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系統識別號 U0002-2507201114590000
中文論文名稱 高升力翼剖面在大雨下之空氣動力分析
英文論文名稱 Aerodynamic Investigation of High-Lift Airfoil Under the Influence of Heavy Rain Effects
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 航空太空工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Aerospace Engineering
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 周季儒
研究生英文姓名 Chi-Ju Chou
學號 698430401
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2011-06-24
論文頁數 90頁
口試委員 指導教授-宛同
委員-潘大知
委員-牛仰堯
中文關鍵字 高升力翼剖面  大雨  二相流  表面粗糙度  空氣動力學 
英文關鍵字 High-lift airfoil  heavy rain  two phase flow  surface roughness  aerodynamics 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學航空太空
中文摘要 由於溫室效應的影響,極端惡劣天氣變得相當頻繁,例如低空風切、颱風、冰或雪。當飛機起飛降落時會不幸遭遇大雨,因此在飛機設計時須考慮這些天氣因素的影響,而大雨對飛機所造成的氣動力損失則是正在進行中的研究主題且需要長遠的進行研究,但是除了本研究團隊近幾年曾經針對大雨對機翼性能分析有過分析之外,近10年來不論是在實驗或是在數值計算方面已鮮少有相關的研究。本研究首先對回顧前人所做的因大雨效應而使得飛機性能減低的研究並使用數值方法做進一步的探討,並使用NACA 64-210二維高升力翼剖面和現有的商用軟體FLUENT,大雨的模擬則是採用FLUENT內的二相流 (Two-Phase Flow)離散相的DPM模組(Discrete Phase Model)和改變表面粗糙度來完成並計算空氣動力特性的改變。
本研究首先進行乾淨翼剖面的驗證工作,並成功模擬出二維高升力翼剖面在大雨下的性能衰減,其衰減程度會隨著降雨量的增加而越大,而失速的情形也有提前發生的現象,研究發現升力係數減少、阻力係數增加的程度與Bezos 實驗結果相近。本研究所得到的量化資料能夠能對航空業上有所助益,長遠來說,可以使得飛機飛行的更安全。
英文摘要 Global warming has led to extreme weather around the world frequently such as low level wind shear, typhoon, ice/snow etc. If aircraft taking-off and landing will unavoidably meet with the heavy rain, then aircraft designer must put these severe weather influences into considerations in the conceptual design phase. Aerodynamic influences due to heavy rain are still the on-going research subject, and needs further investigation. But for the past decade there are neither experimental nor numerical researches about heavy rain except our research team conducted in recent years. In this thesis, we first review some research finding of heavy rain effects on the aerodynamic performance degradation. Secondly, commercial CFD package FLUENT and preprocessing tool Gambit is used as our main analysis tools, and the simulation of rain is accomplished by using Two-Phase Flow approach’s Discrete Phase Model (DPM) and surface roughness provided by FLUENT.
The results show that this research successfully simulates the aerodynamic investigation of high-lift airfoil under the influence of heavy rain effects, the doubts or errors in the previous numerical and experimental works are also revealed. The degradation rate increases with the rain rate, and the premature stall phenomenon is also discovered. It is expected that the quantitative information gained in this thesis could be useful to the operational airline industry, and greater effort should put in this direction to further improve modern transport aircrafts safety.
