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系統識別號 U0002-2507201114514800
中文論文名稱 歐盟軍事干預與新干預主義之檢證
英文論文名稱 EU's Military Intervention and the New Interventionism
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 葉錦娟
研究生英文姓名 Chin-chuan Yeh
學號 891030032
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-07-06
論文頁數 256頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡政文
委員-包宗和
委員-郭秋慶
委員-周世雄
委員-陳世民
中文關鍵字 新干預主義  歐盟共同安全暨防禦政策  武力使用  軍事干預 
英文關鍵字 New Interventionism  EU Common Security and Defence Policy  CSDP  Use of Force  Military Intervention 
學科別分類
中文摘要 冷戰結束後,對國際和平與安全最大的威脅,不再來自國家之間的爭端或衝突,而是一國內部的族群衝突、內戰或是政府失靈所造成的人道災難,促使新干預主義(New Interventionism)主張興起:要求國際社會突破不干涉他國內政的原則與武力使用之限制,以處理諸如波士尼亞、盧安達、科索沃、東帝汶、蘇丹、剛果、海地等人道災難問題。隨著不同的衝突發生,新干預主義的內涵透過聯合國祕書長的報告和安理會的決議,以及學者筆下不斷修正與擴增下,建構了一套從預防、解決到防止一國內部衝突再生的策略。
一九九九年六月柯隆歐盟高峰會,歐盟決定發展歐盟的自主軍事能力,建立共同安全暨防禦政策(EU Common Security and Defence Policy, CSDP),俾使歐盟成為具有經濟、政治和軍事特性的全方面國際組織,並於二00三年在前南斯拉夫馬其頓共和國進行首次的軍事干預行動。
本論文結合上面兩個論述,以新干預主義做為研究途徑,檢證歐盟的軍事干預。歐盟軍事干預政策的本質不是集體防禦,而是循著新干預主義脈絡進行軍事任務,以維護國際和平與安全。本文透過五個個案:馬其頓協和行動(Operation Concordia)、波士尼亞阿爾西亞行動(EUFOR Althea)、剛果阿蒂米絲行動(Artemis)、剛果重建行動(EUFOR RD Congo)以及查德/中非軍事行動(EUFOR Tchad/RCA),檢證新干預主義的理論與實際,並評估歐盟的軍事行動成果和能力,探討其是否能成為有效、穩定且可信賴的維持和平力量。
本論文認為,新干預主義在落實上或有缺失或被濫用的危險性,但當一國內部危機不斷威脅國際和平與安全時,強調使用武力必要性的新干預主義仍是最佳主張。雖然新干預主義接受正當性干預,但歐盟的軍事干預行動,仍會以合法,尤其是取得聯合國安理會授權為前提。而以歐盟的戰略文化和會員國偏好來看,歐盟在可預見的未來,仍無法發展至北約那樣的軍事能力,所以強制和平的軍事行動不會是歐盟的選項,而會走向兩個模式:在柏林附加協定下,接手北約的任務,以及支援聯合國的維和部隊。
英文摘要 Since the end of the Cold War, the most threat to international peace and security, not from a dispute or conflict between countries, but a humanitarian catastrophe within a country caused by ethnic conflict, civil war or state failure. The New Interventionism is to break the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs, and by use of force to address issues such as Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo, East Timor, Sudan, Congo, Haiti and other humanitarian catastrophes. According to the reports of United Nations Secretary-General and the resolutions of United Nations Secretary Council, as well as scholars’ researches, the New Interventionism has become a security strategy to prevent and resolve conflicts, as well as to reconstruct in post-conflict within a country.
In June 1999 the Cologne EU Council decided to develop an autonomous capacity to launch the EU Common Security and Defence Policy, thus giving EU as full role on the international stage. In 2003, EU launched its first military intervention in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
This dissertation discusses the combination of the above two, through the New Interventionism as a research approach of validating EU's military intervention. The policy of EU military intervention is not collective defense in essence, but one for the maintenance of international peace and security in the New Interventionism. Through these five cases: Operation Concordia in FYROM, EUFOR Althea in Bosnia, Artemis in Congo, EUFOR RD Congo and EUFOR Tchad / RCA, this dissertation will validate the New Interventionism in theory and practice and evaluate the results and capacity of the EU's military operations, and explore whether EU can be an effective, stable and creditable peace-keeping force.
The New Interventionism is still the best idea to deal with a country’s internal crisis continuing to constitute a threat to international peace and security, even if it could be abused. And EU’s military intervention will be legal as a precondition, especially under the authority of UN, although the New Interventionism tolerates use of force based on legitimacy. Because of the strategic culture and preferences of the Member States, in the foreseeable future, EU is hardly to develop the same military capabilities as NATO's; the peace-enforcing operation will not be the EU's option. EU will go toward two modes in military intervention: to take over NATO's mission under Berlin Arrangement, and support the United Nations peacekeeping force.
論文目次 第一章 導論
第一節 研究動機與目的…1
壹、研究動機…1
貳、研究目的…7
第二節 研究途徑與方法…9
壹、研究途徑…10
貳、研究方法…18
第三節 研究架構與範圍…20
壹、研究架構…20
貳、研究範圍…23
第四節、文獻回顧…25
第二章 新干預主義之理論與實際…29
第一節 武力使用的合法性…30
壹、聯合國安理會之授權…30
貳、持續授權…32
參、聯合國大會授權…35
第二節 武力使用的正當性…36
壹、法理正當性…37
貳、審議式正當性…39
參、多邊授權正當性…41
第三節 干預的層級…44
壹、聯合國…45
貳、區域組織…46
參、多國部隊…48
肆、單一國家…49
第四節 干預的準則…51
壹、同意原則…51
貳、公正原則…53
第五節 干預的形式…54
壹、衝突預防:預防性部署…55
貳、衝突解決:維持和平與強制和平…57
參、衝突後重建:建設和平…59
第三章 歐盟軍事干預之政策形成、決策機制與軍事能力發展…63
第一節 政策形成…64
壹、英法合作…65
貳、政策的形成與發展…69
參、政策內容…72
第二節 決策機制…74
壹、歐盟高峰會…75
貳、外交事務理事會及其輔助機構…77
參、歐盟外交事務與安全政策高級代表及其輔助機構…79
第三節 歐盟軍事能力之發展…84
壹、赫爾辛基首要目標…84
貳、二0一0首要目標…86
參、歐洲防禦署…88
肆、長期結構性合作…90
第四章 個案研究一:柏林附加安排下之行動…95
第一節 前南斯拉夫馬其頓共和國協和行動…96
壹、歐盟的決策過程…97
貳、干預的法源、層級和形式…99
參、執行…100
肆、成效…101
第二節 波士尼亞阿爾西亞行動…102
壹、歐盟的決策過程…104
貳、干預的法源、層級與形式…105
參、執行…106
肆、成效…111
第五章 個案研究二:歐盟自主之軍事行動…113
第一節 剛果阿蒂米絲行動…113
壹、歐盟的決策過程…116
貳、干預的法源、層級與形式…118
參、執行…120
肆、成效…120
第二節 剛果重建行動…122
壹、歐盟的決策過程…123
貳、干預的法源、層級與形式…124
參、執行…125
肆、成效…127
第三節 查德/中非軍事行動…127
壹、歐盟的決策過程…129
貳、干預的法源、層級與形式…130
參、執行…131
肆、成效…134
第六章 影響歐盟軍事干預決策之因素…137
第一節 內在因素…137
壹、干預的合法性…137
貳、會員國的意願…138
參、軍事能力…143
肆、決策程序…145
第二節 外在因素…146
壹、美國…146
貳、北約…148
參、危機事件對歐盟的衝擊…151
第三節 影響軍事干預決策之評估…152
第七章 歐盟軍事干預行動之評估…157
第一節 干預的合法性、層級與形式…157
壹、干預的合法性…157
貳、干預的層級…159
參、干預的形式…161
第二節 快速反應能力的問題…163
壹、快速決策能力…164
貳、快速部署能力…165
第三節 任務成果檢討…168
壹、任務時間缺乏彈性…169
貳、自限任務範圍…171
參、作戰缺失…173
第八章 理論評估與研究發現…177
第一節 理論評估…177
壹、武力使用的問題…177
貳、多邊主義之重要性…183
第二節 研究發現…185
壹、北約對歐盟軍事行動有否決權?…185
貳、柏林附加安排下非自主歐盟軍事行動?…186
參、和美國相比的軍事實力?…187
肆、為何歐盟軍事規模無法擴大?…190
第九章 結論…197
第一節 新干預主義之必要…197
第二節 歐盟軍事干預之未來發展…201
附錄一 安理會授權使用武力之重要決議案…207
附錄二 安理會斷定構成國際和平與安全威脅之主要決議案…212
參考文獻…217
表圖目次
表1-1 傳統軍事干預與新干預主義之比較…17
表7-1 歐盟五次軍事干預行動的法源與層級…158
表7-2 歐盟五次軍事干預的形式…162
表7-3 歐盟五次軍事行動的決策時程…164
表7-4 歐盟五次軍事行動之執行總表…168
表8-1 主要歐盟會員國在阿富汗的軍隊人數…193

