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系統識別號 U0002-2507201417145800
中文論文名稱 空運/海運整合型貨運承攬業併裝集運與出貨規劃之研究
英文論文名稱 The Study of Cargo Consolidation and Shipment Planning for Integrated Air/Sea Freight Forwarders
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 運輸管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Transportation Management
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 簡佑勳
研究生英文姓名 Yu-Shyun Chien
學號 601660292
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-06-27
論文頁數 129頁
口試委員 指導教授-溫裕弘
委員-陳穆臻
委員-黃寬丞
中文關鍵字 整合型空運海運承攬業  併裝集運與出貨規劃  多目標規劃  機率限制規劃 
英文關鍵字 Integrated Air/Sea Freight Forwarders  Cargo Consolidation and Shipment Planning  Multiobjective Programming  Chance Constraint Programming 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隨著全球運籌市場激烈競爭,貨運承攬業者也轉型朝整合型第三方物流業發展,提供空運、海運貨運承攬服務及海空聯運業務。承攬業係屬中間商角色,在決策上需同時考量貨主需求面與運送人供給面特性,隨著承攬業擴大營運規模,亦使其主要決策問題併裝集運(cargo consolidation)與出貨規劃(shipment planning)日益複雜。過去文獻中,對於兼營空運海運之整合型貨運承攬業決策問題研究尚付闕如,也較少研究整合併裝集運、出貨規劃、海空聯運路線規劃之決策過程問題進行探討,因此本研究於此課題上確具研究空間與重要性。
本研究針對一兼營空運海運整合型第三方物流承攬業為對象,建構其併裝集運與出貨規劃模式。模式中考量承攬業運費支出成本最小化與貨物一般化託運成本最小化為目標式,建立多目標0-1整數規劃模式。針對運送人航段容量與班表之不確定性,令航段容量與航班出發、抵達時間為一幅值範圍分配,建構機率限制規劃模式進行探討。本研究並發展迭代求解演算法以反應貨物併裝計費重與運費變動對規劃求解之影響。在多目標規劃求解上以權重法設定不同權重組合進行模式求解,藉此探討貨主-承攬業-運送人三方對應於兩目標式間之權衡取捨關係。模式規劃求解批量合併、時間合併與路線合併之貨物併裝集運結果,亦規劃海空聯運路線。
最後,本研究透過實務數值範例進行模式求解及可行性驗證,並針對供需面等營運條件變動進行敏感度分析與情境分析。數值範例分析結果顯示,貨物併裝集運結果可反映兩目標式權衡取捨率,當以承攬業成本為主則貨件係擇費率較低航班優先指派,若以貨物託運成本為主則模式將優先指派貨件至較早出發航班,且當承攬業處理貨物量與愈接近航段容量上限時將使問題求解難度提升。海空聯運路線規劃方式則是將聯運貨物分別納入海、空運航段貨物集合中重新迭代求解模式,藉由比較各聯運方案目標式值規劃最佳海空聯運路線。敏感度分析結果則顯示,當貨物毛重與材積重差異大便會使航段容量利用率下降造成併裝效益降低,而當航班間費率差異小且航段計費重區間較大時,求解結果將可能陷入局部最佳解。情境分析結果顯示承攬業擴大營運規模時,若僅以人工作業進行貨物併裝決策有其困難度,也可突顯本研究模式輔助併裝出貨作業之重要性。本研究成果不僅在學術上可做為承攬業整合併裝集運與出貨規劃決策問題發展之參考,在實務上亦可提供整合型貨運承攬業者之策略參考與決策支援系統開發基礎。
英文摘要 Competitive pressure has made many companies return to their core competencies and outsource logistics functions to the third-party logistics providers (3PLs). Many freight forwarders have appeared that provide integrated airfreight and seafreight forwarding and value-added integrated services to shippers. However, decision-making in an integrated airfreight and seafreight 3PL forwarding business is challenging. Since international cargo demand is highly unstable and sensitive to global economic conditions. Therefore, how to consolidate the collected cargoes skillfully and optimize shipments is very important for freight forwarders to enhance their performance and remain competitive. However, few literatures have been paid to the integrated decision problems for the air/sea freight forwarding.
