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中文論文名稱 美國彈劾制度中的權力遊戲─從「尼克森/柯林頓案例」探析三權制衡之癥結 
英文論文名稱 Power Politics in American Impeachment System—Nixon & Clinton Cases:The Practice of “Checks and Balances Struggling”
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美國研究所博士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of American Studies
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生中文姓名 江偉碩
研究生英文姓名 Wei-shouh Jiang
學號 888220034
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2008-06-20
論文頁數 398頁
口試委員 指導教授-李本京
委員-呂亞力
委員-趙國材
委員-魏萼
委員-曲兆祥
中文關鍵字 美國彈劾制度  尼克森水門案  柯林頓醜聞案  權利制衡  彈劾應變策略 
英文關鍵字 Impeachment System  Watergate  Sexgate  Checks and Balances  Party Politics  Power Politics  U.S. Constitution  High Crimes and Misdemeanors. 
學科別分類
中文摘要 「權力制衡」是民主國家憲政體制的重要原則,彈劾制度則為實踐「權力制衡」而設計。美國係三權分立國家,行政、立法、司法相互制衡,國會彈劾權即為其中之精要。
在美國政治史中,總統面對彈劾威脅共有三案例:(1)一八六八年第十七任總統強生,參議院審判未達定罪門檻;(2)一九七四年第三十七任總統尼克森,在眾議院即將表決通過彈劾案前夕,於一九七四年八月八日宣布辭職,彈劾程序並未完成,但卻造成巨大的影響;(3)一九九九年第四十二任總統柯林頓,參議院審判表決未過關,保住白宮寶座,不過,也留下了許多引人爭議的話題。
本論文係以歷史文獻分析法、個案及比較研究法,並依據決策理論、三權分立之理論與政黨政治理論等,探析個案主體(包括總統、國會、司法部門)的決策選擇、參眾院對決以及三權互動的理論和實務運作,所導致的結果異同。
特別集中在尼克森與柯林頓案例:為什麼尼克森放棄在國會彈劾過程中奮戰到底,黯然辭職下台?為什麼柯林頓堅拒辭職,最終力挽狂瀾,而免於步上尼克森的後塵?其中牽涉因素交纏,包括尼、柯二人的總統性格、決策選擇、政黨角力、社會氛圍、輿論民意等,率皆導致關鍵性影響,而使得他們遭受到不同的命運。這也是本論文研究的主軸。
本論文共分為七章。第一章緒論係闡述研究動機目的、主軸方向、研究理論方法及範圍限制;第二章則從歷史文獻與憲政發展觀點,探討美國彈劾制度的權力制衡原則及互動關係。
第三、四章分別探析尼克森、柯林頓兩位總統迎戰彈劾案的策略。第五、六章則分析比較尼、柯彈劾實例中的內部與外部影響因素。
第七章結論,歸納演繹前文諸論述,探討彈劾制度的理想與現實,並為邁向一個更符合時代潮流的彈劾制度新階段,提出檢討修正之研究觀點,俾使美國國會彈劾權的行使,更嚴謹、更周延、更公平合理,以及更減少爭議,而不再只是制憲諸賢所憂心的政黨惡鬥之「尚方寶劍」。
英文摘要 In American history, there are nine Presidents to date have had impeachment charges filed against them in the House of Representatives : John Tyler, Andrew Johnson, Grover Cleveland, Herbert Hoover, Harry S. Truman, Richard M. Nixon, Ronald W. Reagan, George H.W. Bush, and William Clinton. Of these, only two—Johnson and Clinton—were actually impeached by the House, but the Senate failed to impeach them. And Nixon avoided a trial of impeachment in the Senate by resigning the Presidency on August 9, 1974.
These “two and half” impeachment cases brought on great influence in American society, especially the political effects. Unfortunately, the partisan discord has always become the main factor in the process of the Congressional impeachment, which was criticized to be against the essence of the Constitutional rules. And therefore, the purpose of this study is to search for a way to revise the framework of “impeachment System” in lessening the controversy on the impeachment cases.
Basically, the right to impeach public officials is secured by the U.S. Constitution in Article I, Section 2 and 3, which discuss the procedure, and in Article Ⅱ, Section 4, which indicates the grounds for impeachment : the President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
This brings us full circle to the term “high crimes and misdemeanors,” a curiosity of terms. How can a crime and a misdemeanor be equated?A high crime is obviously a much greater offense and at a high level than any misdemeanor. In Nixon and Clinton cases, the impeachment grounds related to “high crimes and misdemeanors” had become the controversial points in both sides of the Congress and the White House.
Many scholars argue that bribery and treason are among the least ambiguous reasons meriting impeachment, but the ocean of wrongdoing encompassed by the Constitution's stipulation of “high crimes and misdemeanors” is vast. Abuse of power and serious misconduct in office fit this category, but one act that is definitely not grounds for impeachment is partisan discord. Several impeachment cases have confused political animosity with genuine crimes. Since Congress, the vortex of partisanship, is responsible for indicting, trying, and convicting public officials, it is necessary for the legislative branch to temporarily cast aside its factional nature and adopt a judicial role. Thus, the arguments on the impeachment grounds of “high crimes and misdemeanors” occupied an important part of discussion in this study.
Finally, the different results in Nixon and Clinton cases were quite interesting. Why did Nixon decide to resign the presidency before the impeachment trial in Senate ? Why did Clinton win the impeachment battle in Congress ? The decisive factors included as follows: (1)the Presidential character (2)the decision-making process (3)the partisan competition (4)the public opinion, and (5)the cultural value. These have been also deeply discussed in the thesis.
In conclusion, the research findings have verified that the power politics in American impeachment system is quite complicate. Constitutional rules seem to be not the only cause or essential consideration for the House and the Senate in executing the impeachment power. In considering to make some changes seriously on the impeachment framework should be taken into action. And the “Nixon & Clinton cases” would be the most valuable experience in doing that.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 論文研究背景、主軸與方向 1
第二節 論文研究動機與目的:理論架構和研究方法 9
第三節 研究範圍與限制 23