圖3-1 歐盟軍事干預行動之主要決策結構…76
參考文獻 壹、中文文獻

一、專書

包宗和,〈戰略三角個體論檢視與總體論建構及其對現實主義的衝擊〉,包宗和、吳玉山主編,《重新檢視爭辯中的兩岸關係理論》。台北:五南,民98。
邱宏達主編,《現代國際法》。台北:三民,民81年8月。
吳萬寶,《邁向歐盟建軍之路》。台北:韋伯文化,2003年9月。
張亞中,《歐洲統合:政府間主義與超國家主義的互動》。台北:揚智,民87年。
郭秋慶,《歐洲國家的外交與安全政策》。台北:台灣國際研究協會,民95年7月。
郭秋慶,《歐洲聯盟概論》。台北:五南。民88年。
陳世民,〈恐怖主義與大規模毀滅性武器之擴散〉,汪毓偉編,《恐怖主義與國家安全》。台北:幼獅,民96年,頁118-127。
陳 勁,《歐洲聯盟之整合與體制運作》。台北:五南,民88年。
陳麗娟編譯,《阿姆斯特丹條約解讀》。台北:五南,民88年。
蔡政文,《當前國際關係理論發展及其評估》。台北:三民,民78年。
蔡政文等著,《國際關係理論》。台北:五南,民100。
謝福助,《新干涉主義:科索沃案例議題研究》。台北:韋伯文化,民92。
董 霖,《國際公法與國際組織》。台北:商務,民82年2月。

