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系統識別號 U0002-2507201110522500
中文論文名稱 歐盟與非加太國家農業貿易關係之研究
英文論文名稱 The Agricultural Trade Relationship between European Union and ACP Countries
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 歐洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of European Studies
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生中文姓名 林欣儀
研究生英文姓名 Hsin-Yi Lin
學號 697290038
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2011-06-23
論文頁數 152頁
口試委員 指導教授-曾秀珍
共同指導教授-苑倚曼
委員-卓忠宏
委員-沈中衡
中文關鍵字 經濟夥伴關係協定  歐盟  非加太國家  世界貿易組織  農業貿易 
英文關鍵字 EPAs  EU  ACP Countries  WTO  agricultural trade 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 非洲、加勒比海與太平洋國家(Africa, Caribbean and Pacific,簡稱ACP國家)國家發展及消除貧窮之關鍵在於農業發展與農業貿易成長,ACP國家大部分農業貿易出口集中於歐洲聯盟(European Union,簡稱歐盟)市場,因此,ACP國家農業貿易成長依賴歐盟提供單邊免關稅及零配額之貿易優惠安排以及貿易相關發展援助。
歐盟與ACP國家於2000年簽署科多努協定,確立雙方貿易關係之互惠新原則,並鼓勵ACP國家進行區域整合,以俾融入世界貿易體系。
歐盟與ACP六個區域於2002年個別展開經濟夥伴關係協定(Economic Patnership Agreements, EPAs)之協商,依循互惠原則建立新(農業)貿易制度,歐盟承諾提供ACP國家除既有貿易優惠安排之外,並提供剩餘未開放的農業市場進入,以鼓勵ACP國家開放含農業之絕大多數市場;然而,EPAs協商並不順利,由於ACP國家發展、接受市場開放以及依賴歐盟農業市場程度不一,導致協商立場差異,尤其開放ACP國家市場被批評為傷害ACP國家(農業)發展利益,半數以上ACP國家拒絕簽署EPAs,目前歐盟與ACP區域仍就農業、貿易援助等重要議題持續進行協商。
非洲是ACP國家中最主要的農業區域,因此本文研究主體為非洲,並且從非洲、區域(西非區域)與國家(迦納)三個層次探討EPAs協商架構下的歐盟與ACP國家農業貿易發展合作關係。研究結果顯示EPAs促進ACP國家農業貿易出口成長之成果有限、缺乏相關貿易援助實質承諾、對ACP國家區域整合則各有利弊。
英文摘要 For Africa, Caribbean and Pacific countries (ACP countries), the key point of national development and poverty eradication is agricultural development and the growth of agricultural trade. Most of ACP countries exports are concentrated on European Union (EU)’s agricultural market. Therefor, it is important to get Duty-Free & Quota-Free and trade related assistance from EU.
EU and ACP countries signed Cotonou agreement in 2000. Cotonou agreement re-builds a new trade relationship and emphasizes reciprocal principle to foster ACP countries’ regional integration and gradual integration into the world economy. In order to create a new reciprocal trade regime, they commence Economic Patnership Agreements (EPAs) negotiation in 2002. EU commits to open residual market which is still protected under Lomé Convention and is concentrated on agricultural sector. On the other wise, ACP countries must engage in trade liberalization. However, EPAs negotiation doesn’t go successfully on schedule. ACP countries have different positions in EPAs negotiation which is result of the different levels of national development, acceptance for market openness and dependence on EU market. It is critical to open ACP market that will hurt ACP’s national development interest. Consequently, more than a half of ACP countries rejected to sign EPAs. At present, EU and ACP regions continue negotiating for the important issues of agriculture and development.
Africa is the main agricultural region in ACP countries, this study therefore focuses on African ACP countries. In order to analyse the agricultural trade and development cooperation relationship between EU and ACP countries, it should study from three levels of African continent, region and country. The study shows that the effect of EPAs is limited because EPAs are lack of substantial commitment for trade related assistance and may hurt the process of ACP regional integration.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 .................................1
第一節 研究動機與目的 ............................1
第二節 研究方法 ...................................................4
一、研究方法 .......................................4
二、研究途徑 ............................................4
第三節 文獻評論 ........................................5
第四節 研究範圍與限制 ...............................9
一、研究範圍 ............................................9
二、研究限制 ......................................12
第五節 研究架構 .......................................14

