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中文論文名稱 順風向、橫風向、扭轉向風力的極值特性與組合係數之研究
英文論文名稱 Investigation on the extreme value characteristics and combination factors of building design wind loads.
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 王靖蕙
研究生英文姓名 Jing-Huei Wang
學號 601380016
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-07-01
論文頁數 82頁
口試委員 指導教授-鄭啟明
委員-陳振華
委員-林堉溢
中文關鍵字 高層建築  風載重組合  風力極值  風洞實驗 
英文關鍵字 high-rise buildings  wind load combinations  wind extreme value  wind tunnel test 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要   作用於高層建築物之風荷載,主要受順風向、橫風向與扭轉向3種不同方向之風力影響。在目前國內規範中的建築物設計風力之載重組合,係指依循風的作用方向計算其所對應的順風向、橫風向與扭轉向設計風力,作為該來風方向之設計風力組合。然而於實際情況,同一來風作用的三個方向風力的最大值,並不一定同時發生,亦表示國內規範中的載重組合可能過於保守,故本文將針對此議題加以探討。

  本文以國內現行規範定義之B地況逼近流場,以及斷面深寬比為1/5、1/4、1/3、1/2.5、1/2、2/3、1/1、3/2、2/1、2.5/1、3/1、4/1、5/1,高寬比為1、1.5、2、2.5、3、3.5、4、4.5、5、5.5、6、6.5、7之矩柱模型所進行量測建築物表面風壓之風洞實驗數據,做其基底風力係數的統計及機率分佈,並討論其結果。

  而於文中分析的方式,為計算不同模型的風壓實驗數據的基底風力及其風力係數,再以實場十分鐘為段取各方向風力之極值與發生極值下對應的其他方向之值,接著透過統計特性與各方向風力與及值間的比值之關係的機率分佈,提出建議的風力組合係數,期望未來能運用於載重組合係數之推估及相關研究。
英文摘要 Wind loads acting on high-rise buildings can be categorized as alongwind, acrosswind and torsional wind loads. The current Taiwan building wind code stipulates to use the largest alongwind, acrosswind and torsional wind loads together as the building design wind loads. However, the largest value of these three wind loads may not occur simultaneously. In this thesis, wind loads of rectangular shaped building models of various side ratio and aspect ratio, obtained from pressure measurements were used to investigate the correlations among three wind loads. Each set of wind loads were divided into 36-40 10-minutes length records. For each 10-minute record, the largest value of alongwind/ acrosswind/ torsional wind load together with the other two wind loads occurred at the same time were established. The mean values, standard deviations and conditional probability mass functions for the other two wind loads under the condition of one certain extreme wind load were calculated for all cases. The correlations of wind loads under the condition of certain extreme wind load were studied. Based on these conditioned statistical characteristics of winds loads, a simplified combination for design wind loads was proposed.
論文目次 目錄
圖目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究內容與方法 2
1.3 本文內容簡述 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 風洞實驗之模擬 4
2.1.1 大氣邊界層模擬 4
2.1.2 阻塞效應(blockage effect) 5
2.1.3 雷諾數效應 5
2.2 矩柱之風力特性 6
2.2.1 模型幾何形狀對風力係數之影響 6
2.2.2 紊流對風力係數之影響 8
2.2.3 風力之相互關係 10
第三章 理論背景 11
3.1 大氣邊界層 11
3.1.1 平均風速剖面 11
3.1.2 紊流強度 12
3.1.3 紊流長度尺度(Length scales of turbulence) 13
3.1.4 縱向擾動風速頻譜 14
3.1.4 縱向擾動風速交相關頻譜(cross-spectra) 16
3.2 風與結構體的相互關係 17
3.2.1氣動力現象 17
3.2.2 風力作用下的反應 18
3.3 散漫數據分析 21
3.4 條件機率分佈 22
第四章 風洞實驗配置與量測分析 24
4.1 實驗設備 24
4.1.1 風洞 24
4.1.2 量測儀器 25
4.2 逼近流場 29
4.3 風壓模型 30
4.4 參考風速量測 32
4.5 訊號處理與數據分析 33
4.5.1 風壓訊號之管線修正 33
4.5.2 數據採樣技術 35
4.5.3 數據分析之方法 36
第五章 分析結果與討論 37
5.1 基底風力係數極值的統計特性 37
5.1.1 基底風力係數極值之計算 37
5.1.2 基底風力係數比值 40
5.1.3 平均值與變異係數 43
5.1.4 相關係數 48
5.2 基底風力係數極值的機率分佈 50
5.2.1 不同深寬比模型之風力係數機率分佈 50
5.2.2 所有模型之風力係數機率分佈 60
5.2.3 風力的組合係數 64
第六章 結論與建議 73
6.1 結論 73
6.2 建議 75
參考文獻 77

圖目錄
圖3- 1 紊流長度尺度參數C、W 與高度Z0 的關係圖 .......................................... 14
圖4- 1 淡江大學一號邊界層風洞實驗室 ................................................................ 25
圖4- 2 IFA-300 智慧型風速儀、探針及校正儀 ...................................................... 26
圖4- 3 壓力量測系統 ................................................................................................ 27
