淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


系統識別號 U0002-2506201416022700
中文論文名稱 台灣與瓜地馬拉企業倫理氣候因果模式之比較研究
英文論文名稱 A cause-effect model of ethical climate in Organizations: A comparison between Taiwan and Guatemala
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 卡羅迪
研究生英文姓名 Rudy Castellanos
學號 601611444
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2014-05-27
論文頁數 176頁
口試委員 指導教授-洪英正
共同指導教授-李芸惠
委員-蔡裕源
委員-張雍昇
中文關鍵字 倫理氣候  倫理領導  員工滿意度  客戶滿意度  台灣  瓜地馬拉 
英文關鍵字 Ethical Climate  Ethical Leadership  Job and Customer Satisfaction  Taiwan  Guatemala. 
學科別分類
中文摘要 此論文為台灣與瓜地馬拉兩國組織道德環境議題之探討。透過此研究比較兩國差異,以利改善道德環境,也更深了解組織中內部運作及道德環境對員工、客戶之影響。
許多文獻顯示此研究變項與組織道德理論相關。Victor&Cullen(1986, 1987)的文獻成為此研究有力之證明,文獻顯示:好的道德環境對員工道德決策有正面的影響;國家文化(Hofstede, 2001)可以影響道德環境。Ferrel (2012) 證明道德守則是建立道德環境及誠信領導的基本工具。Mayer (2009) 強調誠信領導是主管建立道德環境的一個重要因素;最後根據研究,道德環境可以影響員工及客戶滿意度。
此研究為質化研究,其中包含六個變項:國家文化、道德守則、誠信領導、道德環境、員工滿意度、客戶滿意度。過程透過Skype訪談瓜地馬拉組織主管,及面訪台灣組織主管,以獲得結果與結論。
結論顯示,兩國中皆有道德環境之需要,且組織部門重整及溝通系統重整,能直接地影響組織,此外,文化是影響組織是否擁有道德環境的最重要因素。結論筆者共有十四個主張,其中第一:組織中應重整或建立一個制度以縮減溝通差距,此差距來自於權力階級文化以及僵化的制度。第二,應建立關於貪污所帶來的影響之宣導計劃,以減少組織內賄賂行為,增強組織內的人力資本。
要正向地影響組織,筆者認為建立道德文化是必要的。價值觀與原則的重建及對在上位者的信任需要被修復,因這要素深深影響國家文化,進而影響道德環境。未來研究方向仍有許多空間可以探討,如:全球化對道德環境的影響,及政治體系所帶來的影響等。
英文摘要 Taiwan and Guatemala are two countries that have a good relationship as well both countries have been investigated in relation to ethical climates in organizations, this subject becomes relevant as to highlight similitudes and differences that can be helpful for improvement , the subject of ethical climate becomes relevant to give us a clear picture on how organizations operate internally and the effect of and ethical climate in its response towards employees and customers, the problematic in now days organizations deserve the research in this subject to find how positively it can affect organizations .
In the extensive literature review was prove the variables that were investigated, according to the purpose of the investigation, that there was a strong literature review in respect to our subject and ethical climate as prove by Victor and Cullen (1986, 1987) in their studies that they positively affect the employees perception towards ethical decisions, as well the antecedents that influence ethical climate it was used national culture (Hofstede 2001) showing how national culture has a strong influence in it, as well codes of ethics Ferrell (2012) proving that is one of the basic tools to build and ethical climate and ethical leadership Meyer (2009) emphasizing its strong influence on managers to build an ethical climate and last Mayer (2009) emphasize that ethical climate has influence according to studies, job and customer satisfaction.
The investigation used a qualitative method with the purpose to investigate six variables, national culture, codes of ethics, ethical leadership, ethical climate, job and customer satisfaction, the framework permit to compare both countries Taiwan and Guatemala and study its differences and similitudes by having interviews with managers via skype where these ones were studied to get or results and conclusions.
It was found in the investigation that the results prove there were different dimensions of ethical climate in organizations and that there is the need of ethical climate in both countries, the restructure of organizations departments and some communication systems were noticed to affect organizations, as well culture was prove one of the strongest factors that influence having or not an ethical climate, in the results we provide 14 propositions we have proposition 1; there should be a creation or remodel of structure in order to reduce the gap of communication due to power distance culture and rigid company, in order to reduce mistakes in both companies in Taiwan and Guatemala, proposition 2 ; there should be a creation of a plan as a capacitation to support the human capital teaching the effect of corruption in order to reduce bribery and reduce the breaking of principles. These propositions were made as part of the result and conclusions we obtained.