第二章 歐盟與非加太國家經貿合作關係 .................17
第一節 歐盟貿易暨發展合作政策架構 ...................17
一、歐盟貿易政策 ....................................17
二、歐盟發展合作政策 ...................................21
第二節 歐盟與非加太國家經貿合作之發展 .................25
一、歐盟與非加太國家之特殊貿易關係 ...................25
二、歐盟與非加太國家貿易關係之轉變——科多努協定 .....28
第三節 經濟夥伴關係協定(EPAs)之建立 ...................35
一、經濟夥伴關係協定 ...............................35
二、科多努協定、EPAs與WTO原則相容性分析...............37
第三章 歐盟與非加太國家農業貿易發展 .....................43
第一節 歐盟與非加太國家農業貿易結構 ....................43
一、歐盟與非加太國家農業部門之重要性 ..............43
二、歐盟與非加太國家農業貿易之重要性 ..................45
第二節 歐盟與非加太國家農業貿易之挑戰 ...................50
一、WTO多邊體系規則 ...................................50
二、歐盟共同農業政策改革 .........................55
三、其他國家中國家之競爭 ..............................63
第三節 歐盟與非加太國家WTO、EPAs之協商立場 ..............71
一、非加太國家之WTO宣言 ......................71
二、歐盟與非加太國家之EPAs協商立場 ......................74


第四章 歐盟與非洲非加太國家農業貿易現況 ..............77
第一節 歐盟與非洲農業貿易與發展合作 ...............77
一、歐盟與非洲農業貿易結構 .......................78
二、歐盟與非洲EPAs協商分析 ......................79
三、歐盟與非洲農業發展合作 ..............87
第二節 歐盟與西非區域農業貿易與發展合作 ..........93
一、歐盟與西非區域農業貿易結構...............93
二、西非區域EPA協商分析 .......................94
三、歐盟與西非區域農業發展合作 ...................110
第三節 歐盟與迦納農業貿易發展合作 ..................112
一、歐盟與迦納農業貿易結構 ...................112
二、迦納EPA協商分析 ...............................113
三、過渡性EPA貿易成果評估...............120
第五章 歐盟與非加太國家農業貿易關係之評估與展望 ........123
第一節 評估 .................................123
第二節 未來展望.....................................129

參考文獻 .....................................135

圖表及附錄目次
表2-1︰ACP國家中英文對照表......................................6
表3-1:2006年ACP區域農業部門就業與GDP............44
表3-2:ACP國家對歐盟農糧貿易.................................. 46
表3-3:2005-2007年ACP區域與歐盟前四項主要農產品進、出口貿易....47
表3-4:1999年至2009年歐盟對ACP國家進、出口貿易.........49
表3-5:2001-2007年圭亞那與蘇利南出口至歐盟市場米價變化....61
表3-6:歐盟與其他開發中國家自由貿易協定內容比較..........67
表3-7:2001-2003年ACP國家與其他開發中國家農業部門生產比較.69
表4-1:2006-2007年ACP區域與歐盟農業貿易...............79
表4-2:ACP國家出口至歐盟適用EPAs零關稅及零配額主要農產品..83
表4-3:ACP開發中國家適用EPAs免關稅及零配額預估受益程度....84
表4-4︰西非區域與歐盟農業貿易.........94
表4-5︰2006年歐盟農、漁業產品進口關稅稅率(西非區域主要出口產品).....99
表4-6:象牙海岸及迦納過渡性EPAs一般產品貿易相關條款......101
表4-7:象牙海岸農產品第一階段關稅自由化承諾..............103
表4-8:象牙海岸排除關稅自由化之農產品比例...............104
表4-9:迦納農產品第一階段關稅自由化承諾 ...............105
表4-10:2005年迦納與歐盟貿易結構....................113
表4-11:迦納出口至歐盟市場關稅稅率比較.............114
表4-12︰歐盟與迦納各部門貿易情形........................121