論文目次 Table of Contents
ABSTRACT I
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF FIGURES V
LIST OF TABLES IX
NOMENCLATURES XII
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH BACKGROUND 6
2.1 FLOW PHYSICS OF HIGH LIFT AIRFOIL 6
2.2 PHYSICS AND INFLUENCES OF AN AIRFOIL IN RAIN 11
2.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RAIN 18
CHAPTER 3 NUMERICAL MODELING 21
3.1 GRID GENERATION AND FLOW SOLVER 21
3.2 TURBULENCE MODELING 25
3.3 DISCRETE PHASE MODEL 29
3.4 WALL FUNCTIONS AND SURFACE ROUGHNESS 34
3.5 VERIFICATION 37
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 41
4.1 PRELIMINARY RESULTS 41
4.2 HIGH-LIFT AIRFOIL UNDER THE HEAVY RAIN 58
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS 77
REFERENCES 79
List of Figures
Fig. 1-1 Examples of typical leading edge devices [2] 3
Fig. 1-2 Examples of typical trailing edge devices [2] 3
Fig. 1-3 Typical high-lift airfoil and its effect on lift coefficient [3] 3
Fig. 2-1 Velocity distributions on an airfoil with and without a vortex,
showing the slat effect [10] 7
Fig. 2-2 Velocity distributions on an airfoil with and without a vortex,
simulating the circulation effect [10] 8
Fig. 2 3 Typical three-element airfoil, showing dumping velocity effect
[10] 9
Fig. 2-4 Theoretical flow models for the various viscous regions
[11] 10
Fig. 2-5 Idealization of raindrops interacting with a flapped airfoil
[16] 14
Fig. 2-6 Observed film flow pattern above a flapped wing [16] 15
Fig. 2-7 Terminal velocity versus droplet diameter 20
Fig. 3-1 Far mesh of NACA 64-210 high-lift airfoil 22
Fig. 3-2 Medium mesh of NACA 64-210 high-lift airfoil 22
Fig. 3-3 Near mesh of NACA 64-210 high-lift airfoil 22
Fig. 3-4 The Yplus with NACA 64-210 high-lift airfoil 23
Fig 3-5 Physics of splashing, momentum, heat, and mass transfer for the
Wall-Film 32
Fig. 3-6 Far mesh of NACA 64-210 airfoil 37
Fig. 3-7 Near mesh of NACA 64-210 airfoil 38
Fig. 3-8 Wall Yplus at angle of attack 0 degree 38
Fig. 3-9 Lift coefficients comparison between numerical results and
theory 39
Fig. 3-10 Drag coefficients comparison between numerical results and
theory 40
Fig. 4-1 Lift coefficients for 3 numerical results comparing to
experimental data 46
Fig. 4-2 Drag coefficients for 3 numerical result comparing to
experimental data 47
Fig. 4-3 Lift coefficients for airfoil numerical and experimental results
49
Fig. 4-4 Drag coefficients for airfoil numerical and experimental results
49
Fig.4-5 Lift degradation rate for airfoil at LWC=25 g/m3 for numerical and experimental results 51
Fig. 4-6 Lift degradation rate for airfoil at LWC=39 g/m3 for numerical
and experimental results 51
Fig.4-7 Drag degradation rate for airfoil at LWC=25 g/m3 for numerical
and experimental results 53
Fig.4-8 Drag degradation rate for airfoil at LWC=39 g/m3 for numerical
and experimental results 53
Fig 4-9 l/d degradation rate for airfoil at LWC=25 g/m3 for numerical and
experimental results 56
Fig 4-10 l/d degradation rate for airfoil at LWC=39 g/m3 for numerical and experimental results 56
Fig. 4-11 Local view of rain droplets diameter near airfoil 57
Fig. 4-12 Lift coefficients for high-lift airfoil numerical result comparing
to experimental data 58
Fig. 4-13 Drag coefficients for high lift airfoil numerical result comparing
to experimental data 58
Fig. 4-14 Lift coefficients for high-lift airfoil numerical and experimental
results 60
Fig. 4-15 Drag coefficients for high-lift airfoil numerical and
experimental results 60
Fig.4-16 Lift degradation rate for high-lift airfoil at LWC=29 g/m3 for
numerical and experimental results 62
Fig.4-17 Lift degradation rate for high-lift airfoil at LWC=46 g/m3 for
numerical and experimental results 62
Fig. 4-18 CP distribution of slat for 2 rain rate cases and 2 flight attitudes
63
Fig. 4-19 CP distribution of main wing for 2 rain rate cases and 2 flight
attitudes 63
Fig. 4-20 CP distribution of vane for 2 rain rate cases and 2 flight
attitudes 63
Fig. 4-21 CP distribution of flap for 2 rain rate cases and 2 flight attitudes
64
Fig.4-22 Drag degradation rate for high-lift airfoil at LWC=29 g/m3 for
numerical and experimental results 65
Fig.4-23 Drag degradation rate for high-lift airfoil at LWC=46 g/m3 for
numerical and experimental results 66
Fig. 4-24 Cavity flow at slat and main wing 69
Fig. 4-25 Pressure and viscous drag degradation rate for slat at 2 rain rate