There is a need to find a path that can be taken in order to positively influence organizations, the necessity of having an ethical climate becomes urgent, therefore the recovery of values and principles as well the recovery of trust in the population towards authority, is one key factor that needs to be treated as the one that will influence the national culture and then influence ethical climates, the future study we believe there is space to work with one important variable which is globalization and how it affects ethical climate, as well the political system.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Table of Contents I
List of Figures III
List of Table IV
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1. Motivation 1
1.2. Ethics and Ethical Climate 3
1.3. Guatemala 5
1.4. Taiwan 8
1.5. Comparison 9
1.6. Scope 10
1.7. Objectives of study 11
Chapter 2 Literature Review 14
2.1. Ethical Management of the Human Talent for the Common Good in Organizations 16
2.2. The Ethic; Reflexive Element that Orient to Excellence 17
2.3. The Ethic Management; Instrument for the right “Operationalization” of Human Resources in Organizations 19
2.3. Ethical Climate 21
2.4. National Culture 24
2.5. Codes of Ethics 26
2.6. Ethical Leadership 28
2.7. Consequences of Ethical Climate; Job Satisfaction, Customer Satisfaction 31
Chapter 3 Methodology 36
3.1. Framework 36
3.2. Overview of Organizations 39
3.3. Data Collection Techniques 40
3.4. Data Analysis 41
Chapter 4-Analysis and Results 42
4.1 Introduction 42
4.2 Overview of the Enterprises 44
4.3. Interview results 48
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Discussion, Implications, Limitations and Suggestions 110
5.1 Conclusions and Discussion 110
5.2. Implications 125
5.3. Limitations and Suggestions 127
References 129
APPENDIX A 137
Appendix B 144
APPENDIX C 151
APPENDIX D 158
APPENDIX E 166
Appendix F 172


List of Figures
Figure 1-1 Research Flow Chart 13
Figure 2.1 Conceptual Framework 15
Figure 3.1 Research Framework 36


List of Table
Table 2.3.1 Typology of Ethical Climates 23
Table 2.4.1 Ethical climate findings 32
Table 4.1 Participants of the research 42
Table 4.2 Overview of the Enterprises 44
Table 4.3. Construction Company answers on national culture 50
Table 4.4 Education companies answers for national culture 55
Table 4.5 High-Tech Companies answers for national culture 57
Table 4.5 High-Tech Companies answers for national culture 58
Table 4.6 Construction companies answers for codes of ethics 61
Table 4.7 Education companies answers for codes of ethics 65
Table 4.8 High-Tech companies answers for codes of ethics 68
Table 4.9 Construction Companies Answers for Ethical Leadership 72
Table 4.10. Education companies answers for ethical leadership 74
Table 4.11. High-Tech companies answers for ethical leadership 77
Table 4.12. Construction companies answers for ethical climate 82
Table 4.13.Education companies answers for ethical climate 89
Table 4.14. High-Tech companies answers for ethical climate 94
Table 4.15.Construction companies answers for job satisfaction and customer Satisfaction 100
Table 4.16. Education companies answers for job satisfaction and customer satisfaction 103
Table 4.17. High-Tech companies answers for job satisfaction and customer satisfaction 108
Table5.1 Differences and Similarities on Construction Companies 114
Table 5.2 Differences and Similarities in Education Companies 118
Table 5.3 Differences and Similarities in High-Tech Companies 124
參考文獻 Ambrose, M. L., Arnaud, A., & Schminke, M. (2008). Individual moral development and ethical climate: The influence of person–organization fit on job attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics, 77(3), 323-333.
Appelbaum, S. H., Deguire, K. J., & Lay, M. (2005). The relationship of ethical climate to deviant workplace behaviour. Corporate Governance, 5(4), 43-55.
Argandona, A. (2003). Fostering values in organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 45(1-2), 15-28.
Argandona, A. (2003). The new economy: ethical issues. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(1), 3-22.
Borhani, F., Jalali, T., Abbaszadeh, A., Haghdoost, A. A., & Amiresmaili, M. Nurses’ Perception of Ethical Climate and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, 5.
Bourne, S., & Snead, J. D. (1999). Environmental determinants of organizational ethical climate: a community perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 21(4), 283-290.