圖1-1︰研究架構圖............................16
圖3-1:歐盟共同農業政策預算變化.....................59
圖3-2︰2006-2007年歐盟進口自其他開發中國家與ACP國家農產品比較....70
圖4-1:2005-07年歐盟農糧產品進口自西非區域國家比重.......96
圖4-2:2005-07年歐盟農糧產品出口至西非區域國家比重.......98
圖4-3:2002-10年迦納與歐盟貿易平衡..................113
圖4-4:2002-2010年迦納對歐盟可可油及可可醬出口..........115
圖4-5:2002-2010年迦納對歐盟鳳梨出口.................116
圖4-6:2002-2010年迦納進口自歐盟新鮮或冷凍家禽肉及可食用內臟........118
圖4-7:2002-2010年迦納進口自歐盟肉類及可食用內臟........119

附錄一:ACP國家低度開發國家分類........................140
附錄二:洛美協定與科多努協定概要...................142
附錄三:簽署原料議定書之ACP國家.......................143
附錄四:ACP區域組成國家...............................144
附錄五:歐盟與ACP六大區域過渡性EPAs/EPAs .........145
附錄六:2008/09年西非區域人口結構.....................148
附錄七︰2004年歐盟與西非區域主要貿易項目................149
附錄八︰2004-09年歐盟進口自過渡性EPAs之ACP國家貿易成長情形.....150
附錄九︰2004-09年歐盟出口至過渡性EPAs之ACP國家貿易成長情形..........151
附錄十︰2004-10年歐盟與簽署過渡性EPA之ACP國家農業貿易....152
參考文獻 一、 中文
(一)書籍
李貴英 (2008),《世界貿易組織與歐洲聯盟》,台北:元照。
徐德志編 (1999),《WTO協定文本與世界商道通則》,廣東:廣東旅遊。
鄭玉琳 (2008),《多邊貿易體制下的貿易與環境》,北京:中國社會科學。
David Held and Anthony McGrew (2005),林祐聖、蔡欣怡譯,《全球化與反全球化》,台北:弘智。
(二) 期刊論文
王俊豪、周孟嫻(2006),「歐盟優良農產經營實務之規範——以愛爾蘭為例」,行政院農委會。
邱崇宇,「歐洲聯盟之區域貿易協定的發展與影響—以EU與ACP國家經貿關係為例 (1997-2007)」,淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士論文(97年)。
趙德明,「WTO自由貿易架構下歐盟農業貿易之分析研究」,淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士論文(97年)。
韓佳君,「歐洲聯盟《科多努協定》的簽訂與執行成效 (2000年至2009年)」,淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士論文(99年)。