This study focuses on analyzing the cargo consolidation and shipment planning problems for an integrated air/sea freight forwarder. This study develops a multiobjective mixed 0-1 programming model that simultaneously minimizes the total expense charged by the carriers (airlines and shipping lines) and minimizes the cargo total generalized shipping costs. The supply-side uncertainty, such as reduced capacity and schedule variation, is also formulated by using chance constraint programming model. Furthermore, the trade-offs between forwarding expense and cargo generalized shipping costs are also taken into consideration. A numerical example with selected air/sea freight forwarder networks was provided to illustrate the results and the application of the proposed models. Moreover, a group of optimal solution for cargo consolidation and shipment was determined. An optimal sea-air consolidation routing was also determined. Sensitivity analyses and scenario analyses were also discussed. The results of numerical example showed that when the number of shipments increases approaching capacity, the computational performance of the proposed model deteriorates significantly. The numerical results provided higher flexibility on shipment planning for the air/sea freight forwarding. In addition, it is envisaged that the results of this study may shed light on cargo consolidation and shipment planning decision support systems for freight forwarding.
論文目次 目錄
誌謝
中文摘要
英文摘要
目錄 i
表目錄 iii
圖目錄 vi
符號說明 vii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 4
1.3 研究範圍 6
1.4 研究流程 8
1.5 研究架構 11
第二章 文獻回顧 15
2.1 貨物配送決策問題 17
2.1.1路線規劃 17
2.1.2運具選擇 18
2.1.3貨物運送批量 18
2.1.4排程規劃 19
2.1.5小結 19
2.2 複合貨物運輸決策問題 20
2.2.1網路流量問題 20
2.2.2服務網路設計問題 20
2.2.3 小結 21
2.3 貨運承攬業者相關研究 21
2.3.1 網路規劃與排程 21
2.3.2 併裝集運與出貨規劃 22
2.3.3 小結 23
2.4 文獻回顧評析 26
第三章 模式構建 28
3.1 模式參變數定義 28
3.2 承攬業運費支出成本與貨物一般化託運成本 30
3.2.1 承攬業運費支出成本函數 30
3.2.2 貨物一般化託運成本相關參數 34
3.3 多目標規劃模式 36
3.4 機率限制規劃模式 38
3.4.1 航段容量不確定性參數 38
3.4.2 航段時間窗不確定性參數 39
3.4.3機率限制規劃模式 40
3.5 模式求解架構及步驟 42
第四章 範例分析 46
4.1 範例分析參數設定 46
4.1.1 空運航段與貨物參數設定 47
4.1.2 海運航段與貨物參數設定 52
4.1.3 海空聯運航段與貨物參數設定 56
4.2 空/海運併裝集運與出貨規劃範例 57
4.2.1 確定性模式規劃結果 59