二、期刊

包宗和,「現實主義之自我論辯及其與批判理論間之解構與建構」,《國際關係學報》,第17期,民93年,頁1-21。
甘逸驊,「歐洲安全與防衛政策的軍事層面:歐盟的全球戰略地位」,《問題與研究》,第45卷,第5期,民95年9、10月,頁111-136。
何泰宇,「歐盟安全暨防衛政策之研究─以2003年剛果軍事任務為例」,《遠景基金會季刊》,第6卷,第4期,民94年10月,第185-238。
周 煦,「聯合國集體安全與維持和平之演變」,《淡江人文社會學刊》,特刊,民89年10月,頁141-191。
陳文生,「布希政府反恐安全戰略及其挑戰──伊拉克經驗的檢討」,《政治科學論叢》,第25期,民94年5月,頁1-28。
───,「美國推動聯合國安理會1441號決議案分析」,《問題與研究》,第43卷,第3期,民93年5、6月,頁23-47。
周世雄,「概念性探討國際和平與集體安全」,《問題與研究》,第33卷第5期,民83年,頁65-74。
───,「論當前歐亞安全體系之建構:多極體系下之運作模式」,《問題與研究》,第31卷第4期,民81年,頁57-74。
楊永明,「國際法上軍事干涉之研究」,《政治科學論叢》,第14期,民90年6月,頁183-200。
───,「國際法與禁止武力使用和威脅」,《美歐月刊》,第11卷,第2期,民85年2月,頁92-108。
葉錦娟,「從蒙特內哥羅獨立檢視歐盟的軟權力工具」,《國際關係學報》,第26期,民97年7月,頁101-132。
───,「新干預主義──武力使用之合法性與正當性」,《台灣國
際研究季刊》,第6卷,第3期,2010年秋季號,頁161-183。

三、學位論文

曾嘉文,「歐洲共同安全暨防衛政策(1999-2003)─基於新自由制度主義之研究」,淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士論文(1993)。
葉錦娟,「內戰國際化:國際干預波士尼亞內戰之研究」,東海大學政治學系碩士論文(1998)。

貳、西文資料
一、Documents
(一)UN Document
1. UN Security Council Resolutions

UN Security Council Resolution 54, UN Doc. S/RES/54(1948), 15 July 1948.
UN Security Council Resolution 146, UN Doc. S/RES/146(1960), 9 August 1960.
UN Security Council Resolution 161, UN Doc. S/RES/161(1961), 21 February 1961.
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UN Security Council Resolution 232, UN Doc. S/RES/232(1966), 16 December 1966.
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UN Security Council Resolution 660, UN Doc. S/RES/660(1990), 2 August 1990.
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UN Security Council Resolution 1635, UN Doc. S/RES/1635(2005), 28 October 2005.
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UN Security Council Resolution 1861, UN Doc. S/RES/1861(2009), 14 January 2009.
UN Security Council Resolution 1925, UN Doc. S/RES/1925(2010), 28 May 2010.
UN Security Council Resolution 1973, UN Doc. S/RES/1973(2011), 17 March 2011.

2. Secretary-General's Reports

Annan, Kofi A. Prevention of Armed Conflict. Report of the Secretary-General on the Work of the Organization, UN Doc. A/55/985-S/2001/574, 7 June 2001.
────. In Large Freedom: toward Development, Security and Human Rights for All. Report of the Secretary-General of United Nations, UN Doc. A/59/2005, 21 March 2005.
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peace-keeping. Report of the Secretary-General Pursuant to the Statement Adopted by the Summit Meeting of the Security Council on 31 January 1992, UN Doc. A/47/277 - S/24111, 17 June 1992.
────. Supplement to an Agenda for Peace: Position Paper of the Secretary-
General on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations. Report of the Secretary-General on the Work of the Organization, UN Doc. A/50/60 - S/1995/1, 3 January 1995.
Fourteenth Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, UN Doc. S/2003/1098, 17 November 2003.
Report of the Security-General on the United Nations Mission in Haiti, UN Doc. S/1994/828, 15 July 1994.
Report of the Secretary-General on Chad and the Central African Republic Pursuant to Paragraphs 9 (d) and 13 of Security Council Resolution 1706 (2006), UN Doc. S/2006/1019, 22 December 2006.
Report of the Secretary-General on Chad and the Central African Republic, UN Doc. S/2007/97, 23 February 2007.
Report of the Secretary-General on Chad and the Central African Republic, UN Doc. S/2007/488, 10 August 2007.
Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad, UN Doc. S/2008/444, 8 July 2008.
Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad, UN Doc. S/2008/601, 12 September 2008.
Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad, UN Doc. S/2008/760, 4 December 2008.
Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad, UN Doc. S/2009/199, 14 April 2009.
Second and Final Report of Secretary-General on the Plan for an Emergency International United Nations Force Requested in Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 4 November 1956(A/3276), UN Doc. A/3302, 6 November 1956.
Second Special Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, UN Doc. S/2003/566, 27 May 2003.
Special Report of the Secretary-General on Elections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, UN Doc. S/2005/320, 26 May 2005.
Twenty-first Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, UN Doc. S/2006/390, 13 June 2003.
Twenty-second Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, UN Doc. S/2006/759, 21 September 2006.

3. Exchange of Letters

Letter Dated 14 August 2003 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2003/821, 19 August 2003.
Letter Dated 29 June 2004 from the Permanent Representative of Ireland to the United Nations Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2004/522, 30 June 2004.
Letter Dated 7 July 2005 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2005/440, 7 July 2005.
Letter Dated 2 November 2005 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2005/698, 3 November 2005.
Letter Dated 3 February 2006 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2006/75, 3 February 2006.
Letter Dated 12 April 2006 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2006/219, 13 April 2006.
Letter Dated 12 October 2006 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2006/809, 13 October 2006.
Letter Dated 8 February 2007 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2007/70, 2 February 2007.
Letter Dated 3 May 2007 from the Secretary-General to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2007/253, 3 May 2007.
Letter Dated 21 September 2007 from the Permanent Representative of Portugal to the United Nations Addressed to the Secretary-General, UN Doc. S/2007/560, 21 September 2007.
Letter Dated 25 October 2007 from the Secretary-General to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2007/632, 26 October 2007.
Letter Dated 27 December 2007 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2007/769, 31 December 2007.
Letter Dated 11 April 2008 from the Secretary-General to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2008/242, 11 April 2008.
Letter Dated 14 January 2009 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2009/44, 19 January 2009.
Letter Dated 21 April 2009 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2009/214, 23 April 2009.
Letter Dated 23 February 2010 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2010/113, 4 March 2010.
Letter Dated 3 May 2011 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2011/283, 4 May 2011.