第二章 美國彈劾制度:歷史文獻與憲政發展 25
第一節 憲法規範下的彈劾體制 25
第二節 彈劾制度與權力制衡關係 38
第三節 美國政治史上的首例總統彈劾案:安德魯.強生 41
第四節 各國彈劾制度概況 45

第三章 尼克森與水門案:唯一任內辭職的總統 49
第一節 水門案的緣起與演變 49
第二節 尼克森迎戰水門醜聞的應變策略 57
第三節 水門彈劾案:權力制衡、理論驗證及其影響 70

第四章 柯林頓與呂茵斯基醜聞案:險度危機之策略 83
第一節 柯-呂醜聞案的緣起與演變 84
第二節 柯林頓危機應變策略:迎戰GOP 103
第三節 醜聞彈劾案:權力制衡與行政立法攻防戰 115

第五章 尼/柯彈劾案中的關鍵影響因素 129
第一節 彈劾要件的論辯:憲法規範與實務爭議 131
第二節 政黨政治的角色:水門案與醜聞案中的象驢對決 141
第三節 民意輿論的動向:水可載舟,亦可覆舟 164

第六章 尼/柯彈劾案的策略異同:辭職下台與危機脫困 207
第一節 尼克森決策選擇的內部影響因素 213
第二節 柯林頓決策選擇的內部影響因素 224
第三節 尼克森辭職下台:外部因素的探討 241
第四節 柯林頓危機脫困:外部因素的探討 257