Brower, H. H., & Shrader, C. B. (2000). Moral reasoning and ethical climate: Not-for-profit vs. For-profit boards of directors. Journal of Business Ethics, 26(2), 147-167.
Brown, M. E., Trevino, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97(2), 117-134.
Calderon, C. (2009, October 20) El periodico; Cartas de Lector, Crisis de Valores. Retrived from http://www.elperiodico.com.gt/es/20091020/cartas/120777
CIA – The World Factbook. (n.d). CIA – The World Factbook. Retrieved December 17 , 2012 , from https;//www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tw.html
Cortina, A. (2008). Aprendiendo de las crisis. Una lectura etica. Costas, A., coord.: Mediterraneo Economico (18):“La crisis de.
Cortina, A., Orts, A. C., & Navarro, E. M. (2008). Etica (Vol. 4). Ediciones AKAL.
Debeljuh, P. (2009). Etica empresarial: en el nucleo de la estrategia corporativa. Cengage Learning.
DeConinck, J. (2003). The impact of a corporate code of ethics and organizational justice on sales managers'ethical judgments and reaction to unethical behavior. marketing management journal, 13(1).
DeConinck, J., DeConinck, M. B., & Banerjee, D. (2013). Outcomes of an Ethical Work Climate among Salespeople. International Journal of Business Administration, 4(4).
Deshpande, S. P., George, E., & Joseph, J. (2000). Ethical climates and managerial success in Russian organizations. Journal of Business Ethics,23(2), 211-217.
Dorgham, S. R. (2012). Relationship between Organization Work Climate & Staff Nurses Organizational Commitment. commitment, 14, 17.
Espina, C. (2013, February 27) La Hora; Guatemala, La corrupcion atrae la mala inversion. Retrived from http://www.lahora.com.gt/index.php/nacional/guatemala/reportajes-y-entrevistas/174158-la-corrupcion-atrae-la-mala-inversion
Fernandez Baptista, A. J. (2012). GESTION ETICA DEL TALENTO HUMANO PARA EL BIEN COMUN EN LA EMPRESA/ETHICAL MANAGEMENT OF THE HUMAN TALENT FOR THE COMMON GOOD IN ORGANIZATIONS. CICAG,9(1), 17-35.
Ferrell, O. C., Fraedrich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2012). Business ethics: Ethical decision making and cases. CengageBrain. com.
Font, J. (2012, September 28) El Periodico; Opinion, Corrupcion 101. Retrived from http://www.elperiodico.com.gt/es/20120928/opinion/218495
Forte, A. (2004). Business ethics: A study of the moral reasoning of selected business managers and the influence of organizational ethical climate. Journal of Business Ethics, 51(2), 167-173.
Garcia, F. N. (2012). Responsabilidad social corporativa: teoria y practica. EsiC Editorial.
Garcia‐Zamor, J. C. (2003). Workplace spirituality and organizational performance. Public Administration Review, 63(3), 355-363.
Gonzalez, T. F., & Guillen, M. (2008). Organizational commitment: a proposal for a wider ethical conceptualization of ‘normative commitment’. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(3), 401-414.
Grojean, M. W., Resick, C. J., Dickson, M. W., & Smith, D. B. (2004). Leaders, values, and organizational climate: Examining leadership strategies for establishing an organizational climate regarding ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 55(3), 223-241.
Herndon Jr, N. C., Ferrell, O. C., LeClair, D. Y., & Ferrell, L. K. (1999). Relationship of individual moral values and perceived ethical climate to satisfaction, commitment, and turnover in a sales organization. Research in Marketing, 15, 25-48.
Hofstede, G. H. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage.
Human Development Report 2011 . (2012) Guatemala: HDI values and rank changes in the 2011 Human Development Report. New York
Johnson, C. E. (2009). Meeting the ethical challenges of leadership: Casting light or shadow. Sage.
Kuo, S.W. (1997). In Economic policies; The Taiwan experience, 1945-1995. Taipei; Hwa-Tai.
Loayssa Lara, J. R., Ruiz Moral, R., & Garcia Campayo, J. (2009). ¿ Por que algunos medicos se vuelven poco eticos (¿ malvados?) con sus pacientes?.Atencion primaria, 41(11), 646-649.
Long, B. S., & Driscoll, C. (2008). Codes of ethics and the pursuit of organizational legitimacy: Theoretical and empirical contributions. Journal of Business Ethics, 77(2), 173-189.
Lopez, Y. P., Rechner, P. L., & Olson-Buchanan, J. B. (2005). Shaping ethical perceptions: An empirical assessment of the influence of business education, culture, and demographic factors. Journal of business ethics, 60(4), 341-358.