cases 70
Fig. 4-26 Pressure and viscous drag degradation rate for main wing at 2
rain rate cases 70
Fig. 4-27 Pressure and viscous drag degradation rate for vane at 2 rain
rate cases 70
Fig. 4-28 Pressure and viscous drag degradation rate for flap at 2 rain rate
cases 71
Fig. 4-29 l/d degradation rate for high-lift airfoil at LWC=29 g/m3 for
numerical and experimental results 72
Fig. 4-30 l/d degradation rate for high-lift airfoil at LWC=46 g/m3 for
numerical and experimental results 73
Fig. 4-31 Local view of rain droplets diameter near high lift airfoil 73
Fig. 4-32 Different relative static pressure contours with streamlines 74
Fig. 4-33 Different relative velocity magnitude contours with streamlines
75

List of Tables
Table 4-1 Value of Airfoil's KS and CS for 2 flight attitudes and 2 rain
cases 42
Table 4-2 Value of slat's KS and CS for 3 flight attitudes and 2 rain cases
42
Table 4-3 Value of main wing's KS and CS for 3 flight attitudes and 2 rain
cases 43
Table 4-4 Value of vane's KS and CS for 3 flight attitudes and 2 rain cases
44
Table 4-5 Value of flap's KS and CS for 3 flight attitudes and 2 rain cases
44
Table 4-6 Lift coefficients percentage for airfoil numerical result
comparing to experimental data 47
Table 4-7 Drag coefficients percentage for airfoil numerical result
comparing to experimental data 47
Table 4-8 Numerical results for airfoil of lift coefficients degradation
percentage for 2 rain rate cases 50
Table 4-9 Experimental results for airfoil of lift coefficients degradation
percentage for 2 rain rate cases 50
Table 4-10 Numerical results for airfoil of drag coefficients degradation
percentage for 2 rain rate cases 52
Table 4-11 Experimental results for airfoil of drag coefficients
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 52
Table 4-12 Numerical results for airfoil of pressure drag coefficients
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 54
Table 4-13 Numerical results for airfoil of viscous drag coefficients
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 54
Table 4-14 Numerical results for airfoil of lift to drag (l/d) degradation
percentage for 2 rain rate cases 55
Table 4-15 Experimental results for airfoil of lift to drag (l/d) degradation
percentage for 2 rain rate cases 55
Table 4-16 Lift coefficients percentage for high lift airfoil numerical
result comparing to experimental data 59
Table 4-17 Drag coefficients percentage for high lift airfoil numerical
result comparing to experimental data 59
Table 4-18 Numerical results for high-lift airfoil of lift coefficients
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 61
Table 4-19 Experiment results for high-lift airfoil of lift coefficients
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 61
Table 4-20 Numerical results for high-lift airfoil of drag coefficients
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 64
Table 4-21 Experiment results for high-lift airfoil of drag coefficients
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 65
Table 4-22 Numerical results for slat of pressure drag coefficients
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 66
Table 4-23 Numerical results for slat of viscous drag coefficients
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 67
Table 4-24 Numerical results for main wing of pressure drag coefficients
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 67

Table 4-25 Numerical results for main wing of viscous drag coefficients
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 67
Table 4-26 Numerical results for vane of pressure drag coefficients
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 68
Table 4-27 Numerical results for vane of viscous drag coefficients
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 68
Table 4-28 Numerical results for flap of pressure drag coefficients
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 68
Table 4-29 Numerical results for flap of viscous drag coefficients
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 69
Table 4-30 Numerical results for high-lift airfoil of lift to drag (l/d)
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 71
Table 4-31 Experiment results for high-lift airfoil of lift to drag (l/d)
degradation percentage for 2 rain rate cases 72
參考文獻 References
[1] Page, F. H., “The Handley Page Wing,” The Aeronautical Journal, June 192l, pp. 263.