4. UN General Assembly Resolutions

Declaration on the Inadmissibility of Intervention in the Domestic Affairs of States and the Protection of their Independence and Sovereignty, UN Doc. A/RES/2123(XX), 21 December, 1965.
Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, UN Doc. A/RES/2625(XXV), 24 October 1970.
Participation of the European Union in the Work of United Nations, A/Res/65/276, 3 May 2011.
UN General Assembly Resolution 998(ES-I), UN Doc. A/RES/998(ES-I) 4 November 1956.
UN General Assembly Resolution 1000(ES-I), UN Doc. A/RES/1000(ES-I), 5 November 1956.
UN General Assembly Resolution 1125(XI), UN Doc. A/RES/1125(XI), 2 February, 1957.
Uniting for Peace, UN Doc. A/Res/377(V), 3 November 1950.

5. Others

European Union Mission in Democratic Republic of Congo Contributed Successfully, Security Council 5616th Meeting, UN Doc. SC/8936, 9 January 2007.
Statement by the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, New York, 10 May 2003, sg/sgstats.asp?nid=341> (accessed 10 December 2010).
The Panel on United Nations Peace Operations. Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operation, UN Doc. A/55/305-S/2000/809, 21 August 2000.
“United Nations Military, Police Deployment Reaches All-time High in October,” UN Press Release, PKO/152, 10 November 2006, (accessed 23 May, 2007).

(二)EU Documents
1. Treaties

Consolidated Versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Official Journal of the European Union C 83, 30 March 2010, uri=OJ:C:2010:083:FULL:EN:PDF>.
Treaty on European Union, Official Journal of European Union C 191, 29 July 1992, .
Treaty of Amsterdam, Official Journal of European Union C 340, 10 November 1997, .
Treaty of Nice, Official Journal of European Union C 80, 10 March 2001, .

2. European Council

Barcelona European Council. President Conclusions, 15 and 16 March 2002.
Brussels European Council. Presidency Conclusion, 12 and 13 December 2003.
Cologne European Council. Presidency Conclusions, 3 and 4 June 1999.
Copenhagen European Council. President Conclusions, 12 and 13 December 2002.
Helsinki European Council. Presidency Conclusions, 10-11 December 1999.
Laken European Council. “Declaration on the Operational Capability of the Common European Security and Defence Policy,” President Conclusions, Annex II, 14-15 December 2001.
Nice European Council. Presidency Conclusions, 7, 8 and 9 December 2000.
Seville European Council. President Conclusions, 21 and 22 June 2002.
Thessaloniki European Council. Presidency Conclusions, 19 and 20 June 2003.
Vienna European Council. Presidency Conclusions, 11 and 12 December 1998.

