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系統識別號 U0002-2506202016080500
中文論文名稱 當全球危機時如何領導跨文化團隊:以 COVID 為例
英文論文名稱 How to lead an intercultural team during a global crisis situation? The example of the COVID-19
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 經營管理全英語碩士學位學程
系所名稱(英) Master's Program in Business and Management (English-Taught Program)
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生中文姓名 文曉俐
研究生英文姓名 Whitney Gras
學號 608585542
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2020-06-10
論文頁數 58頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊斯琴
委員-李旭華
委員-Collin Paul-Marc
中文關鍵字 跨文化團隊  虛擬團隊  全球領導力  虛擬領導者  危機  危機管理 
英文關鍵字 Intercultural team  Virtual team  Global leadership  Virtual leader  Crisis  Crisis management 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文探討危機情況下經理應如何領導跨文化團隊。本研究以COVID-19危機為基礎探討使團隊保持團結的基本要素,以及強化未來的研究人員對該主題的知識。本研究使用了探索性研究設計,並根據17個次級資料進行研究,其結果分述三個部分(1)新的工作結構和政策,(2)制定新的溝通策略,以及(3)照顧您的團隊,最後,本研究還整合過去有關該主題的最新文獻,並將其用於回答該問題並提出了未來的研究領域。
英文摘要 This paper reports to the lecturer how a manager should lead an intercultural team during a crisis situation. The author used the COVID-19 crisis as a foundation. Its objectives are to identify the essential elements to keep the team together but also to inspire future researchers to enhance the existing knowledge of this topic. The researcher used exploratory research design in this paper. Based on 17 secondary data related to the topic, the results indicate 3 major indications to follow. (1) New work structure and policies, (2) New communication strategy to put in place, and (3) caring for your team. This research paper also indicates the current literature on this subject and adapts it to answer the question and propose future areas of research.
論文目次 I. Introduction 1
II. Literature Review: Concept and Scope 3
A. Intercultural Team 3
1. Definition of Team and Virtual Team 3
2. Culture 6
a) Hall’s Cultural Iceberg Model 7
b) Hofstede’s Cultural Onion Model 8
c) Hall’s dimensions 9
d) Hofstede’s dimensions 10
3. Definition of Intercultural Team 11
III. Global Leadership 13
A. Definitions 13
1. Global Leadership’s Challenges 13
a) Cultural Diversity and Trust barriers 15
b) Managing distance and time boundaries 16
c) Team’s development and business etiquette 17
d) Communication patterns 18
2. Global Leadership’s Competencies 19
3. Solution to global leadership’s challenges 21
a) Cultural Diversity and Trust barriers 21
b) Managing distance and time boundaries 22
c) Team’s development and business etiquette 22
d) Communication patterns 23
B. Crisis 24
1. Definition of Crisis 24
a) Threat 28
b) Limited time 28
c) Unexpectable 29
2. Pandemic crisis and the organization 30
3. Definition of Crisis Management 33
a) Prevention 34
b) Preparation 34
c) Response 34
d) Revision 34
4. Stages of Crisis Management 35
IV. Methodology 39
A. Formulate the question 39
B. Locate sources 39
C. Select and assess the quality of relevant works 40
D. Data analysis and synthesis 40
V. Results and Discussion 41
A. New work structure and policies 45
B. New communication strategy to put in place 47
C. Caring for your team 48
VI. Conclusion 50
VII. References 52
Articles: 52
Press articles and website: 56
Video: 58



List of Tables
Table n°1. Difference between multicultural, cross-cultural and intercultural concepts 11
Table n°2. Crisis’ definition 27
Table n°3. Phases of the pandemic and actions taken by the organization 32
Table n°4. Comparison of approaches to Crisis Management phases 38
Table n°5. Sources found and in which subsection they were used. 44

List of Figures
Figure n°1. Cultural Iceberg Model 7
Figure n°2. Cultural Onion Model 8
Figure n°3. Factors of Crisis Management 33
參考文獻 Articles:
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Barton, L. (2008). Crisis leadership now: a real-world guide to preparing for threats, disaster, sabotage, and scandal, Mc Graw Hill, New York, pp. 109-121.