圖4- 4 壓力訊號處理系統(RADBASE3200).......................................................... 28
圖4- 5 64 頻道壓力感應器模組 ............................................................................... 28
圖4- 6 逼近流場平均風速、紊流強度及長度尺度剖面 ........................................ 29
圖4- 7 風壓模型幾何尺寸、風壓孔佈設位置及實驗配置 .................................... 31
圖4- 8 本文130cm 風壓管之管線修正使用之頻率域轉換函數 ........................... 35
圖5- 1 不同模型在順風向風力係數極值時的橫風向風力係數比值絕對值以及扭
轉向風力係數比值絕對值的平均值與變異係數 ........................................ 44
圖5- 2 不同模型在橫風向風力係數極值時的順風向風力係數比值絕對值以及扭
轉向風力係數比值絕對值的平均值與變異係數 ........................................ 45
圖5- 3 不同模型在扭轉向風力係數極值時的順風向風力係數比值絕對值以及橫
風向風力係數比值絕對值的平均值與變異係數 ........................................ 46
圖5- 4 不同模型在順風向風力係數極值時,與其對應的橫風向風力係數、扭轉
向風力係數之相關係數 ................................................................................ 48
圖5- 5 不同模型在橫風向風力係數極值時,與其對應的順風向風力係數、扭轉
向風力係數之相關係數 ................................................................................ 49
圖5- 6 不同模型在扭轉向風力係數極值時,與其對應的順風向風力係數、橫風
向風力係數之相關係數 ................................................................................ 49
圖5- 7 深寬比0.4 模型在各向風力係數極值時,與對應之其他方向比值的絕對
值之機率分佈 ................................................................................................ 51
圖5- 8 深寬比0.4 模型在各向風力係數極值時,與對應之其他方向比值的絕對
值之散佈圖 .................................................................................................... 52
圖5- 9 深寬比0.67 模型在各向風力係數極值時,與對應之其他方向比值的絕對
值之機率分佈 ................................................................................................ 53
圖5- 10 深寬比0.67 模型在各向風力係數極值時,與對應之其他方向比值的絕
對值之散佈圖 .............................................................................................. 54
圖5- 11 深寬比2 模型在各向風力係數極值時,與對應之其他方向比值的絕對
值之機率分佈 .............................................................................................. 56
圖5- 12 深寬比2 模型在各向風力係數極值時,與對應之其他方向比值的絕對
值之散佈圖 .................................................................................................. 57
圖5- 13 深寬比5 模型在各向風力係數極值時,與對應之其他方向比值的絕對
值之機率分佈 .............................................................................................. 58
圖5- 14 深寬比2 模型在各向風力係數極值時,與對應之其他方向比值的絕對
值之散佈圖 .................................................................................................. 59
圖5- 15 所有模型在各向風力係數極值時,與對應之其他方向比值的絕對值之
機率分佈 ...................................................................................................... 61
圖5- 16 高寬比5~7 所有模型在各向風力係數極值時,與對應之其他方向比值
的絕對值之機率分佈 .................................................................................. 62
圖5- 17 高寬比1~3 所有模型在各向風力係數極值時,與對應之其他方向比值
的絕對值之機率分佈 .................................................................................. 63

表目錄
表3- 1 不同地況之指數率參數 ................................................................................ 12
表5- 1 所有模型在各向風力係數極值時,對應之其他方向比值的絕對值之統計
特性 ................................................................................................................ 66
表5- 2 不同深寬比模型在順風向風力係數極值時,對應之其他方向比值的絕對
值之統計特性 ................................................................................................ 67
表5- 3 不同深寬比模型在橫風向風力係數極值時,對應之其他方向比值的絕對
值之統計特性 ................................................................................................ 69
表5- 4 不同深寬比模型在扭轉向風力係數極值時,對應之其他方向比值的絕
對值之統計特性 ............................................................................................ 71
參考文獻 參考文獻
第一章
1-1 內政部營建署,(2006),「建築物耐風設計規範及解說」,營建雜誌社。
1-2 ASCE (2002), “Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures.” , ASCE 7-02, Reston, Va., USA.