第七章 結論 273

▲附錄 335
▲參考書目 371

表目錄

表二~一 美國國會彈劾歷史回顧 30
表三~一 眾議院司法委員會通過彈劾尼克森一覽表 65
表三~二 美國參議員選舉結果(1968~1976) 71
表三~三 美國眾議員選舉結果(1968~1974) 71
表四~一 彈劾柯林頓的程序 94
表四~二 眾議院彈劾柯林頓表決一覽表 97
表四~三 參議院彈劾柯林頓表決一覽表 100
表五~一 尼克森與柯林頓總統年表 129
表五~二 參議院審判柯林頓總統紀要 159
表六~一 尼克森在任期間的共和黨國會席次 241
表六~二 91~93屆國會總統及參議院兩黨領袖與席次表 245
表六~三 1968~1974年兩黨國會議員支持總統百分比 247
表六~四 美國會表決兩黨議員支持黨立場(多數)百分比 248
參考文獻 參考書目
一、中文部份
(一)書籍:
1.尹德瀚等譯,Bill Clinton 原著,我的人生:柯林頓回憶錄(台北:時報文化公司,2004)。
2.中國時報編輯部譯,Richard Nixon原著,尼克森回憶錄(台北:時報文化公司,1978)。
3.王國璋,當代美國政治論衡(台北:三民書局,1993)。
4.王育三,美國政府(台北:台灣商務印書館,1998)。
5.石良德編著,美國總統全紀錄(台中:好讀出版有限公司,2003)。
6.史慶璞,美國憲法理論與實務(台北:三民書局,2007)。
7.毛樹清,美國的蛻變(台北:皇冠出版社,1975)。
8.白冰如譯,Erwing Washington原著,華盛頓大傳(台北:風雲時代公司,2005)。
9.朱建民,美國總統繽紛錄(台北:台灣商務印書館,1996)。
10.呂亞力,政治學(台北:五南圖書出版公司,1978)。
11.余開亮編著,美國總統的10門課(台北:靈活文化公司,2004)。
12.林碧炤,國際政治與外交政策(台北:五南圖書出版公司,1993)。
13.林詮紹編著,中華民國憲法概論(台北:洪葉文化公司,2006)。
14.林添貴譯,Dick Morris原著,選戰大謀略-柯林頓二度入主白宮之路(台北:智庫文化,1999)。
15.孫北堂譯,Catherine Drinker Bowen原著,制憲風雲:美國立憲奇蹟(台北:聯經出版公司,1994)。
16.侯鴻勳,孟德斯鳩(台北:東大圖書公司,1993)。
17.陳治世,美國政府與政治(台北:台灣商務印書館,1991)。
18.陳一新.鄧毓浩.陳景堯譯校,Alan R. Ball.Guy Peters原著,最新現代政治與政府(台北:韋伯文化國際公司,2003)。
19.陳永芳譯,B. Guy Peter原著,比較政治的理論與方法(台北:韋伯文化國際公司,2003)
20.陳靜瑜,美國(台北:三民書局,2007)。
21.張巨岩,權力的聲音-美國的媒體與戰爭(北京:生活.讀書.新知三聯書店,2004)。
22.張翰書,西洋政治思想史(台北:台灣商務印書館,1999)。
23.雷飛龍,英國政治制度論集(台北:台灣商務印書館,1983)。
24.吳明上譯,森山茂德原著,韓國現代政治(台北:五南圖書出版公司,2005)。
25.彭滂沱,打造美國總統-從羅斯福到柯林頓的決策領導(台北:時報文化公司,2007)。
26.賈士蘅,Alan Axelrod 原著,美國史(台北:台灣商務印書館,2007)。
27.楊日青、李培元、林文斌、劉兆隆譯,Andrew Heywood原著,政治學新論(台北:韋伯文化國際公司,2002)。
28.劉自生,白宮的主人-從華盛頓到柯林頓(台北:正中書局,1993)。
29.談子民編著,政黨論(台北:正中書局,1970)。
30.鄭明萱譯,Catherine Drinker Bowen原著,費城奇蹟:美國憲法誕生的關鍵127天(台北:貓頭鷹出版社,2004)。
31.劉鋒譯,Carl Schmitt原著,憲法學說(台北:聯經出版公司,2004)。
32.鍾玉玨、楊明暐、潘勛、諶悠文、陳文和、尹德瀚等譯,Hillary Rodham Clinton原著,活出歷史-希拉蕊回憶錄(台北:時報文化公司,2005)。
33.羅志淵編著,美國政府與政治(台北:國立編譯館出版,正中書局印行,1994)。
(二)期刊報章:
1.鄒念祖,「美國國會彈劾柯林頓總統個案研究」,問題與研究月刊,第三十八卷第五期(一九九九年五月):17~29。
2.陳恆鈞,「美國國會委員會的議事運作過程:三個理論觀點的探討」,問題與研究雙月刊,第四十一卷第二期(二○○二年三、四月):69~88。
3.葛永光,「美國總統如何影響國會-兼論國會關係室的運作方式」,美國月刊,第一卷第二期(一九八六年六月):12~18。
4.何思因,「政治學中的美國政治」,美國月刊,第一卷第十二期(一九八七年四月):4~11。
5.陳毓鈞,「美國憲法與美國的民主」,美國月刊,第二卷第一期(一九八七年五月):4~15。
6.王國璋,「近二十年來美國參議院的演變」,美國月刊,第二卷第二期(一九八七年六月):4~15。
7.厲威廉,「美國眾議院的組織與運作」,美國月刊,第二卷第二期(一九八七年六月):16~25。
8.中央日報,「福特預言:彈劾案必將失敗」,民63年5月30日,二版。
9.中央日報,「福特赦免尼克森爭議未歇」,民63年10月18日,二版。
10.中央日報,「柯林頓:繼續完成總統任期」,民87年12月21日,一版。
11.中央日報,「賈克遜牧師力挺柯林頓」,民87年12月22日,十版。
12.聯合報,「狡詐的迪克,惡意中傷尼克森」,民62年8月8日,三版。
13.聯合報,「尼克森將克服危機」,民62年8月8日,三版。
14.聯合報,「尼克森友人紛紛離去」,民63年5月29日,三版。
15.聯合報,「李文斯頓請辭,施壓柯林頓」,民87年12月21日,十一版。
16.聯合報,「醫學調查報告引發爭議」,民88年1月17日,十版。
17.聯合報,「愛慾糾纏的呂茵斯基」,民88年1月19日,十版。
18.中國時報,「保守派報紙要求尼克森辭職」,民63年5月30日,三版。
19.中國時報,「柯林頓反擊史塔:追求個人毀滅」,民87年8月19日,三版。
20.中國時報,「費高德跑票,要求公平審判」,民88年1月29日,十一版。
21.中華日報,「英國輿論為尼克森抱不平」,民62年5月1日,二版。
22.中華日報,「歐洲看水門事件:美國花式政治」,民62年5月1日,三版。
23.工商時報,「福特赦免尼克森,民意不認同」,民63年9月10日,三版。
24.自立晚報,「美眾院編印彈劾特刊」,民63年3月18日,五版。
二、英文部份
(一)文獻資料:
1.The Post Investigation, The Watergate Story (Part 1~4), Apr. 16, 2008.
2.The History Place, Presidential Impeachment Proceedings:Andrew Johnson, Richard M. Nixon, and Bill Clinton (history place. com).
3.Congressional Quarterly, Mar.~July. 1974.
4.Congressional Quarterly, Dec.1998~Feb. 1999.
5.Impeachment Grounds-Part 3:Hamilton, Wilson and Story, (CRS Report for Congress).
6.Impeachment:An Overview of Constitutional Provisions, Procedure, and Practice (CRS Report for Congress).
7.Senate, 93rd & 106th Congress 1st Session, Impeachment of President Richard Milhous Nixon & William Jefferson Clinton(Secretary of the Senate).