4.2.2 機率限制規劃結果 81
4.3 海空聯運路線規劃範例 86
4.4 敏感度分析 92
4.5 情境分析 99
第五章 結論與建議 110
5.1 結論 110
5.2 建議 113
參考文獻 114
附錄 122

表目錄
表2. 1 承攬業相關研究彙整表 24
表2. 2 主要參考文獻內容彙整表 25
表4. 1 主要貿易地區貨運量分配比例 47
表4. 2 空運貨物屬性資料 50
表4. 3 空運航段費率表 51
表4. 4 長榮海運定期輪航班統整表 54
表4. 5 台灣各港口貨物吞吐量比例 54
表4. 6 海運貨物屬性資料 55
表4. 7 空運航段航線彙整表 58
表4. 8 海運航段航線彙整表 58
表4. 9 不同目標式權重組合求解結果表 61
表4. 10 台灣→香港航段權重組合{w1=1, w2=0}貨件指派結果 62
表4. 11 台灣→香港航段權重組合{w1=0.5, w2=0.5}貨件指派結果 63
表4. 12 台灣→香港航段權重組合{w1=0, w2=1}貨件指派結果 64
表4. 13 台灣→日本航段貨件資料 67
表4. 14 台灣→日本航段求解結果 68
表4. 15 台灣→日本航段計費重與費率迭代求解過程 68
表4. 16 台灣→上海航段貨件資料 69
表4. 17 台灣→上海航段求解結果 70
表4. 18 台灣→上海航段計費重與費率迭代求解過程 70
表4. 19 台灣→香港航段貨件資料 71
表4. 20 台灣→香港航段求解結果 72
表4. 21 台灣→香港航段計費重與費率迭代求解過程 72
表4. 22 台灣→新加坡航段貨件資料 73
表4. 23 台灣→新加坡航段求解結果 74
表4. 24 台灣→新加坡航段計費重與費率迭代求解過程 74
表4. 25 台灣→(貨機安格拉治中轉)→紐約航段貨件資料 75
表4. 26 台灣→(貨機安格拉治中轉)→紐約航段求解結果 76
表4. 27 台灣→(貨機安格拉治中轉)→紐約航段計費重與費率迭代求解過程 76
表4. 28 台灣→(貨機阿布達比中轉)→荷蘭航段貨件資料 77
表4. 29 台灣→(貨機阿布達比中轉)→荷蘭航段求解結果 78
表4. 30 台灣→(貨機阿布達比中轉)→荷蘭航段計費重與費率迭代求解過程 78
表4. 31 香港→台灣海運航段貨件資料 79
表4. 32 香港→台灣海運航段求解結果 80
表4. 33 航段可用容量比例發生機率表 83
表4. 34 航段於起點與迄點延誤時間發生機率表 83
表4. 35 航段可用容量比例與起迄點延誤時間期望值 83
表4. 36 台灣→上海航段確定性與不確定性模式求解結果比較表 84
表4. 37 台灣→香港航段確定性與不確定性模式求解結果比較表 85
表4. 38 香港→台灣→紐約海空聯運航段貨件資料 88
表4. 39 香港→台灣→紐約海空聯運航段規劃結果 89
表4. 40 香港→台灣→荷蘭海空聯運航段貨件資料 90
表4. 41 香港→台灣→荷蘭海空聯運航段規劃結果 91
表4. 42 貨物密度變化分析結果比較表 93
表4. 43 全貨機航線費率調整方案內容 95
表4. 44 全貨機航班費率變化目標式值分析結果比較表 95
表4. 45 台灣→香港航段全貨機費率變動各方案貨件指派結果比較表 96
表4. 46 台灣→香港航段全貨機費率變動各方案貨件指派結果比較表(續1) 97
表4. 47 台灣→香港航段全貨機費率變動各方案貨件指派結果比較表(續完) 98
表4. 48 台灣→上海航段情境一貨件資料 101
表4. 49 台灣→上海航段情境一貨件指派結果 102
表4. 50 台灣→香港航段情境一貨件資料 103
表4. 51 台灣→香港航段情境一貨件指派結果 104
表4. 52 台灣→上海航段情境二貨件資料 106
表4. 53 台灣→上海航段情境二貨件指派結果 107
表4. 54 台灣→香港航段情境二貨件資料 108
表4. 55 台灣→香港航段情境二貨件指派結果 109
表4. 56 情境一、情境二航段計費重 比較表 109


圖目錄
圖1. 1 貨運承攬業者決策圖 2
圖1. 2 海空聯運轉換作業流程示意圖 7
圖1. 3 研究流程圖 10
圖1. 4 出貨決策時點示意圖 12
圖1. 5 研究架構圖 14
圖2. 1 貨物運送過程示意圖 15
圖2. 2 文獻回顧2.1、2.2節內容架構圖 16
圖3. 1 空運航段計費重成本函數示意圖 31
圖3. 2 海運航段計費重成本函數示意圖 33
圖3. 3 空運、海空聯運、海運圖層網路示意圖 36
圖3. 4 模式求解流程圖 45
圖4. 1 空運貿易航線示意圖 48
圖4. 2 海運貿易航線示意圖 52
圖4. 3 空運決策時點示意圖 59
圖4. 4 不同目標式權重組合之非劣解組合決策空間 61
圖4. 5 貨物密度變化對兩目標式值影響比較圖 93
圖4. 6 全貨機航線費率變化對兩目標式值影響比較圖 96

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