1-3 Architectural Institute of Japan (1996), “Recommendations for loads on buildings.” , Japan.
第二章
2-1 C. F. Cowdery, (1986), “Two topics of interesting experimental industrial aerodynamic”, symposium on wind effects on buildings and structures, National physical laboratory, Teddington.
2-2 D. J. Cockrell and S. E. Lee, (1964), “Methods and consequences of atmospheric boundary layer simulation” , paper 13-AGARD conference proc. No.48 on aerodynamic of atmospheric shear flows, Munich.
2-3 J. Counihan, (1970), “ Further Measurements in a Simulated Atmospheric Bounday Layer ” , Atmospheric Environment, Vol.4, pp.159-275.
2-4 J. Counihan, (1970), “ An Improved Method of Simulation Atmospheric Boundary Layer ” , Atmospheric Environment, Vol.4, pp.159-275.
2-5 J. Counihan, (1973), “ Simulation of an Adiabatic Urban Boundary Layer in a Wind Tunnel ”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol.7﹐pp.673-689.
2-6 N. M. Standen, (1972), “ A Spire Array for Generating Thick Turbulent Shear Layers for Natural Wind Simulation in Wind Tunnels”, Rep. LTR-LA-94, National Aeronautical Establishment, Ottawa, Canada.
2-7 R. V. Barret, (1972), “ A Versatile Compact Wind Tunnel for Industrial Aerodynamics” , Technical note, Atmospheric Environment, Vol.6, pp.491-495.
2-8 N. J. Cook, (1973), “On Simulating the lower Third of the Urban Adiabatic Boundary Layer in a Wind Tunnel” , Atmospheric Environment, Vol.7, pp.691-705.
2-9 J. E. Cermak, J. A. Peterka, (1974), “ Simulation of Atmospheric Flows in Short Wind Tunnel Test Sections”, Center for Building Technology, IAT, National Bureau of Standards Washington, D.C., June.
2-10 J. E. Cermak, J. A. Peterka, (1974), “ Simulation of Atmospheric Flows in Short Wind Tunnel Test Sections”, Center for Building Technology, IAT, National Bureau of Standards Washington, D.C., June.
2-11 Jesen, M., 1958, “The Model Law for Phenomena in Natural Wind ” , Ingeioen International Edition, Vol.2, No.4, pp.121-123.
2-12 R. E. Whitbread, (1963), “ Model Simulation of Wind Effects on Structures” Proceeding of the Conference on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, pp.284-306.
2-13 J. M. Biggs, (1954), “ Wind Load on Truss Bridges”, ASCE, pp.879.
2-14 A. Hunt, (1982), “ Wind Tunnel Measurement of Surface Pressure on Cubic Building Models at Several Scales ” , J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aero., Vol. 10﹐pp.137-163.
2-15 Y. Nakamura, Y. Ohya, (1984), “ The effects of turbulence on the mean flowpast two dimensional rectangular cylinders ” , J. of Fluid. Mech., Vol.149, pp.255-273.
2-16 A. Townsend, (1956), “The structure of turbulent shear flow” , Cambridge Univ. Press. pp. 315
2-17 H. Nakaguchi, K. Hashimoto, and Muto, (1968), “An experimental study of aerodynamic drag of rectangular cylinders” , J. Japan Soc. Aero. Sci., Vol. 168, pp. 1-5
2-18 J. D. Holmes , (2001), “Wind loading of structures” , Spon Press, London.
2-19 N. Lin, C. Letchford, Y. Tamura, B. Liang, O. Nakamura, (2005), “Characteristics of wind forces acting on tall buildings.” , Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics Vol.93, pp.217–242.
2-20 C. Scruton and E. W. E. Rogers, (1972), “Steady and unsteady wind loading of buildings and structures” , Philosophical Transactions Royal Society, A 269, pp. 353-383
2-21 P. W. Bearman, (1980), “Aerodynamic loads on buildings and structures”, Wind engineering in the eightiex porc. CIRIA conf. London U.K.
