||A Comparative Study of Japan and Taiwan's Disaster Prevention Policy -From Social Constructivism Perspective-
||Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
Business Continuity Plan (BCP)
All- Out Defense Education System
政府當局認為制定政策是重要的，因此人民將會被賦予增進災難防範的能力。”Fundamental Plan for National Resilience”(國土強韌化計畫)是日本眾多計畫之一；在日本重大災害不斷地發生，政府及民間企業應該採取BCP (業務連續性計劃)以達到優勢互補的效果。
在BCP的範疇下，保護人民安全即是確保所有關係者的安全。以企業社會責任中防災的觀點而言，企業應加強區域災難防範因此人民才能經由企業所提供的災難防範教育以增快災後重建的速度。本研究對於災難防範上提出了PDCP (Proposal, Do, Check, Publication)循環機制以利企業善盡社會責任。
||The purpose of this research is to present the effectiveness and necessity of mutually complementary activities of education in Japan and Taiwan's defense and disaster prevention policy. It is clarified from the viewpoint of social constructivism.
The literature used in this study is mainly qualitative and secondary materials of books, journal articles, research papers, government documents, electronic platforms. They organize them into five main structure. From these documents, disaster in Japan and Taiwan is homogeneous, especially large-scale earthquake disasters and urban disasters caused by torrential rains caused by global warming. However, in Japan and Taiwan, the way of thinking and policy on safety are different. It can be seen from the difference in history and culture that Japan and Taiwan have traced.
The various threats of Japan and Taiwan are not limited to natural disasters. It is also required by the world to establish a resilient community that clarifies each vulnerability and complements it.
This research explored the effectiveness of mutually complementary activities by utilizing the analysis tool of Alexander Wendt advocating social constructivism. In addition, we investigated changes in people's consciousness from disaster prevention CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) activities that are case studies conducted by the author.
Each government considered that it is important for each policy to promote improvement of the disaster prevention ability of all people. In Japan, various efforts are undertaken against the background of the government's toughening policy, and in recent years large-scale disasters have been occurring continuously in Japan, so it is said that the utilization of BCP (Business Continuity Plan) of a company makes complementary effects effective the public and private sectors tend to be united and active.
In Taiwan, the nation led the national defense law, consistent education in schools and areas such as the whole national defense education and the civil defense mobilization law etc. are carried out. Taiwan has also experienced large earthquakes one after the other and various policies have been born. However, although both have policies, it turns out that it can’t be said that there are not necessarily enough results to say.
Protecting people's safety is seen in securing the safety of stakeholders within the company's BCP. From the perspective of disaster prevention CSR, companies will contribute to the development of resilient people by working on local disaster prevention. It will also pursue that it will lead to establishing a resilient community. This research proposes a PDCP cycle of disaster prevention CSR as a mechanism to induce corporate CSR activities.
The effectiveness of mutually complementary activities of education in defense and disaster prevention policies of Japan and Taiwan is related to the roles of enterprises and the role of individuals as a process of establishing national security. Especially when organizing the formulation and practice of BCP, it is desirable to consider based on the analysis framework of constructivism from the viewpoint of each culture, identity, profit, role and policy. It has been clarified from the viewpoint of social constructivism.
