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中文論文名稱 地工合成物包裹砂柱試體之應力-應變行為探討
英文論文名稱 Stress-Strain Behavior of Geosynthetic-Encapsulated Sand Column Specimens
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 94
學期 2
出版年 95
研究生中文姓名 蔡君平
研究生英文姓名 Chun-Ping Tsai
電子信箱 693310913@s93.tku.edu.tw
學號 693310913
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2006-06-26
論文頁數 221頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳朝賢
委員-洪勇善
委員-李維峰
中文關鍵字 砂樁  加勁  地工合成材  砂土  三軸試驗 
英文關鍵字 Granular column  Reinforced  Geosynthetics  Triaxial Test  sand 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 在眾多之土壤改良工法中,砂石樁改良法施工迅速,砂石樁除了可傳遞荷重外,並能加速地盤排水及減少土壤沈陷,因此對砂石樁力學性質之研究為一重要且富價值之課題。打設於軟弱土層中之砂石樁,於樁體上部結構易因側向束縛力不足而產生破壞,對砂石樁加勁可增加側向束縛應力並減少其破壞機率。本研究將地工合成物縫製成圓管狀並包覆於砂柱試體外圍,進行實驗室靜態三軸試驗,以模擬加勁砂石樁於土層中受軸向力時之應力-應變行為,探討將地工合成材料以外包加勁模式加勁砂石樁之效益。

在試驗方面建立一改良式體積量測系統,藉由量測所得之體積應變,計算各軸向應變下加勁材之張應變,並以雙曲線模式模擬加勁材張力-應變關係,依此求取加勁材之張力,計算加勁材所提供之束縛應力,以分析不同勁度之加勁材對試體所提供之加勁效果。

研究結果顯示:在不同拉伸速率之寬幅拉伸試驗上,以慢速拉伸之不織布其勁度較低,由於ASTM規範之試驗速率高於加勁材之受張速率,故在計算上若使用ASTM規範之試驗結果,則會高估加勁材之束縛應力。三軸試驗進行至軸向應變32%時,試體徑向應變尚未達加勁材最大張力所對應之應變,此致加勁試體軸差應力持續上昇並無尖峰值。此外加勁試體之視凝聚力與 角均隨著所施加之軸差應力而上升,加勁材勁度越高,加勁後試體所發揮之視凝聚力亦越高,加勁材勁度對試體 角並無明顯影響。在加勁試體之數值模擬上,試體軸差應力理論值與試驗值之平均誤差均在15.99%以下。

藉由本文中之分析,可瞭解外包加勁模式之效益,及對砂土材料強度參數之影響,提供設計加勁砂石樁時選材及加勁方式上之參考,並對後續試驗與理論研究上提供一概念性之建議。
英文摘要 Granular columns were introduced into engineering practice to improve bearing capacity and reduce settlement in a weak or soft soil. This method is considered one of the most versatile and cost effective techniques for improving in-situ ground conditions. Skirting the granular column by wrapping a geosynthetic liner around the top section of the column and enveloping the granular column in a membrane were proposed to strengthen the column. When vertical and coincident lateral deformations of the granular column occur under a vertical load, the encapsulating geosynthetic generates additional confining stress to the column. Because the mechanical behavior of the granular material is usually controlled by the lateral confining pressure, the improvement in bearing capability from the geosynthetic-encapsulated granular column depends upon the mobilization of lateral or confining stresses exerted by the geosynthetic. The reinforcing effect of the granular column thus depends on the characteristics of the geosynthetic and the filled granular material. A numerical procedure to investigate the stress-strain relation of a reinforced column subjected to monotonically increasing confining pressure is therefore developed in this investigation. The theoretical analysis was validated through experimental triaxial compression tests on cylindrical specimen encapsulating with geotextile.
Hyperbolic model was used to simulate tensile stress-strain relation of the geosynthetics. Results from three geotextiles encapsulating sand specimen of two relative densities show: (1) Geotextile encapsulating sand column enhances the axial strength; the reinforced specimen exhibited significant apparent cohesive strength. A remarkable increase in apparent cohesive is noted for geosynthetic with high stiffness. (2) The volumetric strain is not sensitive to the confining pressure; the magnitude of confining stress provided by the encapsulating geotextile varies slightly for different confining pressures. (3) Results obtained form the proposed theoretical analysis has good agreement with the experimental results.