Martin, K. D., & Cullen, J. B. (2006). Continuities and extensions of ethical climate theory: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Business Ethics, 69(2), 175-194.
Mayer, D. M., Kuenzi, M., & Greenbaum, R. L. (2009). Making ethical climate a mainstream management topic. Psychological Perspectives on Ethical Behavior and Decision Making. Charotte Nc: Information Age Publishing, 181-213.
Merino, C. D. V., Gonzalez, G. B., & Zamora, D. T. (2013). La Etica como generadora de confianza y crecimiento en tiempos de crisis en las pyme del sector tic de Madrid. Revista de Estudios Empresariales. Segunda Epoca, (1).
Ministry Of Economic Affairs, R.O.C –Foreword. (2013, December 3). 經濟部 (Ministry Of Economic Affairs R.O.C) 全球資訊網http://www.moeasmea.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=72&CtNode=263&mp=2
Mulki, J. P., Jaramillo, F., & Locander, W. B. (2006). Effects of ethical climate and supervisory trust on salesperson's job attitudes and intentions to quit.Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 26(1), 20-26.
Mulki, J. P., Jaramillo, J. F., & Locander, W. B. (2009). Critical role of leadership on ethical climate and salesperson behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(2), 125-141.
Neubaum, D., Mitchell, M., & Schminke, M. (2004). Firm newness, entrepreneurial orientation, and ethical climate. Journal of Business Ethics,52(4), 335-347.
Nikkhah Farkhani, Z., Armoun, Z., & Javidnia, M. (2013). The impact of ethical climate on turnover intentions and organizational performance. Management Science Letters, 3(6).
Okpara, J. O., & Wynn, P. (2008). The impact of ethical climate on job satisfaction, and commitment in Nigeria: Implications for management development. Journal of Management Development, 27(9), 935-950.
Parboteeah, K. P., Cullen, J. B., Victor, B., & Sakano, T. (2005). National culture and ethical climates: A comparison of US and Japanese accounting firms. MIR: Management International Review, 459-481.
Parboteeah, K. P., Cullen, J. B., Victor, B., & Sakano, T. (2005). National culture and ethical climates: A comparison of US and Japanese accounting firms. MIR: Management International Review, 459-481.
Perez, F. G. (2009). Educar para la participacion ciudadana. Un reto para la escuela del siglo XXI. Investigacion en la Escuela, 12(68), 5.
PEREZ, S. (2013, March 8) Prensa Libre ; Opinion, Pais rico, gente pobre. Retrived from http://www.prensalibre.com/opinion/Pais-rico-gente-pobre_0_878912122.html
Puga Villarreal, J., & Martinez Cerna, L. (2008). Competencias directivas en escenarios globales. Estudios Gerenciales, 24(109), 87-103.
Schwepker, C. H., & Hartline, M. D. (2005). Managing the ethical climate of customer-contact service employees. Journal of Service Research, 7(4), 377-397.
Shacklock, A. H., Manning, M., & Hort, L. (2011). Dimensions and types of ethical climate within public sector human resource management. Journal of New Business Ideas & Trends, 9(1), 51-66.
Shan, S., & Shih, H. C. (2012, October 3). US grants Taiwan visa-waiver status.Taipei Times. Retrieved from http://www.taipeitimes.com/news/front/archives/2012/10/03/2003544238
Stevens, B. (2008). Corporate ethical codes: Effective instruments for influencing behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 601-609.
Weeks, W. A., Loe, T. W., Chonko, L. B., Martinez, C. R., & Wakefield, K. (2006). Cognitive moral development and the impact of perceived organizational ethical climate on the search for sales force excellence: A cross-cultural study.Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 26(2), 205-217.
World Bank , (2011) . Crime and Violence in central America ; A development Challenge . Washington , DC ; Serrano-Berthet, R., & Lopez, H.
Yang, Y. ( 2012, July 13) Systemic corruption must be fixed. Taipei Times [Taiwan] p.8. Retrived from http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2012/07/13/2003537602
Yener, M., Yaldıran, M., & Ergun, S. (2012). The Effect of Ethical Climate on Work Engagement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 724-733.
Yu, J. & Pan, J. (2013, November 21) Drug residues in 70% of milk. Taipei Times [Taiwan], p.3. Retrived from http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2013/11/21/2003577368
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2019-07-02公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2019-07-02起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信