||Table of Contents
Table of Contents viii
List of Figure xv
List of Table xviii
List of Acronyms xix
Chapter Ⅰ Introduction 1
1.1. Research background 1
1.2. Research motive and objective 3
1.2.1. Research motive 3
1.2.2. Research Objectives 8
1.3. Literature review 11
1.3.1. Social Constructivism 12
1.3.2. Business Continuity Plan 22
1.3.3. Japan’s Disaster Prevention System 27
1.3.4. Japan’s Civil Protection 29
1.3.5. Taiwan’s All-Out Defense and Education System 32
1.4. Research approach and method 36
1.4.1. Classification and Comparison of Social constructivism 36
1.4.2. “BCP”, “BCM”, “BCMS” and “ISO 23301” as a global standard--Comparison of characteristics and roles of each-- 36
1.4.3. Relation to disaster prevention system in Japan and protection of citizens 37
1.4.4. Taiwan's All-Out Defense and Education Act 38
1.4.5. Organization of research activities of i-tec 24 as a case study 39
1.5. Research scope and constraint 41
1.5.1. The research scope 41
1.5.2. Research constraints 46
1.6. Framework of research and chapter arrangement 47
1.6.1. Research framework 47
Chapter Ⅱ Theory of Social Constructivism and BCP 52
2.1. Concept and meaning of social constructivism 52
2.1.1. Historical background of social constructivism 52
2.1.2 Three major theory of modern international relations theory-- -Realism · Liberalism · Constructivism --- 53
2.1.3. The development of social constructivism: Form a mainstream school 55
2.1.4 Process and structural change 56
2.1.5. Constructive Communicators 60
2.2. Idea content of Business Continuity Plan (BCP) 82
2.2.1. History of introduction and development of BCP 83
2.2.2. Evolution of BCP, BCM, BCMS-- Development from ISO 22301 to ISO 22316-- 87
2.2.3. Standards, guidelines, organizations etc. for each country Five organizations leading the development of BCP 87
2.2.4. UK trends 95
2.2.5. US trends 97
2.3. Relationship between Social Constructivism and BCP 105
Chapter Ⅲ Japan’s National security and disaster prevention policy 109
3.1. Japan’s national security concept and policy 109
3.1.1. Concept of security 109
3.1.2. Outline of the national security strategy 110
3.1.3. Human security 113
3.1.4. Human security as the 21st century international cooperation philosophy 115
3.1.5. Policies and issues 116
3.2. Japan’s national disaster prevention ideas and policy 118
3.2.1. From voluntary disaster prevention organization to voluntary civil defense 118
3.2.2. Approach civil protection in other Countries 120
3.2.3. Safety consciousness 123
3.2.4. Mechanism of Civil Protection 126
3.2.5. Mechanism of Emergency Response Matters Act 144
3.2.6. SDF and civil protection 147
3.2.7. Government's efforts on emergency affairs legislation 152
3.3. The role of BCP in Japan’s disaster prevention policy 160
3.3.1. History of Japanese disasters 165
3.3.2. Japan's disaster management system 166
3.3.3. The role of BCP in Japan’s disaster prevention policy 167
3.3.4. Basic Act for National Resilience 173
Chapter Ⅳ Japan’s BCP mechanism and deployment 181
4.1. Japan’s BCP policy and rule 181
4.1.1. Trends in BCP in Japan 181
4.2. Japan’s BCP deployment mechanism 193
4.2.1. Status of BCP formulation 193
4.2.2. Relationship between BCM and conventional disaster prevention activities in companies 198
4.2.3. BCP formulation requirements 202
4.3. Japan’s BCP case studies 209
4.3.1. Business continuity plan of national central ministries and agencies 209
4.3.2. BCP of Regional 217
4.3.3. BCP formulation situation and case Humax Co., and Ltd. i-tec 24 218
Chapter Ⅴ Taiwan ‘s National Security and Disaster Prevention Policy 226
5.1. Taiwan’s national security policy and All-Out defense thinking 227
5.1.1. National Security Thinking and Security Report 228
5.1.2. Second, the national security policy and the four-year national defense inspection report 238
5.1.3. National Security Mechanism and National Defense Report 248
5.2. Taiwan’s All-Out disaster prevention policy and mechanism 258
5.2.1. Research on National Security Strategy 258
5.2.2. All-Out Defense Education 269
5.2.3. All-Out Defense Training 273
5.3. Taiwan’s disaster prevention case studies 283
5.3.1. National Security Report Feedback 283
5.3.2. National security education feedback 291
5.3.3. National security report and education feedback 293
Chapter Ⅵ Comparison social disaster prevention system between Japan and Taiwan 306