[2] Smith, A. M. O., “High-Lift Aerodynamics,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1975, pp.501-530.
[3] van Dam, C.P., “The Aerodynamic Design of Multi-Element High-Lift Systems for Transport Airplanes,” Program in Aerospace Sciences 38, 2002, pp.101–144.
[4] “FLUENT 6.3 User’s Guide”, Fluent Inc., September, 2006
[5] Rudolph, P. K. C., “High-lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners,” NASA CR 4746, September 1996.
[6] Abbot, Iran H., A. E. von Doenhoff, Stivers, L. S., “Summary of Airfoil Data,” NACA TR 824, 1945.
[7] Abbot, Iran H. and A. E. von Doenhoff, Theory of Wing Section: Including a Summary of Airfoil Data, Dover Publication, 1959.
[8] Cahill, J. F., “Summary of Section Data on Trailing-Edge High Lift Devices,” NACA TR 938, 1949.
[9] Young A. D., “The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Flaps,” ARC R&M 2622, 1953.
[10] Smith, A. M. O., “Aerodynamics of High-Lift Airfoil Systems. Fluid Dynamics of Aircraft Stalling,” AGARD CP 102, November. 1972.
[11] Bertin, J. J. and Cummings, M. R., Aerodynamics for Engineers, Fifth ed., Pearson Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 2002, pp. 309.
[12] Rhode, R. V., “Some Effects of Rainfall on Flight of Airplanes and on Instrument Indications,” NACA TN903, April 1941.
[13] Haines, P. A. and J. K. Luers, “Aerodynamic Penalties of Heavy Rain on a Landing Aircraft,” NASA CR-156885, 1982.
[14] Dunham, R. E., Jr., “Potential Influences of Heavy Rain on General Aviation Airplane Performance,” AIAA-86-2606, Sept. Oct. 1986.
[15] Bilanin, A.J., “Scaling Laws for Testing Airfoils under Heavy Rainfall,” Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 24, No.1, Jan. 1987, pp.31-37.
[16] Bilanin, A.J., “Scaling Laws for Testing of High Lift Airfoils under Heavy Rainfall,” AIAA-85-0257, Jan. 1985.
[17] Bezos, G. M., Dunham, R. E., Jr., Gentry, G., L., Jr., and Melson, W. E., Jr., “Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Transport-Type Airfoil in a Simulated Heavy Rain Environment,” NASA Technical Paper 3184, August 1992.
[18] Wan, T. and Pan, S. P., “Aerodynamic Efficiency Study under the Influence of Heavy Rain via Two-Phase Flow Approach,” Proceedings of the 27th International Congress of Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS), Nice, France, September 19-24, 2010.
[19] Valentine, James, R. and Rand, A. Decker, “A Lagrangian-Eulerian Scheme for Flow Around and Airfoil in Rain,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1995, pp.639-648.
[20] Markowitz, A. M., “Raindrop Size Distribution Expression,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 15, 1976, pp.1029-1031.
[21] Bardina, J. E., Huang, P. G., and Coakley, T. J., “Turbulence Modeling Validation, Testing, and Development,” NASA Technical Memorandum 1997.
[22] Cebeci, T. and Bradshaw, P., Momentum Transfer in Boundary Layers, Hemisphere. Publishing Corporation, New York. 1977.
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