發掘,竹材的構築形式也面臨著革新。隨著科技的進步與數位時代的到來,電腦運算的高效性,精準性以及數位化軟體的出現,促使了構築手法複雜性與材料性的改變,進而產生了新的設計方式,許多複雜的計算與模擬都可以在電腦上進行運算,打破了竹材用於構築的確定性與材料的不確定性的邊界。

研究首先以文獻研究法整理歸納:第一,構築元素的劃分,分為整竹、半竹作為基本構築元素;第二,整竹的節點構造;第三,竹篾編織;第四,彎曲工法;第五,用於較大跨距的構格化構築形式。為後期設計提供構築形態與實際建造的可行性。

構築設計以整竹作為主要構築元素,可將其定義為一種韌性線,通過三種不同尺度的構築設計去詮釋參數化軟體中竹構形態的多樣性,以及探討竹材用於實際構築中構造的可行性。首先,構築設計中從地域環境因素出發,對於構築的使用功能、空間尺度、構築範圍等因素進行界定;其次,透過控制參數實現構築形態的優化;最後,提出對於參數化變化中構築構件的可行性嘗試。

通過三部分的構築設計,展開竹構築在參數化設計軟體中的實驗,藉由參數化生成邏輯,對於設計體系和構築方式進行應用與驗證。利用數位化手段極大的簡化了模擬、優化、生成的過程,進一步完成數字語境下的竹構築設計,實現創造經濟高效且多樣的構築形式,以及實際建造的可行性,並透過參數化設計的方式衍生出竹構建築更多的可能性。
英文摘要 With the progress of science & technology and the development of the industrial revolution, the ability to control and transforming nature of human beings is continuously improving, which leads to the waste of natural resources and the destruction of the natural environment due to the human activities becoming increasingly worse. The construction industry, which has been regarded as high energy consumption and high pollution, is facing the test and innovation. In terms of building materials, the advantages of bamboo as a sustainable building material are gradually being explored, and the bamboo's tectonic form is also facing innovation. As the science & technology is making progress and the digital era is arriving, the appearance of high efficiency, accuracy computer software has urged the change of the complexity and materiality in the tectonic technique and then produced new design methods. Many complex calculations and simulations can be operated on the computer, which breaks the boundary between tectonic certainty and materials' uncertainty that bamboo is used in them.

The research is arranged and generalized by the literature research method: First, the division of tectonic elements, which can be divided into the whole bamboo and half bamboo as the basic tectonic elements. Second, the structure node design of the whole bamboo. Third, bamboo splits' weaving. Fourth, bending method. Fifth, the grid structure's tectonic form is used in a larger span. It provides the feasibility of tectonic form and actual construction for later stage's design.
The tectonic design uses the whole bamboo as the main tectonic element,it can be defined as a kind of toughness line. Through three different scales in tectonic design, the diversity of bamboo structure in parametric software is interpreted, and the feasibility of bamboo structure in practical tectonic construction is discussed. First of all, tectonic design starts from regional environmental factors, defining the tectonic use function, spatial scale and tectonic scope and other factors. Secondly, the optimization of tectonic form is realized by controlling the parameters. Finally, proposing the attempt of tectonic components' feasibility in parametric change.