8.Polling Report. Com, Mar.-May, 1974.
9.Polling Report. Com, Dec.1998-Feb, 1999.
10.Cable News Network, Gallup Organization and Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, 1998~1999.
11."The Committee and Impeachment." History of The House of Representatives. (Washington, D.C.:GPO, 1982).
12."Impeachment" House Practice:A guide to the Rules, Precedents and Procedures of the House. (Washington, D.C.:GPO, 1996).
13."Impeachment" Senate Procedure:Precedents and Practices.(Washington, D.C.:GPO, 1981).
14.Submission of recorded Presidential conversation to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives, by Richard Nixon.
15.Full committee consideration of report of Intelligence Subcommittee regarding G. Gordon Licldy. July, 1973.
16.Inquiry into the alleged involvement of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Watergate and Ellsberg matters. Report, Ninety-third Congress, first session.Oct. 23, 1973.
17.Procedures for handling impeachment inquiry material Ninety-third Congress, second session. February, 1974.
18.Debate on articles of Impeachment:hearings of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Ninety-third Congress, second session, pursuant to H. Res. 803.
19.Special prosecutor and Watergate grand jury legislation. Hearings, Ninety-third Congress, first session on H. J. Res. 784.
20.Transcript of eight recorded Presidential conversation:hearings before the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Ninety-fourth Congress, Second session, pursuant to H. Res. 803.
21.The final report of the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, United States Senate, pursuant to S. Res.60, Feb. 7, 1973.
22.U.S.Presidential Impeachment, compiled by Robert L. Santos, California State University, Stanislaus, Librarian/Archivist.
23.Memorandum on Impeachment Strategy in the House of Representatives.(inetresults.com/impeach/strategy.htm/)
24.U.S.Congress, Miscellaneous Senate Publications Related to Impeachment of President William Jefferson Clinton.
25.U.S.Congress, Impeachment of President William Jefferson Clinton, The Evidentiary Record Pursuant to S. Res. 16, Senate Document 106~3.
26.Congressional Resolution on Presidential Impeachment:A Historical Overview.(CRS Report for Congress)
27.Impeachment:An Overview of Constitutional Provisions, Procedure, and Practice.(CRS Report for Congress:Elizabeth B. Bazan, Legislative Attorney, American Law Division, Feb. 27, 1998).
28.An Overview of the Impeachment Process.(CRS Report for Congress:T.J. Halstead, Legislative Attorney, American Law Division, Apr. 20, 2005).
29.Congressional Record, Proceeding and Debates of the 106th Congress, first session, Feb. 12, 1999.
30.Impeachment of President William Jefferson Clinton, Senate Document 106-2, 106th Congress, 1st Session, Secretary of the Senate, Jan. 13, 1999.
31.Articles of Impeachment Adopted by the Committee on the Judiciary, Analysis of the Judiciary Committee Votes, July 27, 1974.(Watergate. info)
(二)書籍論著:
1.Aaseng, Nathan, The Impeachment of Bill Clinton(Farmington Hills:Lucent Books, 2000).
2.Allison, Graham T., The Essence of Decision (Boston:Little, Brown & Co., 1971).
3.Ambrose, Stephen E., Nixon (New York:Simon and Schuster, 1991).
4.Barber, James D., Presidential Character:Predicting Performance in the white House (New Jersey:Prentice Hall, 1992).
