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系統識別號 U0002-2507200711032300
中文論文名稱 21世紀恐怖主義之結構與國際法研究-反恐怖主義之法治框架
英文論文名稱 The Structure of Terrorism and International Law in the 21st Century: Counter-Terrorism Legal Framework
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 95
學期 2
出版年 96
研究生中文姓名 吳萊莉
研究生英文姓名 Magda Leayly Urlá López
學號 694260489
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2007-06-26
論文頁數 200頁
口試委員 指導教授-韋淑珊
委員-王高成
委員-張中勇
中文關鍵字 結構  恐怖主義  定義  國際關係  國際法  條約  國際人道法  反恐怖主義 
英文關鍵字 Structure  Terrorism  Definition  International Relations  International Law  Conventions  International Humanitarian Law  Counter-Terrorism 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 恐怖主義是21世紀一項複雜且艱鉅的任務。在國際社會一致明確地譴責恐怖主義的同時,各種反恐行動卻受到不同方式的干擾。一些關鍵議題尚未解決,且因恐怖主義持續以新的形式出現,使得問題處理方式更加複雜化。
          
國際社會目前所面臨的挑戰便是如何將譴責恐怖主義的聲名與將縝密的宣言付諸具體行動 (法制上、政治上與軍事上)。如此一來,可以有效的揭示恐怖行動對國際關係所帶來的負面影響。

“國際關係與其轉變”是”恐怖主義與國際法”研究的導讀。”恐怖主義與國際法”旨在說明恐怖主義與其結構。主要論點集中在法治框架下之恐怖主義的結構、恐怖主義定義的難題、以及國際法與反恐怖主義。

此研究發現,恐怖主義在定義上仍有不足,而這也影響如何預防恐怖行動。國際人道法禁止暴力行為,更在武器的使用與否上加以區分。我們可以對抗恐怖主義,但如何將之結束?當一個人製造恐怖行動時,對某些人來說他/她是恐怖份子;對另一群人來說卻是英雄。對於某些人來說是一種人權的侵犯;對另一群人而言卻是捍衛自己的人權。
英文摘要 Addressing in the 21st century the terrorism phenomenon is a very complex and challenging task. While condemnation of terrorist acts by the international community has been unanimous and unequivocal, efforts to control this phenomenon have been marred by different approaches. A number of key issues remain unresolved and the solution has been further complicated by the emergence of new forms of terrorism.

The challenge that the international community faces is transforming the statements and well-elaborated declarations of terrorism condemnation into concrete measures (legal, political, military) that can effectively address the very negative effects and consequences of terrorist acts that influence the international relations.

“The international relations and the transitional process” is the introduction to the study of “Terrorism and International Law” that is followed by the description of what terrorism is and its structure. The main points to be considered are the Structure of Terrorism, Definition Dilemma, International Law, and the Counter-Terrorism in the Legal Framework.

This study found that there is an empty space when it is related to the meaning of Terrorism and this affects its prevention. International Humanitarian Law prohibits the acts of violence, and it makes the difference when it is an armed conflict or not. Terrorism can be countered, but at the same time how can it be ended. A person that commits a terrorist act, for some people he/she is a terrorist, but for others a hero; for some he/she is violating other’s human rights but at the same time he/she is defending his/her owns.
論文目次 1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. MOTIVATIONS OF THE RESEARCH 2
1.2. TIME AND SPACE LOCATION 3
1.3. RESTRICTIONS 3
1.4. HYPOTHESIS 3
1.5. THEORY 3
1.6. METHODOLOGY 4
1.7. SOURCES 4
1.8. STRUCTURE 4
2. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND THE TRANSITIONAL PROCESS 7
2.1 DEVELOPMENT 8
2.1.1 World Order 9
2.2 INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM 11
2.2.1 Actors 13
2.3 THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 20
2.3.1 Legal Positivism Theory 23
2.4 MAIN INTERNATIONAL PROBLEMS FOR PEACE AND SECURITY 25
2.4.1 Lack of Peace 28
2.4.2 Insecurity 28
2.4.3 Globalization 30
2.4.4 International Crimes 31
2.4.5 International Terrorism 32
2.5 PARTIAL CONCLUSION 33
3. HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS AND DEFINITION DILEMMA 35
3.1 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF TERRORISM 36
3.1.1 Classic 37
3.1.2 Origins of the Modern Terrorism 39
3.1.3 Modern Terrorism 40
3.2 A CLOSE APPROXIMATION TO A DEFINITION OF TERRORISM 44
3.2.1 The Nature and Characteristics of Terrorism 45
3.2.2 Components of a definition 46
3.3 DEFINITION OF TERRORISM 49
3.3.1 Governmental Definitions 50
3.3.2 Academic Definitions 52
3.4 TERRORISM AS A POLITICAL DISORDER 63
3.4.1 Aggrieve groups 65
3.4.2 Suppressive and Supportive States 66
3.5 CONCLUSION 69
4. THE STRUCTURE OF TERRORISM 71
4.1 COMPONENTS OF TERRORISM 71
4.1.1 The Participants in a Terrorist Environment 72
4.1.2 The Causes of Terrorism 73
4.1.3 A Strategy and Tactics 76
4.1.4 Targets and Victims 77
4.1.5 Political, Economic and Religious Goals 79
4.2 THE ACTORS OF TERRORISM AND BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS 80
4.2.1 Different Motives to Act 81
4.2.2 Understanding Terrorist Behavior 82
4.3 TYPES AND SUPPORT OF TERRORISM 84
4.3.1 Types of Terrorism 86
4.3.2 Dissident Terrorism 91
4.3.3 Religious Terrorism 92
4.3.4 International Terrorism 95
4.4 TERRORISM’S IMPLICATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENT 97
4.4.1 Consequences on the Economic 97
4.4.2 Future of Terrorism 99
4.5 CONCLUSION 101
5. INTERNATIONAL LAW SYSTEM AND TERRORISM 103
5.1 HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF LAW AND DEFINITIONS 103
5.1.1 The Traditional View 106
5.1.2 Modern View 107
5.1.3 The Effects of International Law on Daily Life 109
5.1.4 The Enforcement of International Law 109
5.2 INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW 111
5.2.1 Origins of International Humanitarian Law 112
5.2.2 The 1949 Four Geneva Conventions 113
5.3 INTERNATIONAL ARMED CONFLICTS -CLASSIFIED AS TERRORISTS- 114
5.3.1 Guerrilla Warfare 115
5.3.2 National Liberation Movements 116
5.3.3 Terrorists, Guerrillas and National Liberation Movements 117
5.4 TERRORISM AS AN INTERNATIONAL CRIME 118
5.4.1 A Serious Human Rights Violation 118
5.4.2 A Threat to Democracy 122
5.4.3 A Threat to International Peace and Security 123
5.5 CONCLUSION 124
6. COUNTER-TERRORISM IN INTERNATIONAL LAW 127
6.1 THE WORD “TERRORISM” IN INTERNATIONAL LAW 127
6.2 MAIN INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIES AGAINST TERRORISM 129
6.2.1 International Treaties on Terrorism 130
A. THE BAN ON TERRORISM BY INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW 142
6.2.2 Measures of the 1949 four Geneva conventions 142
6.2.3 Rules Applicable to International Armed Conflict 144
6.2.4 Rules Applicable to Non-International Armed Conflict 150
6.3 THE UNITED NATIONS AND TERRORISM 153
6.3.1 Security Council Resolution 153
6.3.2 United Nations Counter-Terrorism Strategy 154
6.4 CONCLUSION 155
7. CONCLUSIONS 157
BIBLIOGRAPHY 165
APPENDIX 175
ABBREVIATIONS 175
U.S.-DESIGNATED FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS 176
INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND PROTOCOLS STATUS 181