Behfar, K., Kern, M. and Brett, J. (2015). "Managing Challenges in Multicultural Teams". National Culture and Groups, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 233-262.
Biermeier-Hanson, B., Liu, M. and Marcus, W. Dickson M.W. (2015). “Alternate views of global leadership: applying global leadership perspectives to leading global teams”, Leading global teams, Springer Sciences+Business Media, New York, pp. 195–223.
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Bradley Penuel, K., Statler, M. and Hagen, R. (2013). Encyclopedia of crisis management, SAGE Publications, Vol. 1 pp. 186-187.
Chutnik, M. and Grzesik, K. (2009). “Leading a Virtual Intercultural team. Implications for Virtual Team Leaders”. Journal of Intercultural Management, No. 1, pp. 82-90.
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Coombs, W.T. (2011). Ongoing crisis communication: planning, managing, and responding, (1st Eds), SAGE Publications.
Coombs, W.T. (2015). Ongoing crisis communication: planning, managing, and responding, (4th Eds), SAGE Publications.
Davis, D.D. and Bryant, J.L. (2015). “Influence at a distance: leadership in global virtual teams”. Advances in Global Leadership, Vol. 3, pp. 303-340.
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Dziatzko, N., Struve, F. and Stehr, C. (2017). “Global leadership: how to lead multicultural teams effectively?”. Journal of Intercultural Management, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 5-29.
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Kielkowski, R. (2013). “Leadership during crisis”. Journal of Leadership Studies, Vol. 7, No.3.
Kovoor-Misra, S. (2019). “What are the attibutes of a crisis ?”. Crisis Management : resilience and change, SAGE Publications, pp. 20-24.
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Waldron, T.L. and Wetherbe, J. (2020). “How to care for your team during a crisis”. Entrepreneur & Innovation Exchange.
Press articles and website:
https://www.business.com/articles/leadership-tips-for-remote-teams/
https://www.business.com/articles/how-to-keep-your-employees-healthy-during-the-coronavirus/
https://www.business.com/articles/leadership-tips-for-remote-teams/
https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10194-lead-through-tough-times.html
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/guidance-business-response.html
https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html
https://www.forbes.com/sites/janbruce/2020/03/05/the-leaders-guide-to-managing-covid-19-panic/#3b5b053359ea
https://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/how-to-lead-better-remote-meetings/
https://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/4-actions-to-be-a-good-leader-during-covid-19-disruption/
https://www.grenoble-em.com/actualite-covid-19-les-experts-de-gem-prevoient-12-changements-majeurs
https://kgdiversity.com/learning-from-the-global-team-during-covid-19/
https://www.ledevoir.com/economie/573905/les-multinationales-cherchent-a-limiter-les-effets-de-l-epidemie
https://www.lefigaro.fr/conjoncture/40-des-employes-sont-physiquement-presents-mais-tout-fonctionne-annonce-le-patron-de-suez-20200320
https://www.lefigaro.fr/flash-eco/nissan-et-gm-suspendent-leur-production-au-mexique-20200321
https://www.lefigaro.fr/flash-eco/recapitalisation-d-air-france-et-renault-tout-est-envisageable-tout-est-pret-assure-bruno-le-maire-20200408
https://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/coronavirus-airbus-va-reduire-d-un-tiers-sa-cadence-de-production-d-avions-20200408
https://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/coronavirus-plus-d-un-francais-sur-trois-craint-de-perdre-son-emploi-20200409
https://www.lopinion.fr/edition/economie/coronavirus-7-mutations-l-economie-mondiale-213643
https://www.managementstudyguide.com/crisis-management.htm
https://place.network/migrant-led-innovation-in-the-time-of-covid-19
http://www.sante.cgt.fr/COVID-19-Anticiper-et-gerer-l-impact-dans-les-entreprises-multinationales
https://springinstitute.org/whats-difference-multicultural-intercultural-cross-cultural-communication/
https://www.womeninretail.com/leading-with-compassion-and-empathy-during-the-coronavirus/
https://www.womeninretail.com/8-ways-to-manage-remote-workers-during-the-covid-19-crisis/
Video:
https://www.womeninretail.com/video/susie-kuhn-vp-gm-foot-locker-europe-on-crisis-management/
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