Experiment with the Bamboo structure in parametric design software through three-part tectonic design. Through parametric generation logic, the design system and tectonic modes are applied and verified. Using digital means greatly simplifies the process of simulation, optimization and generation, further completes the Bamboo structure's design under the digital language situation, realizes the creation of economical, high efficiency and diverse tectonic forms, as well as the feasibility of actual tectonic construction, and derives more possibilities of bamboo structures' buildings through the form of parametric design.
論文目次 第一章 緒論······································1
1-1研究動機·····························1
 1-1-1對竹構築的初識與興趣·············2
 1-1-2環境議題 可再生材料··············2
 1-1-3竹構築發展前景···················3
 1-1-4數位時代對傳統材料的思考·········3
1-2研究目的·····························4
 1-2-1探討現代竹構築的構築方法·········4
 1-2-2幾何線性構築·····················4
 1-2-3創造資源高效結構高效的結構形式···4
1-3相關領域·····························5
 1-3-1參數化模型·······················5
 1-3-2數位製造························5
 1-3-3竹構築···························5
1-4預期成果·····························6
第二章 文獻回顧·································8
2-1竹構課題·····························8
 2-1-1竹林資源·························8
 2-1-2竹子用於建造·····················8
 2-1-3竹之特徵構築·····················9
 2-1-4基本構築元素····················12
2-2相關建築師··························15
 2-2-1西蒙·維列(Simon Velez)········15
 2-2-2武重義(Vo Trong Nghia)········16
 2-2-3 IBUKU··························17
 2-2-4大藏聯合建築事務所··············19
 2-2-5 馬庫斯·海因斯多夫(Markus Heinsdorff)·20
2-3節點構造····························22
 2-3-1傳統節點構造····················22
 2-3-2現代節點構造····················24
 2-3-3數位時代構造····················28
2-4竹篾編織····························32
2-5彎曲工法····························33
 2-5-1整竹的彎曲工藝··················34
 2-5-2竹條,竹片的彎曲工藝············35
 2-5-3竹篾、竹絲的彎曲工藝············36
2-5小结································38
第三章 竹之構法與設計··························40
3-1構法分類····························40
 3-1-1表面接觸式節點··················41
 3-1-2半接觸式節點····················41
 3-1-3編織-空間網格···················41
3-2空間網格結構························42
 3-2-1構格化空間形式溯源··············42
 3-2-2案例分析-ZCB竹亭················45
3-3校園竹構築設計······················47
 3-3-1基地位置························47
 3-3-2長椅設計························48
 3-3-3佈告欄設計······················50
 3-3-4公車站設計······················53
 3-3-5休憩亭設計······················56
3-4小結································59
第四章 懸鏈線竹材構築··························61
4-1設計構思····························61
4-2線性骨架····························61
 4-2-1移動Move························62
 4-2-2旋轉Rotate······················62
 4-2-3長度&比例Length&Scale···········62
 4-2-4鏡像Mirror······················63
 4-2-5迭代Iterate·····················63
4-3構造組成····························65
 4-3-1基座····························66
 4-3-2平台····························67
 4-3-3線性骨架························68
 4-3-4編織覆面························69
4-4設計呈現····························70
4-5參數化模型製作······················72
 4-5-1旋轉模型························73
 4-5-2移動模型························74
 4-5-3參數化模型實作與模擬對比········76
4-6小結································77
第五章 構格化竹材構築··························79
5-1設計構思····························79
5-2場地資訊····························80
5-3基於力學性能的結構生形··············81
 5-3-1邊界Border······················82
 5-3-2錨點Support·····················85
 5-3-3網格Grid························87
 5-3-4材料屬性與荷載Material&Load·····89
5-4構築實體化··························93
 5-4-1桿件實體化······················93
 5-4-2覆面編織························95
 5-4-3細部構造························96
5-5設計呈現····························97
5-6小結································99
第六章 結論與建議·····························101
6-1論文回顧與心得·····················101
 6-1-1竹構築設計要點·················101
 6-1-2構築的確定性與材料的不確定性···101
 6-1-3參數化模型的模擬與實作的誤差···101
6-2後續研究建議·······················102
參考文獻······································103
圖片來源······································105
【圖 2-1-1】竹林資源世界分佈圖··················8
【圖 2-1-2】BambooU ····························9
【圖 2-1-3】INBAR·······························9
【圖 2-1-4】長城腳下的公社······················9
【圖 2-1-5】Nocenco Cafe·······················10
【圖 2-1-6】深圳大學-方圓之間··················10
【圖 2-1-7】巴厘島溫泉會館Sharma···············11
【圖 2-1-8】寧波博物館·························11
【圖 2-1-9】原竹加工過程·······················12
【圖 2-1-10】竹根斜撐··························13
【圖 2-1-11】藤森照信-竹枝編織 ···············13
【圖 2-1-12】上海靜安寺廣場裝置“韌山水”······13
【圖 2-2-1】竹建築細部·························15
【圖 2-2-2】Hay Hay餐廳酒吧····················16
【圖 2-2-3】結構單元裝配·······················17
【圖 2-2-4】竹材料處理 ·······················18
【圖 2-2-5】建造過程···························18
【圖 2-2-6】室內傢俱設計·······················18
【圖 2-2-7】農博會碳匯林場·····················19
【圖 2-2-8】農博會入口大門·····················19
【圖 2-2-9】華地福教育機構校舍·················19
【圖 2-2-10】德中同行之家······················20
【圖 2-2-11】竹材料處理························20
【圖 2-2-12】展館室內··························20
【圖 2-3-1】竹竿綁紮···························22
【圖 2-3-2】竹竿隼接···························22
【圖 2-3-3】竹竿隼接+綁紮 ·····················22
【圖 2-3-4】竹竿隼接+綁紮圖解··················23
【圖 2-3-5】管筒式連接·························24