論文目次 目錄................................................................................................................................I
表目錄...........................................................................................................................V
圖目錄........................................................................................................................VII
照片目錄...................................................................................................................XIII
第一章緒論....................................................................................................................1
1-1 研究目的與動機.....................................................................................................1
1-2 研究方法.................................................................................................................2
1-3 研究架構與內容.....................................................................................................3
第二章 文獻回顧..........................................................................................................5
2-1 砂石樁工法.............................................................................................................6
2-1-1 擠壓砂樁工法.....................................................................................................6
2-1-2 振動揚實法.........................................................................................................7
2-1-3 礫石樁工法.........................................................................................................8
2-1-4 孔穴置入法.........................................................................................................8
2-2 三軸試體之體積變化.............................................................................................9
2-3 試體外包加勁材之研究.................................. ....................................................10
2-4 加勁試體之破壞方式.................................. .......................... .............................11
2-5 相關加勁砂土之三軸實驗研究......... .......................... ................... ..................12
2-6 砂柱試體應力-應變行為理論分析...................................................................16
2-6-1 粒狀土壤之應力-應變行為...........................................................................16
2-6-2 粒狀土壤正規化的組成參數計算...................................................................18
2-6-3 砂柱試體應力-應變行為模擬..........................................................................21
第三章 試驗計劃與內容............................................................................................41
3-1 試驗材料之基本性質...........................................................................................41
3-1-1 試驗土壤之基本性質.......................................................................................42
3-1-2 加勁材料基本性質...........................................................................................42
3-2 試驗儀器與設備..................................................................................................42
3-2-1 ELE靜態三軸試驗儀........................................................................................42
3-2-2 改良式體積應變量測裝置...............................................................................44
3-2-3 電腦系統萬能材料試驗機...............................................................................46
3-3 儀器校正...............................................................................................................47
3-3-1 應力環校正.......................................................................................................47
3-3-2 量管校正...........................................................................................................47
3-3-3 體積增幅系統校正...........................................................................................48
3-4 不織布拉伸試驗 ..............................................................................................48
3-5 試驗步驟...............................................................................................................49
3-5-1 外包加勁材之製作...........................................................................................49
3-5-2 試體準備與製作...............................................................................................50
3-5-3 三軸室組立步驟...............................................................................................51
3-5-4 控壓系統操作方法...........................................................................................53
3-5-5 計讀系統操作步驟...........................................................................................54
3-6 試體徑向應變計算方式.......................................................................................54
第四章試驗結果與分析..............................................................................................79
4-1 試驗材料基本性質...............................................................................................79
4-2 織布寬幅拉伸試驗結果.......................................................................................79
4-2-1 整片不織布寬幅拉伸試驗結果.......................................................................79
4-2-2 縫合不織布寬幅拉伸試驗結果.......................................................................80
4-2-3 雙曲線模式模擬不織布張力-應變曲線.......................................................81
4-2-4 拉伸速率對不織布之影響...............................................................................82
4-3 靜態三軸試驗結果...............................................................................................83
4-3-1 徑向應變對試體之影響...................................................................................84