二、英文
(一) 期刊論文
ACP Ministers of Trade (2009), “ACP Declaration on the Seventh Session of the WTO Ministerial Conference”, ACP/61/045/09/Final, Brussels
Alavi, Amin, Gibbon, Peter and Mortensen, Niels Jon (2007), “EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs)”, Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS)
Barbara Ree, Anette (2006), “A new step in the EU-ACP Relations: Towards Cotonou”, Hovedoppgave, Institutt for statsvitenskap, Universitetet I Oslo
Bertow, Kerstin and Schltheis, Antje (10/2007), “Impact of EU’s agricultural trade policy on smallholders in Africa”, Germanwatch
Bilal, San(2007), “EPAs: Vision, faith or blindness?”, International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development”, Vol. 6, No. 6
Bursvik, Eva (2010), “South Africa and the ‘More Favourable Treatment’ Clause in the SADC-EU Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) Negotiations”, Tralac Working Paper
Denner, Willemien (2009), “Protectionism, Trade Remedies and Safeguard: A Quick Guide for African Countries”, Tralac Working Paper, No. 6
Gavin, Brigid (2007), “The EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements What Impact on Development?”, Institute for International Integration Studies(IIIS), No. 224
Gibbon, Peter (2008), “Rules of Origin and the European Union’s Preferential Trade Agreements, with Special Reference to the EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements”, Danish Institute for International Studies(DIIS), No. 2008/15
Jales, Mário (2009), “How Would Deal on Cotton Affect Exporting and Importing Countries?”, Department of Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University
Jason H. Grant and Karl D. Meilke (2009), “Triggers, Remedies, and Tariff Cuts: Assessing the Impact of a Special Safeguard Mechanism for Developing Countries”, The Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Vol. 10, No. 1
Kasteng, Jonas (12/2006), “Agriculture and Development in the EPA Negotiations”, Swedish Board of Agriculture International Affairs Division
Koroma, Suffyan and Ford, J.R. Deep (2006), “The agricultural dimension of the ACP-EU Economic Partnership Agreements”, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Matthews, Alan (2010), “Economic Partnership Agreements and Food Security”, Institute for International Integration Studies (IIIS), No. 319
Meyn, Mareike and Kennan, Jane (03/2009), “Economic Partnership Agreements: Comparative Analysis of the Agricultural Provisions”, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development,
Mwanza, William N. (2010), “Africa’s Continental Integration Agenda: Suggestions for African Countries and Regions”, Tralac
Ochieng, Cosmas Milton Obote(2007), “The EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements and the ‘Development Question’: Constraints and Opportunities Posed by Article XXIV and Special and Differential Treatment Provisions of the WTO”, Journal of International Economic Law
Paasch, Armin (11/2008), “World Agricultural Trade and Human Rights: Case Studies on Violations of the Right to food of small farmers”, FoodFirst Information and Action Network
Patel, Mayur (06/2007), “Economic Partnership Agreements between the EU and African Countries: Potential Development Implications for Ghana”, Realizing Rights
“Sustainability Impact Assessment of the EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements”, PriceWaterHouseCoopers
“African Trade Aganda”, Third World Network-Africa, Vol. 3, No.1 (05/2009)

(二)歐盟官方文件
Commission of the European Communities, “Banana Accompanying Measures: Supporting the Sustainable Adjustment of the Main ACP Banana-Exporting Countries to New Trade Realities“, COM (2010) 101 final /2
----------------, “Banana Accompanying Measures: Supporting the Sustainable Adjustment of the Main ACP Banana-Exporting Countries to New Trade Realities”, COM(2010)101 final
----------------, “Regional integration for development in ACP countries”, COM (2008) 604 final
----------------, “Aid for Trade monitoring report 2008”, COM (2008) 177
----------------, “Agriculture and Preferential Trade Relations with Developing Countries —The Case of ACP countries”, 2008/10
----------------, “Advancing African Agriculture”, COM(2007) 440 final.
----------------, “Towards an EU Aid for Trade strategy”, COM (2007) 163 final
----------------, “An EU-Caribbean partnership for growth, stability and development”, COM (2006) 86 final
----------------,“EU Strategy for Africa: Towards a Euro-African pact to accelerate Africa’s development”, COM (2005) 489 final
----------------, “Proposal for an EU-Africa partnership in support of cotton sector development”, COM (2004) 87 final
----------------, “Agricultural Commodity Chains, Dependence and Poverty- A proposal for an EU Action Plan”, COM (2004) 89 final
Gucht (de), Karel(24/03/2010), “European Commissioner for Trade: Open Trade, Open Minds”, Civil Society Trade Seminar
Council of the European Union, “Public Consultation on a future trade policy”, Europa (03/03/2010)
----------------, “EU Strategy on Aid for Trade: Enhancing EU support for trade-related needs in developing countries”, 14470/07
----------------, “Applying the arrangements for products originating in certain states which are part of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States provided for in agreements establishing, or leading to the establishment of, Economic Partnership Agreements”, Council Regulation (EC) No. 1528/2007
Council, European Parliament and Commission, “EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements: WTO compatible solutions that provide non-LDC ACP countries improved access into the EU market and guard against trade disruption”, Commission Staff Working Paper, 15968/07, (2007)
----------------, “The European Consensus on Development”, (2006/C 46/01)