【圖 2-3-6】管狀接頭 ··························24
【圖 2-3-7】外置金屬墊片·······················24
【圖 2-3-8】內置金屬彈片·······················25
【圖 2-3-9】 掛鉤型節點························25
【圖 2-3-10】早期多根竹交於一點················25
【圖 2-3-11】金屬帶綁紮梁柱式節點··············26
【圖 2-3-12】現代多根竹交於一點 ···············26
【圖 2-3-13】預製金屬梁柱式節點················26
【圖 2-3-14】預製金屬+混凝土···················27
【圖 2-3-15】竹頭收束+預製金屬件+混凝土········27
【圖 2-3-16】3D接頭列印竹構築··················28
【圖 2-3-17】設計與製造過程····················29
【圖 2-3-18】AR裝配竹構築······················29
【圖 2-3-19】掃描與模擬過程····················30
【圖 2-3-20】BIM資訊採集過程···················30
【圖 2-4-1】方形編·····························32
【圖 2-4-2】墊編 ······························32
【圖 2-4-3】斜紋編·····························32
【圖 2-4-4】菱形斜編···························32
【圖 2-4-5】六角形編 ··························32
【圖 2-4-6】鐵線蓮編···························32
【圖 2-4-7】麻葉編 ····························33
【圖 2-4-8】八角形編···························33
【圖 2-4-9】複合菱形編·························33
【圖 2-4-10】千鳥編····························33
【圖 2-4-11】繩編······························33
【圖 2-4-12】松針編····························33
【圖 2-4-13】菊底編 ························34
【圖 2-4-14】圓形編····························34
【圖 2-5-1】整竹彎曲工法·······················35
【圖 2-5-2】紅點獎Ching Chair··················36
【圖 2-5-3】張雷-Air Chair·····················36
【圖 2-5-4】LOCK竹咖啡桌·······················36
【圖 2-5-5】 竹編燈 ··························37
【圖 2-5-6】藤塚松星 Fire······················37
【圖3-2-1】羅馬萬神殿··························42
【圖3-2-2】哥特教堂肋骨拱······················42
【圖3-2-3】Henri Labrouste的國家圖書館屋頂·····42
【圖3-2-4】Viollet-le-Duc“鐵鉤拱頂”設計方案··42
【圖3-2-5】空間網格結構早期實驗(Alexander Graham Bell)··43
【圖3-2-6】肋環斜桿型網殼(Schwedler)·········43
【圖3-2-4】羅馬小體育館························43
【圖3-2-8】蒙特利爾美國館······················43
【圖3-2-9】宇宙穹頂····························43
【圖3-2-10】廣州白雲體育館·····················43
【圖3-2-11】米蘭世博會英國館···················44
【圖3-2-12】西班牙塞維利亞“都市陽傘”·········44
【圖3-2-13】ZCB竹亭····························45
【圖3-2-14】ZCB竹亭形態模擬····················45
【圖3-2-15】ZCB竹亭細部與建造··················46
【圖3-3-1】校園基地····························47
【圖3-3-2】長椅渲染圖··························48
【圖3-3-3】長椅參數化生成邏輯··················49
【圖3-3-4】長椅側視圖··························49
【圖3-3-5】長椅俯視圖··························49
【圖3-3-6】長椅拆解圖··························50
【圖3-3-7】佈告欄渲染圖························50
【圖3-3-8】佈告欄參數化生成邏輯················51
【圖3-3-9】曲面竹筒細部························51
【圖3-3-10】佈告欄俯視圖·······················52
【圖3-3-11】佈告欄拆解圖·······················52
【圖3-3-12】公車站渲染圖·······················53
【圖3-3-13】公車站參數化生成邏輯···············54
【圖3-3-14】公車站俯視圖·······················54
【圖3-3-15】公車站側視圖·······················54
【圖3-3-16】公車站拆解圖·······················55
【圖3-3-17】休憩亭渲染圖·······················56
【圖3-3-18】休憩亭參數化生成邏輯···············57
【圖3-3-19】休憩亭俯視圖·······················57
【圖3-3-20】休憩亭側視圖·······················47
【圖3-3-21】休憩亭拆解圖·······················58
【圖4-2-1】懸鏈線骨架參數化生成邏輯············61
【圖4-2-2】移動變化····························62
【圖4-2-3】旋轉變化····························62
【圖4-2-4】長度&比例變化·······················63
【圖4-2-5】鏡像變化····························63
【圖4-2-6】迭代生成····························64
【圖4-3-1】構造組成····························65
【圖4-3-2】基座································66
【圖4-3-3】平台································67
【圖4-3-4】線性骨架立面圖······················68
【圖4-3-5】編織覆面渲染圖······················69
【圖4-4-1】俯視圖······························70
【圖4-4-2】斜俯視圖····························70
【圖4-4-3】側視圖······························71
【圖4-4-6】透視圖······························71
【圖4-5-1】參數化旋轉模型······················72
【圖4-5-2】改良後模型拆解圖····················72
【圖4-5-3】模擬旋轉····························73
【圖4-5-4】參數化旋轉模型······················74
【圖4-5-5】移動模型拆解圖······················74
【圖4-5-6】 模擬移動···························75
【圖5-2-1】基地範圍····························80
【圖5-2-2】基地現況····························80
【圖5-3-1】力學生形生成邏輯····················81
【圖5-3-2】邊界設定····························82
【圖5-3-3】邊界Type-1··························83
【圖5-3-4】邊界Type-2··························83
【圖5-3-5】邊界Type-3··························83
【圖5-3-6】邊界Type-4··························84
【圖5-3-7】錨點設定····························85
【圖5-3-8】錨固Type-1··························85
【圖5-3-9】錨固Type-2··························85
【圖5-3-10】錨固Type-3·························86
【圖5-3-11】網格劃分···························87
【圖5-3-12】肌理Type-1·························87
【圖5-3-13】肌理Type-2·························87
【圖5-3-14】肌理Type-3·························88
【圖5-3-15】肌理Type-4·························88
【圖5-3-16】荷載和材料設定·····················89
【圖5-3-17】Stiffness設定······················89
【圖5-3-18】荷載設定···························91
【圖5-3-19】曲面生成···························92
【圖5-4-1】桿件提取····························93
【圖5-4-2】桿件實體化··························93
【圖5-4-3】分層疊加····························94
【圖5-4-4】覆面編織····························95
【圖5-4-5】細部構造····························96
【圖5-5-1】俯視圖······························97
【圖5-5-2】室內渲染圖··························97
【圖5-5-3】透視渲染圖··························98
【圖5-5-4】透視渲染圖··························98
參考文獻 參考書目
1.譚剛毅 / 楊柳
《竹材的建構》,2014,東南大學出版社。
2.戈特弗裏德·森佩爾(Gottfried Semper)
《建築四要素》,2010,中國建築工業出版社。
3.愛德華•布魯托(Eduard Broto)
《竹材建築與設計集成》,江蘇科技出版社。