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Journals

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Electronic Sources

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Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs), [database online].U.S. Department of State, Office of Counterterrorism, Center for Defense Information, Terrorism Project, April 2006 –[cited on 10 March 2007].Available from http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/fs/37191.htm
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Midgley, Mary, “Understanding the war on terrorism,” in Open Democracy: Free Thinking for the World [database online]. London, UK: Open Democracy, October 25, 2002- [cited 28 February 2007]. Available from http://www.opendemocracy.net/content/articles/PDF/72.pdf

Murphy, Jo Anne, “End Terrorism List Archive: Focusing on Shadow Theory/Causes of Terrorism”, in Global Learning Group, [database online]. Holyoke, Ma: Education Development Center Inc, 2001- [cited 28 February 2007]. Available from http://www.edc.org/GLG/end-terrorism/archive/0028.html.

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Online Newspapers

Burns, Chris and Bittermann, Jim, “Fiery riots spread beyond Paris”, Friday, November 4, 2005, Posted 2; 54 p.m. EST (19; 54 GMT) http://www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/europe/11/04/france.riots/index.html


Conventions, Protocols and Resolutions

Charter of the United Nations, available from United Nations Web Page: http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/index.html

Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation ("Montreal Convention", 1971--applies to acts of aviation sabotage such as bombings aboard aircraft in flight)

Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, (1988--applies to terrorist activities on ships)

Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft ("Hague Convention", 1970--aircraft hijackings)

Convention I, For the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, Geneva, 12 August 1949.

Convention II, For the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, Geneva, 12 August 1949.

Convention III, Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949.

Convention IV, Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, 12 August 1949.

Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed On Board Aircraft ("Tokyo Convention", 1963--safety of aviation)

Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection (1991--provides for chemical marking to facilitate detection of plastic explosives, e.g., to combat aircraft sabotage)

Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material ("Nuclear Materials Convention", 1980--combats unlawful taking and use of nuclear material)

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Internationally Protected Persons (1973- outlaws attacks on senior government officials and diplomats)

International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages ("Hostages Convention", 1979)

International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism 2005.

International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombing (1997): (UN General Assembly Resolution)

International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism (1999)

Organization of the Islamic Conference on Combating International Terrorism –OIC-, Preamble.

Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf (1988--applies to terrorist activities on fixed offshore platforms)

Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation (Extends and supplements the Montreal Convention on Air Safety), (1988)

Protocol I, Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, 8 June 1977.

Protocol II, Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts, 8 June 1977.

Resolution 1566 (2004), Adopted by the Security Council at its 5043rd meeting on 8 October 2004.

Security Council resolution 1516, Threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts. 2003.

UNGAOR 49th session, 84th mtg, Measures to eliminate international terrorism: Report of the
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1526, Threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts. 2004.


Web pages

United Nations Documents: http://www.un.org/documents/resga.htm

United Nation Action to Counter Terrorism: http://www.un.org/terrorism/index.shtml

United States Government: http://www.state.gov

International Committee of the Red Cross: http://www.icrc.org
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