5.Berger, Raoul, Impeachment:the Constitution Problem(New Haven:Harvard University Press, 1973).
6.Black, Conrad, Richard M. Nixon:A Life in Full(Vancouver:Public Affairs, 2008).
7.Bloom, Allan, The Closing of the American Mind (New York:Simon & Schuster, 1987).
8.Blumenthal, Sidney, The Clinton Wars (New York:Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003).
9.Brodie, Fawn M., Richard Nixon-The Shaping of His Character (New York:W.W. Norton Publishing, 1981).
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(三)期刊報章:
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2.Walczak, Lee, "Social Security:Clinton Tilts Right," Business Week, Dec. 28, 1998, p.67.
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8."Main Street Revisited:Changing Views on Watergate," Time, Nov.12,1973.
9."The President Should Resign," Time, Nov. 12, 1973.
10."Out Listening to the People," Time, Jan. 14, 1974.
11."Heading Closer to Impeachment," Time, Mar. 4, 1974.
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13."Mounting Momentum for Impeachment," Time, Apr.8, 1974.
14."The Public:Disillusioned," Time, May.20, 1974.
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16."Violation of His Constitutional Oath," Time, Aug. 12, 1974.
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18.Gibbs, Nancy and Duffy, Michael,"Over To You," Time, Aug. 17, 1998, pp. 36~37.
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22.Pellegrim, Frank, "It's a Republican Trial Now," Time, Jan. 28, 1999.
23.Pellegrim, Frank, "Vernon Jordan Explains Himself-and Others," Time, Feb. 2, 1999.
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37."When & When:What to do tonight," The Washington Post, Aug. 4, 1974, p.2.
38."Polls Support Impeachment," The Washington Post, Aug. 5,1974, pp.1~3.
39."300 Representatives of the House Say yes to Impeachment," The Washington Post, Aug. 6, 1974, pp.1~2.
40."Clinton:Luck, energy and the promise of Change," The Washington Post, Nov. 4, 1992, p.1.
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42."Livingston's Affair," The Washington Post, Dec. 18, 1998, p.2.
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45."It's Republican Show," The Washington Post, Jan. 20, 1999, p.3.
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47 "Of Nixon, Ford and Presidency," .The New York Times, Aug. 9, 1974, pp.1~2.
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49."McGovern Against Amnesty," The New York Times, Sep.17, 1974.p.2.
50."Livingston:Mr. President, You Should Resign," The New York Times, Feb. 20, 1998, p.3.
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52."Torricelli Speaks on Impeachment," The New York Times, Dec. 17, 1998, p.4.
53."Censure Instead of Impeachment," The New York Times, Dec. 20, 1998, p.1.
54 "Censure President to End Impeachment," The New York Times, Dec.21, 1998. p.3.
55."Lott:No Deal!"The New York Times, Jan. 7, 1999. p.1.
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57 "Nixon Resigns," .The New York Times, Aug. 9, 1974, p.1.
58."Watergate Scandal," Daily Express, Apr. 27, 1973, pp.3~4.
59."Who's Behind Hyde's Affairs?" The Chicago Tribune, Dec. 15, 1998, p.2.
60."Clinton:A Tough Leader," The Los Angeles Times, Dec. 26, 1998, pp.2~3.
61."Astonishment and Despair," The Los Angeles Times, Dec. 20, 1998, p.2.
62."Approved Articles of Impeachment," USA Today, Feb. 13, 1999, p.1.
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