3. Council of European Union

Agreement Between the European Union and the Republic of Cameroon on the Status of the European Union-led Forces in Transit within the Territory of the Republic of Cameroon, Official Journal of the European Union L 57/31, 1 March 2008.
Capabilities Commitment Conference, Declaration on European Military Capabilities, 20-21 November 2000, in Maartje Rutten, ed., From ST-Malo to Nice- European Defence: Core Document, Chaillot Paper no. 47. Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies, 2001.
Council Common Position 2003/319/CFSP of 8 May 2003 Concerning European Union Support for the Implementation of the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement and the Peace Process in the Democratic Republic of Congo(DRC) and Repealing Common Position 2002/203/CFSP, Official Journal of the European Union L 115/87, 9 May, 2003.
Council Conclusions on European Security and Defence Policy, 2582nd External Relation Council Meeting, Brussels, 17 May 2004.
Council Conclusions on Sudan/Darfur, 2817th External Relation Council Meeting, Brussels, 23 and 24 July 2007.
Council Conclusions on ESDP, 2831st External Relations Council Meeting Brussels, 19-20 November 2007.
Council Conclusion on European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), 2943rd External Relations Council Meeting, 18 May 2009.
Council Decision of 22 January 2001 Setting up the Political and Security Committee (2001/78/CFSP), Official Journal of the European Union L 27/1, 30 January 2001.
Council Decision of 22 January 2001 Setting up the Military Committee of the European Union (2001/79/CFSP), Official Journal of the European Union L 27/4, 30 January 2001.
Council Decision 2003/202/CFSP of 18 March 2003 Relating to the Launch of the EU Military Operation in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Official Journal of the European Union L 76/43, 22 March 2003.
Council Decision 2003/563/CFSP of 29 July 2003 on the Extension of the European Union Military Operation in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Official Journal of the European Union L 190/20, 30 July 2003.
Council Decision 2004/803/CFSP of 25 November 2004 on the Launching of the European Union Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Official Journal of the European Union L 353/21, 27 November 2004.
Council Decision 2005/395/CFSP of 10 May 2005 Amending Decision 2001/80/CFSP on the Establishment of the Military Staff of the European Union, Official Journal of the European Union L 132/17, 26 May 2005.
Council Decision 2006/412/CFSP of 12 June 2006 on the Launching of the European Union Military Operation in Support of the United Nations Organisation Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) during the Election Process (Operation EUFOR RD Congo), Official Journal of the European Union L 163/16, 15 June 2006.
Council Decision 2008/101/CFSP of 28 January 2008 on the Launching of the European Union Military Operation in the Republic of Chad and in the Central African Republic (Operation EUFOR Tchad/RCA), Official Journal of the European Union L 34/39, 8 February 2008.
Council Decision 2008/975/CFSP of 18 December 2008 Establishing a Mechanism to Administer the Financing of the Common Costs of European Union Operations Having Military or Defence Implications (Athena), Official Journal of the European Union L 345/96, 23 December 2008.
Council Decision of 26 July 2010 Establishing the Organisation and Functioning of the European External Action Service (2010/427/EU), Official Journal of the European Union L 201/30, 3 August 2010.
Council Decision 2011/210/CFSP of 1 April 2011 on a European Union Military Operation in Support of Humanitarian Assistance Operations in Response to the Crisis Situation in Libya (EUFOR Libya), Official Journal of the European Union L 89/17, 5 April 2011.
Council Joint Action of 14 December 2000 Appointing the Special Representative of the European Union for the African Great Lakes Region and Repealing Joint Action 96/250/CFSP (2000/792/CFSP), Official Journal of the European Union L 318/16, 16 December 2000.
Council Joint Action of 11 March 2002 on the appointment of the EU Special Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina 2002/211/CFSP, Official Journal of the European Union L 70/7, 13 March 2002.
Council Joint Action of 10 December 2002 Amending and Extending the Mandate of the European Union Special Representative for the African Great Lakes Region (2002/962/CFSP), Official Journal of the European Union L 334/5, 11 December 2002.
Council Joint Action 2003/92/CFSP on the European Union Military Operation in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Official Journal of the European Union L 34/26, 11 February 2003.
Council Joint Action 2003/423/CFSP of 5 June 2003 on the European Union Military Operation in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Official Journal of the European Union L 143/50, 11 June 2003.
Council Decision 2003/432/CFSP of 12 June 2003 on the Launching of the European Union Military Operation in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Official Journal of the European Union L 147/42, 14 June 2003.
Council Joint Action 2003/446/CFSP of 16 June 2003 Amending and Extending the Mandate of the Special Representative of the European Union in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Official Journal of the European Union L 150/71, 18 June 2003.
Council Joint Action 2004/551/CFSP of 12 July 2004 on the Establishment of the European Defence Agency, Official Journal of the European Union L 245/17, 17 July 2004.
Council Joint Action 2004/569/CFSP of 12 July 2004 on the Mandate of the European Union Special Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Repealing Council Joint Action 2002/211/CFSP, Official Journal of the European Union L 257/7, 28 July 2004.
Council Joint Action 2004/570/CFSP of 12 July 2004 on the European Union Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Official Journal of the European Union L 252/10, 28 July 2004.
Council Joint Action 2006/319/CFSP of 27 April 2006 on the European Union Military Operation in Support of the United Nations Organisation Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) during the Election Process, Official Journal of the European Union L 116/98, 29 April 2006.
Council Joint Action 2007/677/CFSP of 15 October 2007 on the European Union Military Operation in the Republic of Chad and in the Central African Republic, Official Journal of the European Union L 279/21, 23 October 2007.
Council Joint Action 2008/110/CFSP of 12 February 2008 Amending and Extending the Mandate of the European Union Special Representative for Sudan, Official Journal of the European Union L 38/29, 13 February 2008.
Council Joint Action 2008/851/CFSP of 10 November 2008 on a European Union Military Operation to Contribute to the Deterrence, Prevention and Repression of Acts of Piracy and Armed Robbery off the Somali Coast, Official Journal of the European Union L 301/33, 12 November 2008.
Declaration on Strengthening Capabilities, Submitted to the European Council of 11-12 December 2008, Brussels, 11 December 2008.
EU Framework Nation Concept, 11278/02, 24 July, 2002.
Headline Goal 2010, Approved by General Affairs and External Relations Council on 17 May 2004; Endorsed by the European Council of 17 and 18 June 2004, Brussels, 17 May 2004.
Statement on Improving military capabilities, Brussels, 19-20 November 2001.

4. Others

A Secure Europe in a Better World—European Security Strategy, Brussels, December 12, 2003.
EU Council Secretariat. “Battlegroups,” July 2009.
────. “EU Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Operation EUFOR ALTHEA),” Press, September 2008, (accessed 15 January 2010).
────. “EU Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Operation EUFOR ALTHEA),” Press, January 2011, (accessed 16 January 2011).
────. “EU Military Operation in Eastern Chad and North Eastern Central African Republic,” Press, March 2009, (accessed 10 April 2011).
European Defence Agency. “Background Note-Capability Development Plan,” 8 July 2008.
────. “EU Governments Endorse Capability Plan for Future Military Needs, Pledge Joint Efforts,” Brussels, 8 July 2008.
“Informal European Summit Pörtschach,” 24-25 October, 1998, in Maartje Rutten, ed., From St. Malo to Nice. European Defence: Core Documents, Chaillot Paper no. 47. Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies, May 2001).
“List of Contributing Nations to EUFOR RD Congo,” EU Official Webside in CSDP, (accessed at 4 January 2010).
Political and Security Committee. Decision Setting up the Committee of Contributors for the EU-led Operation in FYROM, 6451/03, 18 February 2003.
────. Decision BiH/3/2004 of 29 September 2004 on the Setting-up of the Committee of Contributors for the European Union Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2004/739/CFSP), Official Journal of the European Union L 325/64, 28 October 2004.
────. Decision BiH/13/2008 of 29 July 2008 Amending Decision BiH/1/2004 on the Acceptance of Third States’ Contributions to the European Union Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Decision BiH/3/2004 on the Setting-up of the Committee of Contributors for the European Union Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Official Journal of the European Union L 237/90, 4 September 2008.
────. Decision BiH/17/2011 of 14 January 2011 on the Appointment of an EU Operation Commander for the European Union Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Official Journal of the European Union L18/41, 21 January 2011.
Solana, Javier. Europe’s International Role, S358/05, November 9 2005.
────.“Javier Solana’s Intervention on DRC during the Public Meeting of the UN's Security Council,” New York, 18 July 2003, (accessed 17 December 2010).