(三)相關研究機構資料
1. 農業與鄉村合作技術中心(Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Cooperation, CTA)
“Caribbean–EU agricultural trade relations”, CTA (04/2010)
“EPA negotiation issues between Pacific and the EU”, CTA (04/2010)
“WTO agreement on agriculture: Implications for the ACP”, CTA (04/2010)
“EPA negotiation issues between ESA and the EU”, CTA (04/2010)
“EPA negotiations between Central Africa and the EU”, CTA (03/2010)
“EPA negotiation issues between SADC and the EU”, CTA (03/2010)
“EPA negotiation issues between West Africa and the EU”, CTA (02/2010)
“ACP-EU Agricultural Trade issues:News and Analysis”, CTA (11/2009)
“ACP-EU Trade Issues in the Agriculture and Fisheries Sectors, 2009 Compendium”, CTA (2009)
“The changing context of ACP-EU agricultural trade relations: developing a response”, CTA (04/2008)

2. 世界貿易組織(World Trade Organization, WTO)
Low, atrick, Piermartini, Roberta and Richtering, Jurgen, “Non-Reciprocal Preference Erosion Arising From MFN Liberalization in Agriculture: What Are the Risks?”, WTO
“Revised Draft Modalities for Agriculture”, WTO (06/12/2008)
“Unofficial Guide to the Revised Draft Modalities – Agriculture”, WTO (06/12/2008)

3. 世界銀行(World Bank)
“ACP Declaration on the seventh Session of the WTO Ministerial Conference”, ACP/61/045/09 /Final (13/12/2009)
Hoekman, Bernard, J. Martin, William and A. Primo Braga, Carlos, “Quantifying the Value of Preferences and Potential Erosion Losses”, World Bank (07/2008)
Mensbrugghe (van der), Dominique, “The Doha Development Agenda and Preference Erosion: Modeling the Impacts”, World Bank (18/05/2008)

4. 國際貿易暨永續發展中心(International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, ICTSD)
Jales, Mário, “How Would a Trade Deal on Cotton affect Exporting and Importing Countries?”, International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, ICTSD (12/11/2009)
Meléndez-Ortiz, Ricardo, Bellmann,Christophe and Hepburn,Jonathan “Agriculture Subsidies in the WTO Green Box: Ensuring Coherence with Sustainable Development Goals”, ICTSD (16/09/2009)

5. 歐洲發展政策管理中心(European Centre for Development Policy Management, ECDPM)
Alpha, Arlène, GRET and Fautrel, Vincent, CTA, “Negotiating Economic Partnership Agreements—Agriculture”, ECDPM, No. 13C (04/2007)
Bilal, Sanoussi, “Redefining ACP-EU Trade Relations: Economic Partnership Agreements”, ECDPM (12/2006)
Rudloff, Bettina and Simons, Johannes, “Comparing EU Free Trade Agreements: Services”, ECDPM (07/2004)
Onguglo, Bonapas and Ito, Taisuke (2003), “How to make EPAs WTO compatible? Reforming the rules on regional trade agreements”, European Centre for Development Policy Management, No. 40

(四)參考網站
歐盟官網 http://europa.eu/index_en.htm
歐盟統計局 http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/
世界貿易組織 http://www.wto.org/
世界銀行 http://www.worldbank.org/
歐洲發展政策管理中心 http://www.ecdpm.org/
國際貿易暨永續發展中心 http://ictsd.org/
經濟合作開發組織 http://www.oecd.org
非加太集團秘書處 http://www.acpsec.org/
非洲聯盟 http://www.africa-union.org/
農業與鄉村合作技術中心 http://www.cta.int/
國際樂施會 http://www.oxfam.org/
歐盟與非加太國家貿易網站 http://www.acp-eu-trade.org/
社會科學研究網 http://www.ssrn.com/
雙邊貿易組織網 http://www.bilaterals.org/?lang=en

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