6.1．Taiwan's National Security and Disaster Concept 306
6.1.1. History and organizational structure of disaster prevention organization in Taiwan 307
6.1.2. Comparison and Analysis disaster prevention and rescue mechanism between Japan and Taiwan 310
6.2. Planning and progress of Taiwan's defense mobilization and disaster prevention and rescue system 314
6.2.1. Discussion on the Operation of Participating and Defending Mobilization Mechanism in Taiwan 314
6.2.2 Military mobilization function to ensure national security and people's happiness 319
6.2.3. The advancement of the All-out Defense Mobilization and disaster prevention and rescue system in Taiwan 323
6.3. BCP case study between Japan and Taiwan 325
6.3.1. BCP policy and formulation situation in Taiwan 326
6.3.2. Efforts to spread BCP of Japanese companies 328
Chapter Ⅶ Conclusion 335
7.1. Research conclusion and outcome 335
7.2. Research finding and assessment 338
7.3. Future development and suggestion 341
7.3.1 Future work 343
7.3.2 Learning from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake 345
7.3.3 Tokyo Inland Earthquake and Nankai Trough Earthquake Countermeasures 346
7.3.4 Analysis of data that serves as the basis for improvement measures and proposals 348
7.3.5. Specific improvement measures and new proposals 357
7.3.6. Management of disaster prevention CSR organization 358
7.3.7. If it is disaster prevention CSR, the mechanism for getting to know will be needed for the next execution. 360
List of Figure
Figure 1 : Research Framework 47
Figure 2 Collective Identity Construction 59
Figure 3 Structure and Process of International Communicators 60
Figure 4 Five Integration Road Maps of the Research on the National Security Culture of the Constructivism of Kazanstan 61
Figure 5 Taiwan's National Security Strategy Analysis Framework 64
Figure 6 Social Constructivist Cultural Cognitive Structure 72
Figure 7 Augmenting business continuity 87
Figure 8 Systematization of familiar security 125
Figure 9 Cabinet Office Disaster Response Mechanism 132
Figure 10 Scope of Cases involved in the crisis management department 137
Figure 11 Mechanism for protection of citizens in armed attack situations 138
Figure 12 Evacuation System 139
Figure 13 Relief System 140
Figure 14 Response to an Armed Attack 140
Figure 15 Roles of Designated Public Institutions 141
Figure 16 Cooperation of the people 142
Figure 17 Measures Concerning Peoples' Rights and Duties 142
Figure 18 Characteristics of Armed Attack Situations 143
Figure 19 Major communication systems employed for civil protection during armed attack situation etc. 151
Figure 20 Disaster Prevention and Civil Protection 157
Figure 21 Countermeasures Common to All disaster Types 167
Figure 22 Development of business Continuity Plans by local Governments 169
Figure 23 Development of business Continuity Plans by local Governments 171
Figure 24 The Concept of Risk Management Concerning Natural Disasters 173
Figure 25 Community Disaster Management Plan Guidelines 1. 177
Figure 26 Standing position of the Community Disaster Management Plan in the Disaster management system. 180
Figure 27 Comprehensive disaster management system for minimizing negative impact 182
Figure 28 Image of BCP 187
Figure 29 What is BCP 189
Figure 30 Concept of Business Continuity Plan 191
Figure 31 Conceptual diagram of BCP in cases of gradual and long-term damage 192
Figure 32 Continuous improvement (Flow of Good Practice in Business Continuity) 193
Figure 33 Status of formulation of BCP 194
Figure 34 Solution plan for next generation BCP formulation and management Condition of Success 195
Figure 35 If the manager (representative) becomes absent due to unforeseen circumstances, is there an alternative person 197
Figure 36: Example of an earthquake ready office 206
Figure 37 The implementation of BCP 208
Figure 38: Implement training for employees on BCP and disaster prevention activities 208
Figure 39 i-tec24 Questionnaire survey 1 222
Figure 40 i-tec24 Questionnaire survey 2 223
Figure 41 i-tec24 Questionnaire survey 3 224
Figure 42 National Security Report Feedback 291
Figure 43 National Security Education Feedback 292
Figure 44 National Security Report and Education Feedback 303
Figure 45 Taiwan National disaster prevention and rescue system architecture map 309