(三)Others

Albright, Madeleine K. “Statement to the North Atlantic Council,” Brussels, December 8, 1998. (accessed 24 February 2011).
African Union. Protocol Relating to the Establishment of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union.
British-Franco Summit at Saint Malo. Joint Declaration on European Defence, 3-4 December 1998, in Maartje Rutten, ed., From St. Malo to Nice. European Defence: Core Documents, Chaillot Paper no. 47. Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies, May 2001.
Bush, George. “President Says Saddam Hussein Must Leave Iraq within 48 Hours,” 17 March 2003, (accessed 2 April 2010).
EU-NATO Declaration on ESDP, 16 December, 2002, (accessed 10 October 2010).
EU-UN Co-operation in Military Crisis Management Operations Elements of Implementation of the EU-UN Joint Declaration, 17-18 June 2004, (accessed 28 December, 2010).
Franco-British Summit. Declaration on Franco-British Cooperation on Strengthening European Cooperation in Security and Defence, in Antonio Missiroli, ed., From Copenhagen to Brussels- European Defence: Core Documents, Chaillot Paper no. 67. Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies, 2003.
General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 14 December 1995.
Joint Declaration on UN-EU Co-operation in Crisis Management, Brussels, 19 September 2003, (accessed 28 December 2010).
Lord Robertson, Statement, Press Release (2003)025, 17 March 2003, (accessed 1 December 2010).
NATO. Final Communiqué of the Ministerial Meeting of the North Atlantic Council, M-NAC-1(96)63, Berlin, 3-4 June 1996.
────. “An Alliance for the 21st Century,” Washington Summit Communiqué, 24 April 1999.
────. Istanbul Summit Communiqué, 28 June 2004.
Non-Aligned Movement. Final Communique of the Meeting of Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation of the Non-Aligned Movement, held in New York on 23 September 1999, minmeet/newyorkcom.htm> (accessed 19 December, 2008).
The Ohrid Framework Agreement, 13 August, 2001, politics/framework_agreement.pdf> (accessed 1 December, 2010).
Western European Union Council of Ministers, Petersberg Declaration, 19 June, 1992.