2-22 B. J. Vickery, (1966), “Fluctuating lift and drag on a long cylinder of square cross-section in a smooth and in a turbulence stream’’ , J. of Fluid Mech., Vol.25, pp.481-494.
2-23 A. Kareem, 1990, “Measurement of pressure and force filed on building model in simulated atmospheric flows” , J. of Indust. Aerodynamic, vol.36, pp.589-599.
2-24 N. Isyumov and M. Pool, (1983), “Wind induced Torque on Squar and Rectangular Buildings Shapes” , J. of Indust. Aerodynamic, vol.13, pp.183-196.
2-25 呂銘洋,(1992), “以力平衡儀探討建築物在邊界層流場中所受風力特性’’,淡江大學土木工程研究所碩士論文。
2-26 B. E. Lee, (1975), “The effect of turbulence on the surface pressure field of a square prism.” , J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 69, part 2, pp.263-282.
2-27 A. Laneville, I. S. Gartshore and G. V. Parkinson, (1977), “An explanation of some effects of turbulence on bluff bodies” , Proceedings forth international conference, wind effects on buildings and structures, Cambridge, U.K.
2-28 P. W. Bearman, (1980), “Aerodynamic loads on buildings and structures” , Wind engineering in the eightiex porc. CIRIA conf. London U.K.
2-29 Y. Nakamura, Y. Ohya, (1984), “The effect of turbulence on the mean fiow past two dimensional rectangular cylinders’’ , J. of Fluid Mech., Vol.149, pp.255-273.
2-30 Gartshore, I .S December (1984), “Some effect of upstream turbulence on steady lift force imposed on prismatic two dimensional bodies” , Transactions of the ASME 418/Vol.106.
2-31 B. J. Vickery, (1966), “Fluctuating lift and drag on a long cylinder of square cross-section in a smooth and in a turbulence stream’’ , J. of Fluid Mech.,Vol.25,pp. 481-494.
2-32 A. Kareem, (1985), “Lateral-torsional motion of tall buildings to Wind Load” , J. Struct. Div., ASCE, Vol.111, No.11, pp.2479-2496.
2-33 J.Konda, H.Choi, “Correlating Dynamic Wind Force Component On 3-D Cylinders” , J. Wind Eng Ind. Aero., Vol.41-44, pp.785-789
2-34 傅仲麟,(1997),“三維矩柱扭力特性之風洞實驗研究”,淡江大學土木工程研究所碩士論文。
2-35 Y. Tamura, H. Kikuchib, K. Hibib, (2003), “Quasi-static wind load combinations for low- andmiddle-rise buildings” , J. Wind Eng Ind. Aero., Vol.91 pp.1613–1625.
2-36 Y. Tamura, Hirotoshi Kikuchi, Kazuki Hibi, (2008), “ Peak normal stresses and effects of wind direction on wind load combinations for medium-rise buildings” , J. Wind Eng Ind. Aero. , Vol.96, pp.1043–1057.
2-37 Gianni Bartoli, ClaudioMannini, TommasoMassai, (2011), “Quasi-static combination of wind loads: A copula-based approach” , J. Wind Eng Ind. Aero., Vol.99, pp.672–681.
第三章
3-1 A. G. Davenport, (1956), “The Relationship of Wind Structure to Wind Loading” , Proc. Symp. on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Vol.1, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, U.K. Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, pp.53-102.
3-2 American National Standard A58.1-1982 Minimum American National Standard Institute, Inc., New York.
3-3 J. Counihan, “Adiabatic Atmospheric Boundary Layers: A Review and Analysis of Data from the Period 1880-1972 ” , Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 9, 1975, pp. 871-905.
3-4 A. G. Davenport, (1961), “The Spectrum of Horizontal Gustiness Near the Ground in High Winds” , J. Royal Meteorol. Soc., 87 , p194-211.
3-5 J. C. Kaimal, (1972), “Spectral Characteristics of Surface Layer Turbulence ” , J. Royal Meterol Soc., Vol.87, pp.563-589.
3-6 J.D. Holmes, (2001), Wind loading of structures, Spon Press.
3-7 A. G. Davenport, (1968), “The dependence of wind load upon meteorological parameters.” , in proceedings of the international research seminar on wind effects on buildings and structures, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 19-82.
3-8 A. Kareem, (1981), “Wind excited response of buildings in higher modes” , J. Struct. Div., ASCE, vol. 107, no. ST4, pp. 701-706.

第四章
4-1 “RAD3200 System Instruction and Service Manual” , Scanivalve Corp.
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