4.Gernot Minke
《Building with Bamboo》,2016,Birkhauser.
5.Joe Earle
《New Bamboo-Contemporary Japanese Masters》,2008,New York,Japan Society.
6.Markus Heinsdorff
《Design with Nature》,2013,Hong Kong Design Media Publishing Limited.
7.David Rockwood
 《Bamboo gridshells》,2015,New York,N.Y. : Routledge.

8.《國際新建築5- 抗震之竹建築》 ,2011-9,上海,鳳凰空間出版。
9.《A+U武重義建築事務所》,2016,上海,同濟大學出版社出。

參考論文
1.张珽钧
《农村地景之数位再构筑》,2016,淡江大学硕士学位论文。
2.王忠杰
《线形构件在建筑形态建构中的研究》,2006,重庆大学硕士学位论文。
3.吴松霖
《原竹建筑结构性节点研究及其设计表达》2018,南京大学硕士学位论文。
4.宋鵬
《自由網格空間結構與大跨建築協同設計》2016,哈爾冰工業大學論文。
5.Ngai Hang Wu,Marina Dimopoulou,Han Hsun Hsieh,Christos Chatzakis
《Rawbot-A digital system for AR fabrication of bamboo structures through the discrete digitization of bamboo》
6.Singapore University of Technology and Design, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
《BAMBOO》
7.Rodolfo Lorenzo,Chuhee Lee, Juan G. Oliva-Salinas ,Marcos J. Ontiveros-Hernandez
《BIM Bamboo: a digital design framework for bamboo culms》

參考網站
1.IBUKU
https://ibuku.com/
2.大藏建築事務所
http://www.architdz.com/
3.Simon Velez
http://www.simonvelez.net/
4.竹篾編織
https://wewanttolearn.wordpress.com/2015/12/01/thousand-line-construction/
5.Markus Heinsdorff
https://www.heinsdorff.de/
6.武重義
https://www.vtnarchitects.net/
7.BambooU
https://bamboou.com/
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