4-3-2 加勁試體之三軸試驗結果...............................................................................84
4-3-3 加勁試體之三軸試驗結果...............................................................................86
4-3-4 加勁對顆粒狀土壤試體產生之視凝聚力.......................................................90
4-4 外包不織布束縛應力分析...................................................................................91
4-4-1 束縛應力計算...................................................................................................91
4-4-2 不同拉伸速率對束縛應力之影響...................................................................92
4-5 加勁效果分析.......................................................................................................93
4-5-1 不同試驗圍壓下加勁與未加勁試體之應力比...............................................93
4-5-2 加勁材對試體徑向應變之抑制效果...............................................................96
4-5-3 圍壓與加勁材束縛應力之關係.......................................................................98
第五章模擬砂柱試體之應力-應變關係...................................................................183
5-1 模擬參數求取.....................................................................................................183
5-2 理論模式說明.....................................................................................................184
5-3 模擬結果與實驗值之比對.................................................................................185
5-3-1 未加勁砂柱試體比對結果.............................................................................185
5-3-2 加勁砂柱試體比對結果.................................................................................188
第六章結論與建議....................................................................................................209
6-1 結論.....................................................................................................................209
6-2 展望與建議.........................................................................................................212
參考文獻....................................................................................................................213
附錄 ..........................................................................................................................217

表目錄
表3-1試驗用不織布性質...........................................................................................56
表3-2三軸室規格.......................................................................................................56
表3-3荷重架機件規格................................................................................................57
表3-4萬能材料試驗機機件規格................................................................................58
表3-5體積增幅系統校正結果...................................................................................58
表4-1整片未縫合不織布拉伸試驗結果.................................................................103
表4-2縫合不織布拉伸試驗結果.............................................................................103
表4-3拉伸速率10mm/min之不織布雙曲線參數..................................................103
表4-4加勁試體軸差應力最大值 ............................................................................104
表4-5加勁試體體積應變最大值.............................................................................104
表4-6相對密度60%加勁試體於軸向應變32%之最大徑向應變........................105
表4-7相對密度80%加勁試體於軸向應變32%之最大徑向應變........................105
表4-8 各階段軸向應變下之軸差應力比...............................................................106
表4-9 各階段軸向應變下加勁試體之體積應變抑制率.......................................107
表4-10各軸應變階段下之視凝聚力與φ 角........................................................108
表4-11 Dr60%各階段軸向應變下之圍壓比.........................................................111
表4-12 Dr80%各階段軸向應變下之圍壓比.........................................................112
表4-13圍壓比 趨於定值時所對應之艙室圍壓......................................................113
表4-14軸差應力比 趨於定值時所對應之圍壓......................................................114
表4-15各階段軸向應變下加勁試體之徑向應變抑制率........................................115
表4-16相對密度60%最大應變比與對應之軸向應變...........................................116
表4-17相對密度80%最大應變比與對應之軸向應變...........................................116
表4-18相對密度60%最大應力比與對應之軸向應變...........................................117
表4-19相對密度80%最大應力比與對應之軸向應變............................................117
表5-1砂土理論模式參數.........................................................................................189
表5-2加勁材束縛應力參數.....................................................................................189
表5-3未加勁試體軸差應力試驗值與理論值比對.................................................190
表5-4未加勁試體體積應變試驗值與理論值比對.................................................191
表5-5 Type1加勁試體試驗值與理論值比對..........................................................192
表5-6 Type2加勁試體試驗值與理論值比對..........................................................193
表5-7 Type3加勁試體試驗值與理論值比對..........................................................194

圖目錄
圖2-1 砂石樁破壞形式.............................................................................................26
圖2-2擠壓砂樁工法..................................................................................................26
圖2-3震動揚實法......................................................................................................26
圖2-4礫石樁法..........................................................................................................27
圖2-5 孔穴置入法.....................................................................................................27
圖2-6 橡皮膜貫入效應.............................................................................................28
圖2-7外包加勁試體試驗結果..................................................................................28