Figure 46 Disaster processing flow chart 317
Figure 47 Cycle of Constructivism 335
Figure 48 Collective Identity Construction 336
Figure 49 Comparison and subsidiarity of safety culture between Taiwan and Japan 337
Figure 50 Formation of intercity collective identity 338
Figure 51 Formation of collective identity between government and enterprise 339
Figure 52 Formation and maintenance of a resilient society based on social constructivism 340
Figure 53 Formulation of Company’s disaster prevention plan and BCP 351
Figure 54 Cooperation between companies and regions 352
Figure 55 Conclusion rate of Assistance of the cooperation between a company and the government during disasters 353
Figure 56 People's Consciousness and Behavior after the Disaster1. 356
Figure 57 People's Consciousness and Behavior after the Disaster 2. 356
Figure 58 Measures to create a disaster- resilience society 358
Figure 59 PDCP for disaster prevention system 359
List of Table
Table 1 Category of Literature review 12
Table 2 Three major theory of modern international relations theory 55
Table 3 The concept and context of Business Continuity 94
Table 4 Top five concerns through the years 104
Table 5 Emergency response situation 144
Table 6 Differences in thinking about safety between Japanese and the European 162
Table 7 District Disaster Planning Guidelines 1. 178
Table 8 Representative examples of advance and post-action measures (in case of earthquake countermeasures) 184
Table 9 Comparison Company's Disaster Management and BCM 199
Table 10 US National Security Strategy and Report Development List 285
Table 11 National Security Strategy Report, National Security Policy (Defense Policy) Report and National Security Mechanism Report Comparison Table 289
Table 12 Comparison and analysis of disaster prevention and rescue mechanisms between Japan and Taiwan 311
Table 13 Corporate disaster prevention business 329
List of Acronyms
ACT American Council for Technology
AD Anno Domini
Ad Council Advertising Council
ANSI/NFPA American Standards Institute/National Fire Protection Association
BC Business Continuity
BCI Business Continuity Institute
BCM Business Continuity Management
BCMS Business Continuity Management System
BCP Business Continuity Planning
BS25999 British Standard 25999
BSI British Standards Institution
CAT Bond Catastrophe Bond
CCP Chinese Communist Party
COOP Continuity of Operations
CPC Communist Party of China
CSR Corporate Social Responsibility
CSRV Corporate Social Responsibility Value
CSV Creating Shared Value
DHS Department of Homeland Security
DPP Democratic Progressive Party
DR Disaster Recovery
DRII Disaster Recovery Institute International
DRP Disaster Recovery Plan
EO Executive Order
EOC Emergency Operations Center
FCDA Federal Civil Defense Administration
FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency
FY Fiscal Year
G20 Group of Twenty
GAO Government Accountability Office
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GIIASS Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
GSA General Service Administration
HB211,2001 Occupational health and safety management systems - A guide it AS 4801 for small business
IAB Intergovernmental Advisory Board
IBHS Institute for Business & Home Safety ICT Information and Communication Technology
IEC International Electrotechnical Communication
IR Investor Relations
IR International Relations
ISO International Organization for Standardization
IT Information Technology
J.C.S Joint Chiefs of Staff
MAC Mainland Affairs Council
MND Ministry of National Defense
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NHK Nippon Hoso Kyokai
NSC National Security Council
OB Old Boy
OR Organizational Resilience
PAS Publicly Available Specification
PDCA Plan Do Check Action
PDCP Plan Do Check Publication
PDD Presidential Decision Directive
QDR Quadrennial Defense Review
ROC Republic of China
SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
SC Social Constructivism
SDF Self-Defense Force
SRI Socially Responsible Investment
SS507,2004 Singapore Standard 507,2004
TICAD Tokyo International Conference on African Development
U.S. United States
UK United Kingdom
UN United Nations
UNDP United Nations Development Programmed
UNISDR United Nations secretariat for International Strategy for Disaster Reduction
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