二、Books

Baldwin, David A, ed. Neorealism and Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Barany, Zoltan. The Future of NATO Expansion. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Berdal, Mats and Spyros Economides. United Nations Interventionism, 1991-2004. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Bluth, Christoph, Emil Kirchner and James Sperling. The Future of European Security. Aldershot: Dartmouth, 1995.
Boniface, Pascal. “European Security and Transaltanticism in the Twenty-first,” in Alexander Moens, Lenard J. Cohen and Allen G. Sens, eds., NATO and European Security—Alliance Politics from the End of the Cold War to the Age of Terrorism. Westport: Praeger, 2003, pp. 55-66.
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. “Challenges of Preventive Diplomacy—The Role of the United Nations and Its Secretary-General,” in Kevin M. Cahill, M. D., eds., Preventive Diplomacy: Stopping Wars before They Start. New York: BasicBooks, 1996, pp. 16-32.
Bretherton, Charlotte and John Vogler. The European Union as a Global Actor. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Bronstone, Adam. European Union-United States Security Relations: Transatlantic Tensions and the Theory of International Relations. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.
Bull, Hedley. Intervention in World Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Burg, Steven L. and Paul S. Shoup. The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Ethnic Conflict and International Intervention. New York. M. E. Sharpe. 1999.
Carr, Fergus and Theresa Callan. Managing Conflict in the New Europe: the Role of International Institutions. New York: Palgrave, 2002.
Chayes, Abram and Antonia Handler Chayes, eds. Preventing Conflict in the Post-Communist World. Washington. D. C.: Brookings, 1996.
Childers, Erskine, ed. Challenges to the United Nations—Building a Safer World. New York, St. Martin’s Press, 1994.
Crnobrnja, Mihailo. The Yugoslav Drama, second edition. Montreal & Kingdton: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1996.
Crocker, Chester A., Fen Osler Hampson and Pamela Aall, eds. Manging Global Chaos: Sources of and Responses to International Conflict. Washington, D. C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1996.
De Vasconcelos, Άlvaro. ‘Multilateralising Multipolarity’,” in Giovanni Grevi and Άlvaro de Vasconcelos, ed., Partnerships for Effective Multilateralism, Chaillot Paper no. 109. Paris: European Union Institute for Security Studies, May 2008, pp. 11-32.
Diehl, Paul F. International Peacekeeping: With a New Epilogue on Somalia, Bosnia, and Cambodia. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.
Dobbins, James et al. America’s Role in Nation Building: From Germany to Iraq. Santa Monica: CA: Rand, 2003.
────. The UN’s Role in Nation Building: From the Congo to Iraq. Santa Monica: CA: Rand, 2005.
────. Europe’s Role in Nation Building: From the Balkan to the Congo. Santa Monica: CA: Rand, 2008.
Dunér, Bertil. Military Intervention in Civil Wars: the 1970s. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985.
Farrell, Mary, Stefano Fella and Michael Newman, eds. European Integration in the 21st Century Unity in Diversity?. London: Sage, 2002.
Gäzle, Stefan and Allen G. Sens. The Changing Politics of European Security—Europe Alone?. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Ginsberg, Roy H. The European Union in International Politics. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001.
Gnesotto, Nicole, ed. EU Security and Defence Policy—The first Five Years (1999-2004). Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies, 2004.
Gordon, Philip H. and Jeremy Shapiro. Allies at War—America, Europe, and the Crisis over Iraq. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.
Greenwood, Christopher. “Historical Development and Legal Basis,” in Dieter Fleck, ed., The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts. New York, Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 1-38.
Grevi, Giovanni, Damien Helly and Daniel Keohance, eds. European Security and Defence Policy: the First Ten Years (1999-2009). Paris: European Union Institute for Security Studies, 2009.
Grudzinski, Premyslaw and Peter van Ham. A Critical Approach to European Security. New York: Pinter, 1999.
Haass, Richard N. Intervention: The Use of American Military Force in the Post-Cold War World. DC: Carnegie Endowment, 1994.
Hartley, Owen A. and Rachel E. Utley. “Introduction,” in Rachel E. Utley, ed., Major Powers and Peacekeeping: Perspectives, Priorities and the Challenges of Military Intervention. Burlington: Ashgate, 2006, pp.1-14.
Homan, Kees. “Operation Artemis in the Democratic Republic of Congo,” in European Commission and Directorate-General for External Relations, eds., Faster and More United? The Debate about Europe's Crisis Response Capacity. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2006, pp. 151-154, .
Howorth Jolyon and John T.S. Keeler. “The EU, NATO and the Quest for European Autonomy,” in Jolyon Howorth and John T.S. Keeler, eds., Defending Europe-The EU, NATO and the Quest for European Autonomy. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, pp. 3-24.
Howorth, Jolyon. “Ideas and Discourse in the Construction of a European Security and Defense Policy for the Twenty-first Century,” in Alexander Moens, Lenard J. Cohen and Allen G. Sens, eds., NATO and European Security—Alliance Politics from the End of the Cold War to the Age of Terrorism.Westport: Praeger, 2003, pp. 37-54.
────. Security and Defence Policy in the European Union. New York:
Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Hunter, Robert E. The European Security and Defense Policy: NATO's Companion - or Competitor?. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2002.
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. The Responsibility to Protect. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, December 2001.
────. The Responsibility to Protect, Supplementary Volume. Ottawa: Inter-
national Development Research Centre, December 2001.
Independent International Commission on Kosovo, The Kosovo Report .New York: Oxford Scholarship Online, 2003, .
Joenniemi, Pertti. “Arms Control as a Spatial Practice: Challenges in the Baltic Region,” in Heinz Gärtner, Adrian Hype-Price, and Erich Reiter, eds., Europe’s New Security Challenges. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Punlisher, 2001, pp. 315-328.
Kagan, Robert, Of Paradise and Power: America and Europe in the New World Order. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003.
Kelleher, Catherine McArdle. The Future of European Security. Washington, D. C.: The Brookings Institution, 1995.
Keohane, Robert O. International Institutions and State Power. Boulder: Westview Press, 1989.
Keohane, Robert O., Joseph S. Nye and Stanley Hoffmann, eds. After the Cold War—International Institutions and State Strategies in Europe, 1989-1991. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.
Lund, Michael S. Preventing Violent Conflicts: A Strategy for Preventive Diplomacy. Washington, D. C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1997.
Matláry, Janne Haaland. Intervention for Human Right in Europe. New York: Palgrave, 2002.
Mayall, James, ed. The New Interventionism 1991-1994: United Nations Experience in Cambodia, former Yugoslavia and Somalia. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
McInnes, Colin, ed. Security and Strategy in the New Europe. London: Routlege, 1992.
Merlingen, Michael and Rasa Ostrauskaitė. European Union Peacebuilding and Policing—Governance and the European Security and Defence Policy. London: Routledge, 2006.
Missiroli, Antonio, ed. From Copenhagen to Brussels- European Defence: Core Documents, Chaillot Paper no. 67. Paris: EU Institute for Security Studies, 2003.
Moens, Alexander. “Think Outside the Box: NATO—ESDP Cooperation at Twenty-Three,” in Alexander Moens, Lenard J. Cohen and Allen G. Sens, eds., NATO and European Security—Alliance Politics from the End of the Cold War to the Age of Terrorism. Westport: Praeger, 2003, pp. 67-82.
NATO. NATO Handbook. Brussels: NATO Office of Information Press, 2001.
Nugent, Neill. The Government and Politics of the European Union, fifth edition. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
Nuttall, Simon J. European Foreign Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Nye, Joseph S., Jr. Soft Power—The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs, 2004.
O’Hanlon, Michael E. Expanding Global Military Capacity for Humanitarian Intervention. Washington, D. C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2003.
Olsen, Gorm Rye. “The Post-September 2001 Security Agenda: Have the European Union’s Policies on Africa Been Affected?,” in Giovanna Bono, ed., The Impact of 9/11 on European Foreign and Security Policy. Brussels: VUBPRESS Brussels University Press, 2006, pp. 153-175.
Otunnu, Olara A. and Michael W. Doyle, eds. Peacemaking and Peacekeeping for the New Century. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
Ramsbotham, Oliver and Tom Woodhouse. Humanitarian Intervention in Contemporary Conflict. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press, 1996.
Schake, Kori. “The United States, ESDP and Constructive Duplication,” in Jolyon Howorth and John T.S. Keeler, eds., Defending Europe-The EU, NATO and the Quest for European Autonomy. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, pp. 107-134.
Smith, Karen E. European Union Foreign Policy in a Changing World. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2003.
────. The Making of EU Foreign Policy, second edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
Smith, Michael E. Europe’s Foreign and Security Policy: The Institutionalization of Cooperation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Soetendorp, Ben. Foreign Policy in the European Union—Theory, History and Practice. New York: Longman, 1999.
Talentino, Andrea Kathryn. Military Intervention after the Cold War—The Evolution of Theory and Practice. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2006.
Telò, Mario. Europe: a Civilian Power?—European Union, Global Governance, World Order. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
Terriff, Terry. “The CJTF Concept and the Limits of European Autonomy,” in Jolyon Howorth and John T.S. Keeler, eds., Defending Europe-The EU, NATO and the Quest for European Autonomy. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, pp. 39-60.
United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations and Department of Field Support. United Nations Peacekeeping—Principles and Guidelines. New York: United Nations, 2008.
United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility—Report of the Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. New York: United Nations, 2004.
Vertzberger, Yaacov Y. I. Risk Taking and Decision-making: Foreign Military Intervention Decision. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998.
Welsh, Jennifer M, ed. Humanitarian Intervention and International Relations. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Willams, Geoffrey Lee and Barkley Jared Jones. NATO and the Transatlantic Alliance in the 21st Century: The Twenty-Year Crisis. New York: Palgrave, 2001.
Wilson, Heather A. International Law and the Use of Force by National Liberation Movements. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Winn, Neil and Christopher Lord. EU Foreign Policy beyond the Nation-State—Joint Actions and Institutional Analysis of the Common Foreign and Security Policy. New York: Palgrave, 2001.
Winnefeld, James A., etc. Intervention in Intrastate Conflict: Implications for the Army in the Post-Cold War Era. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1995.
Wolf, Charles Jr. and Benjamin Zycher. European Military Prospects, Economic Constraints, and the Rapid Reaction Force. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2001.
Woodhouse, Tom, Robert Bruce and Malcolm Dando. Peacekeeping and Peacemaking: Towards Effective Intervention in Post-Cold War Conflicts. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
Zielonka, Jan. Paradoxes of European Foreign Policy. Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1998.