圖2-8單一隔框與複數格框之配置............................. ..............................................29
圖2-9不同材質格框加勁試體之應力-應變曲線................. ............................ .......29
圖2-10不同加勁材料之試驗結果p-q圖..................................................................30
圖2-11不同加勁層數試體試驗結果.........................................................................30
圖2-12加勁與未加勁試體液化潛能評估結果..........................................................31
圖2-13粗細粒料加勁試體試驗結果.........................................................................31
圖2-14 纖維加勁三軸試體之破壞包絡線................................................................32
圖2-15 不同纖維含量試體之應力-應變曲線..........................................................33
圖2-16 加勁織物安置方式........................................................................................34
圖2-17加勁安置位置與軸差壓力之關係.................................................................34
圖2-18 不同尺寸加勁試體之三軸剪力試驗結果....................................................35
圖2-19黏土層之加勁砂柱試體試驗.........................................................................35
圖2-20加勁層數與土壤承載力和沉陷之關係.........................................................36
圖2-21加勁層數與砂柱式體膨脹量之關係.............................................................36
圖2-22應力應變之雙曲線模式..................................................................................37
圖3-1 實驗計劃流程圖..............................................................................................59
圖3-2試驗用砂粒徑分佈曲線...................................................................................60
圖3-3三軸室構造.......................................................................................................60
圖3-4主要控制面板...................................................................................................61
圖3-5荷重架操作面板...............................................................................................61
圖3-6荷重架後方配置...............................................................................................62
圖3-7荷重架...............................................................................................................63
圖3-8 應力環..............................................................................................................64
圖3-9產生體積變化之因素.......................................................................................64
圖3-10改良式體積應變量測方式.............................................................................65
圖3-11 計讀原理示意圖............................................................................................65
圖3-12儀器示意圖.....................................................................................................66
圖3-13系統基本概念.................................................................................................66
圖3-14系統內壓力分佈.............................................................................................67
圖3-15萬能試驗儀儀器結構.....................................................................................67
圖3-16 改良式夾具....................................................................................................68
圖3-17不織布寬幅拉伸試驗試片規格.....................................................................68
圖3-18不織布縫合處寬幅拉伸試驗試片規格.........................................................69
圖3-19外包不織布縫合方式.....................................................................................69
圖3-20系統操作步驟說明.........................................................................................70
圖4-1 不織布之張力-應變關係..........................................................................118
圖4-2 縫合不織布之張力-應變關係..................................................................118
圖4-3 縫合與未縫合試體之張力-應變關係.........................................................119
圖4-4 不同拉伸速率對未縫合不織布之影響....................................................120
圖4-5 不同拉伸速率對縫合不織布之影響........................................................122
圖4-6 不織布張力-應變關係............................................................................123
圖4-7 徑向應變對試體之影響............................................................................125
圖4-8 相對密度80%Type3加勁試體之應力-應變-體積應變關係..................126
圖4-9 相對密度60%純砂試體之應力-應變-體積應變關係.............................127
圖4-10 相對密度80%純砂試體之應力-應變-體積應變關係.............................128
圖4-11相對密度60%、80%純砂試體之三軸應力路徑圖..................................129
圖4-12 純砂試體各圍壓下之莫爾圓..................................................................130
圖4-13 Type1加勁三軸試體之應力-應變-體積應變關係....................................131
圖4-14 Type1加勁三軸試體之應力-應變-體積應變關係....................................132
圖4-15 Type2加勁三軸試體之應力-應變-體積應變關係....................................133
圖4-16 Type2加勁三軸試體之應力-應變-體積應變關係....................................134
圖4-17 Type3加勁三軸試體之應力-應變-體積應變關係....................................135
圖4-18 Type3加勁三軸試體之應力-應變-體積應變關係....................................136
圖4-19 相對密度60%加勁試體之徑向-軸向應變關係..................................137
圖4-20 相對密度80%加勁試體之徑向-軸向應變關係..................................138
圖4-21 Dr60% 20kPa圍壓下加勁試體與未加勁試體比較...............................139
圖4-22 Dr80% 20kPa圍壓下加勁試體與未加勁試體比較...............................140
圖4-23 Dr60% 50kPa圍壓下加勁試體與未加勁試體比較...............................141
圖4-24 Dr80% 50kPa圍壓下加勁試體與未加勁試體比較...............................142
圖4-25 Dr60% 100kPa圍壓下加勁試體與未加勁試體比較.............................143
圖4-26 Dr80% 100kPa圍壓下加勁試體與未加勁試體比較.............................144
圖4-27 Dr60% 200kPa圍壓下加勁試體與未加勁試體比較.............................145
圖4-28 Dr80% 200kPa加勁試體與未加勁試體比較.........................................146
圖4-29 Dr60% 500kPa加勁試體與未加勁試體比較.........................................147
圖4-30 Dr80% 500kPa加勁試體與未加勁試體比較.........................................148
