||The Structure of Terrorism and International Law in the 21st Century: Counter-Terrorism Legal Framework
||Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
||Magda Leayly Urlá López
International Humanitarian Law
||Addressing in the 21st century the terrorism phenomenon is a very complex and challenging task. While condemnation of terrorist acts by the international community has been unanimous and unequivocal, efforts to control this phenomenon have been marred by different approaches. A number of key issues remain unresolved and the solution has been further complicated by the emergence of new forms of terrorism.
The challenge that the international community faces is transforming the statements and well-elaborated declarations of terrorism condemnation into concrete measures (legal, political, military) that can effectively address the very negative effects and consequences of terrorist acts that influence the international relations.
“The international relations and the transitional process” is the introduction to the study of “Terrorism and International Law” that is followed by the description of what terrorism is and its structure. The main points to be considered are the Structure of Terrorism, Definition Dilemma, International Law, and the Counter-Terrorism in the Legal Framework.
This study found that there is an empty space when it is related to the meaning of Terrorism and this affects its prevention. International Humanitarian Law prohibits the acts of violence, and it makes the difference when it is an armed conflict or not. Terrorism can be countered, but at the same time how can it be ended. A person that commits a terrorist act, for some people he/she is a terrorist, but for others a hero; for some he/she is violating other’s human rights but at the same time he/she is defending his/her owns.
||1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. MOTIVATIONS OF THE RESEARCH 2
1.2. TIME AND SPACE LOCATION 3
1.3. RESTRICTIONS 3
1.4. HYPOTHESIS 3
1.5. THEORY 3
1.6. METHODOLOGY 4
1.7. SOURCES 4
1.8. STRUCTURE 4
2. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND THE TRANSITIONAL PROCESS 7
2.1 DEVELOPMENT 8
2.1.1 World Order 9
2.2 INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM 11
2.2.1 Actors 13
2.3 THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 20
2.3.1 Legal Positivism Theory 23
2.4 MAIN INTERNATIONAL PROBLEMS FOR PEACE AND SECURITY 25
2.4.1 Lack of Peace 28
2.4.2 Insecurity 28
2.4.3 Globalization 30
2.4.4 International Crimes 31
2.4.5 International Terrorism 32
2.5 PARTIAL CONCLUSION 33
3. HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS AND DEFINITION DILEMMA 35
3.1 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF TERRORISM 36
3.1.1 Classic 37
3.1.2 Origins of the Modern Terrorism 39
3.1.3 Modern Terrorism 40
3.2 A CLOSE APPROXIMATION TO A DEFINITION OF TERRORISM 44
3.2.1 The Nature and Characteristics of Terrorism 45
3.2.2 Components of a definition 46
3.3 DEFINITION OF TERRORISM 49
3.3.1 Governmental Definitions 50
3.3.2 Academic Definitions 52
3.4 TERRORISM AS A POLITICAL DISORDER 63
3.4.1 Aggrieve groups 65
3.4.2 Suppressive and Supportive States 66
3.5 CONCLUSION 69
4. THE STRUCTURE OF TERRORISM 71
4.1 COMPONENTS OF TERRORISM 71
4.1.1 The Participants in a Terrorist Environment 72
4.1.2 The Causes of Terrorism 73
4.1.3 A Strategy and Tactics 76
4.1.4 Targets and Victims 77
4.1.5 Political, Economic and Religious Goals 79
4.2 THE ACTORS OF TERRORISM AND BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS 80
4.2.1 Different Motives to Act 81
4.2.2 Understanding Terrorist Behavior 82
4.3 TYPES AND SUPPORT OF TERRORISM 84
4.3.1 Types of Terrorism 86
4.3.2 Dissident Terrorism 91
4.3.3 Religious Terrorism 92
4.3.4 International Terrorism 95
4.4 TERRORISM’S IMPLICATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENT 97
4.4.1 Consequences on the Economic 97
4.4.2 Future of Terrorism 99
4.5 CONCLUSION 101
5. INTERNATIONAL LAW SYSTEM AND TERRORISM 103
5.1 HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF LAW AND DEFINITIONS 103
5.1.1 The Traditional View 106
5.1.2 Modern View 107
5.1.3 The Effects of International Law on Daily Life 109
5.1.4 The Enforcement of International Law 109
5.2 INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW 111
5.2.1 Origins of International Humanitarian Law 112
5.2.2 The 1949 Four Geneva Conventions 113
5.3 INTERNATIONAL ARMED CONFLICTS -CLASSIFIED AS TERRORISTS- 114
5.3.1 Guerrilla Warfare 115
5.3.2 National Liberation Movements 116
5.3.3 Terrorists, Guerrillas and National Liberation Movements 117
5.4 TERRORISM AS AN INTERNATIONAL CRIME 118
5.4.1 A Serious Human Rights Violation 118
5.4.2 A Threat to Democracy 122
5.4.3 A Threat to International Peace and Security 123
5.5 CONCLUSION 124
6. COUNTER-TERRORISM IN INTERNATIONAL LAW 127
6.1 THE WORD “TERRORISM” IN INTERNATIONAL LAW 127
6.2 MAIN INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIES AGAINST TERRORISM 129
6.2.1 International Treaties on Terrorism 130
A. THE BAN ON TERRORISM BY INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW 142
6.2.2 Measures of the 1949 four Geneva conventions 142
6.2.3 Rules Applicable to International Armed Conflict 144
6.2.4 Rules Applicable to Non-International Armed Conflict 150
6.3 THE UNITED NATIONS AND TERRORISM 153
6.3.1 Security Council Resolution 153
6.3.2 United Nations Counter-Terrorism Strategy 154
6.4 CONCLUSION 155
7. CONCLUSIONS 157
U.S.-DESIGNATED FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS 176
INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND PROTOCOLS STATUS 181
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Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, (1988--applies to terrorist activities on ships)
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