三、Periodicals

Ackermann, Alice. “The Idea and Practice of Conflict Prevention,” Journal of Peace Research, vol. 40, no. 3 (May 2003), pp. 339-347.
Badescu, Cristina G. “Authorizing Humanitarian Intervention: Hard Choices in Saving Strangers,” Canadian Journal of Political Science, vol. 40, no. 1 (March 2007), pp. 51-78.
Bailes, Alyson J. K. “The EU and a ‘Better World’: What Role for the European Security and Defence Policy?” International Affairs, vol. 84, no. 1 (2008), pp. 115-130.
Barnett, Michael, Hunjoon Kim, Madalene O’Donnell, and Laura Sitea. “Peacebuilding? What Is in a Name?” Global Governance, no. 13 (2007), pp. 35-58.
Barša, Pavel. “Waging War in the Name of Human Rights,” Perspectives, no. 24 (2005), pp. 5-20.
Bellamy, Alex J. “The Responsibility to Protect and the Problem of Military Intervention,” International Affairs, vol. 84, no. 4 (2008), pp. 615-639.
Bellamy, Alex J. and Paul D. Williams. “Who’s Keeping the Peace?—Regionalization and Contemporary Peace Operations,” International Security, vol. 29, no. 4 (Spring 2005), pp. 157-195.
Berdal, Mats R. “Lessons not Learned. “The Use of Force in ‘Peace Operations’ in the 1990s,” International Peacekeeping, vol. 7, issue 4 (Winter 2000), pp. 55-74.
Biscop, Sven. “Able and Willing? Assessing the EU’s Capacity for Military Action,” European Foreign Affairs Review, vol. 9, no. 4 (2004), pp. 509-527.
Biscop Sven and Jo Coelmont. “Permanent Structured Cooperation: in Defence of the Obvious,” ISS Opinion (June 2010), pp: 1-4, uploads/media/Permanent_structured_cooperation_01.pdf> (accessed 10 October 2010).
────, “Permanent Structured Cooperation for Effective European Armed Forces,” EGMONT Security Policy Brief (March 2010), (accessed 10 October 2010).
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四、Research Reports

Biscop, Sven. “Permanent Structured Cooperation and the Future of ESDP,” Egmont Paper, no. 20, Brussels: The Royal Institute for International Relations, April 2008.
Björkdahl, Annika and Maria Strömvik. “EU Crisis Management Operations ESDP Bodies and Decision-Making Procedures,” DIIS Report 8, Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies, 2008.
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Missiroli, Antonio. “The Impact of the Lisbon Treaty on ESDP,” Briefing Paper, European Parliament, 31 January 2008.
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Ortega, Martin. “Military Intervention and European Union,” Chaillot Paper, no. 5, Paris: The Institute for Security Studies Western European Union, March 2001.
Quille, Gerrard. “The European Security and Defence Policy: from the Helsinki Headline Goal to the EU Battlegroups,” Policy Department of European Parliament, 12 September 2006.

五、Network Data, Newspapers and Others

“EU Buries Guantanamo Bay Text”, EUobserver.com, 24 March 2006, .
EUFOR Althea Official Webside, .
“GCC Troops Dispatched to Bahrain to Maintain order”, 14 March 2011, .
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Kirk, Lisbeth. “EU Sends More Troops into Congo, EUobserver, 23 August 2006, .
“NATO's Role in Kosovo,” NATO Official Webside, SID-AE9B564D-9C473A90/natolive/topics_48818.htm?>.
Nye, Joseph. “Europe is too Powerful to be Ignored,” Financial Times, 11 March, 2003.
“Peace Support Operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” NATO Offical Webside, .
Phillips, Leigh. “EU Likely to Call on Bahrain Regime to Step Down,” EUobserver.com, 18 March 2011, .
Pop, Valentina “NATO making ‘Necessary Plans’ for Libya,” EUobserver, 9 March, 2011, .
Rettman, Andrew. “EU Officials: Bahrain Situation More Dangerous than Libya,” EUobserver.com, 17 March 2011, .
Simamora, Adianto P. “UN Welcomes ASEAN Peacekeeping Force, Promises Help,” Jakarta Post, 27 February 2004, (accessed 19 December 2008).
Soy, Susan K. “The Case Study as a Research Method,” 1996, (accessed 17 July 2011).
UN Peacekeeping Operations Official Webside, .
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