圖4-31 Dr60% 各階段軸向應變下之應力路徑圖.............................................149
圖4-32 Dr80% 各階段軸向應變下之應力路徑圖.............................................150
圖4-33 Pseudo Cohesion & Mobilized vs Axial Strain....................................151
圖4-34 加勁材料束縛應力分析示意圖..............................................................152
圖4-35 Type1不同拉伸速率下之圍壓增量.......................................................153
圖4-36 Type2不同拉伸速率下之圍壓增量.......................................................154
圖4-37 Type3不同拉伸速率下之圍壓增量.......................................................155
圖4-38 Type1圍壓比 與軸向應變之關係 ..................................................156
圖4-39 Type2圍壓比 與軸向應變之關係 ..................................................157
圖4-40 Type3圍壓比 與軸向應變之關係 ..................................................158
圖4-41 軸向應變5%圍壓比與艙室圍壓之關係...............................................159
圖4-42 軸向應變10%圍壓比與艙室圍壓之關係............................................160
圖4-43 軸向應變15%圍壓比與艙室圍壓之關係............................................161
圖4-44 軸向應變20%圍壓比與艙室圍壓之關係............................................162
圖4-45 軸向應變25%圍壓比與艙室圍壓之關係............................................163
圖4-46 軸向應變30%圍壓比與艙室圍壓之關係............................................164
圖4-47 軸向應變5% 艙室圍壓與應力比之關係............................................165
圖4-48 軸向應變10% 艙室圍壓與應力比之關係..........................................166
圖4-49 軸向應變15% 艙室圍壓與應力比之關係..........................................167
圖4-50 軸向應變20% 艙室圍壓與應力比之關係..........................................168
圖4-51 軸向應變25% 艙室圍壓與應力比之關係..........................................169
圖4-52 軸向應變30% 艙室圍壓與應力比之關係..........................................170
圖4-53 Type1各軸向應變下之徑向應變抑制量..............................................171
圖4-54 Type2各軸向應變下之徑向應變抑制量..............................................172
圖4-55 Type3各軸向應變下之徑向應變抑制量..............................................173
圖4-56 Dr60%Type 1加勁試體不同圍壓下徑向應變與束縛應力比................174
圖4-57 Dr80%Type 1加勁試體不同圍壓下徑向應變與束縛應力比................175
圖4-58 Dr60%Type 2加勁試體不同圍壓下徑向應變與束縛應力比................176
圖4-59 Dr80%Type 2加勁試體不同圍壓下徑向應變與束縛應力比................177
圖4-60 Dr60%Type 3加勁試體不同圍壓下徑向應變與束縛應力比................178
圖4-61 Dr80%Type 3加勁試體不同圍壓下徑向應變與束縛應力比................179
圖5-1 砂土初始彈性模數 與艙室圍壓之關係..................................................195
圖5-2 砂土正規化結果與模擬曲線....................................................................196
圖5-3 砂土 角與圍壓之關係..............................................................................197
圖5-4 圍壓20kPa未加勁砂柱試體實驗值與理論值比對................................198
圖5-5 圍壓50kPa未加勁砂柱試體實驗值與理論值比對................................199
圖5-6 圍壓100kPa未加勁砂柱試體實驗值與理論值比對..............................200
圖5-7 圍壓200kPa未加勁砂柱試體實驗值與理論值比對..............................201
圖5-8 圍壓500kPa未加勁砂柱試體實驗值與理論值比對..............................202
圖5-9 圍壓20kPa加勁試體試驗值與模擬值比對............................................203
圖5-10 圍壓50kPa加勁試體試驗值與模擬值比對..........................................204
圖5-11 圍壓100kPa加勁試體試驗值與模擬值比對........................................205
圖5-12 圍壓200kPa加勁試體試驗值與模擬值比對........................................206
圖5-13 圍壓500kPa加勁試體試驗值與模擬值比對........................................207

照片目錄

照片2-1 試驗前後之試體照片.............................................................................38
照片2-2格框加勁試體..........................................................................................38
照片2-3試體破壞方式.........................................................................................39
照片2-4 加勁纖維破壞方式................................................................................39
照片3-1試驗用砂土之顆粒形狀.........................................................................70
照片3-2三軸室.....................................................................................................71
照片3-3控壓系統操作面板.................................................................................71
照片3-4荷重架.....................................................................................................72
照片3-5應力環.....................................................................................................72
照片3-6改良式體積應變量測裝置.....................................................................73
照片3-7差壓力計.................................................................................................73
照片3-8體積增幅系統.........................................................................................74
照片3-9 CKC介面轉換系統................................................................................74
照片3-10 萬能材料試驗機..................................................................................75
照片3-11 應力環校正方式..................................................................................75
照片3-12 體積增幅系統校正方式......................................................................76
照片3-13 不織布寬幅拉伸試驗配置圖..............................................................76
照片3-14 縫合不織布拉伸試驗配置圖..............................................................77
照片3-15 縫合完成之外包不織布試體..............................................................77
照片3-16加勁試體...............................................................................................78
照片4-1縫合處應力集中現象...........................................................................180
照片4-2軸向應變40%之試體..........................................................................180
照片4-3未加勁三軸試體...................................................................................181
照片4-4加勁三軸試體.......................................................................................181


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