淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


下載電子全文限經由淡江IP使用) 
系統識別號 U0002-2506201415194600
中文論文名稱 開放民主:巴西和開放政府夥伴關係
英文論文名稱 Opening Democracy: Brazil in the Open Government Partnership
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 國際事務與戰略研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of International Affairs and Strategic Studies
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 白立群
研究生英文姓名 Emiliano Diogenes Abreu
學號 601330300
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2014-06-04
論文頁數 108頁
口試委員 指導教授-李大中
委員-李大中
委員-翁明賢
委員-曾怡碩
中文關鍵字 開放政府  透明性  參與度  開放政府參與度  民主 
英文關鍵字 OPEN GOVERNMENT  TRANSPARENCY  PARTICIPATION  OPEN GOVERNMENT PARTNERSHIP  DEMOCRACY 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學政治學
學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 從2011 年開始,各個國家組合成的開放政府夥伴關係主要著重于透過公開政府檔案來提高資訊透明度、問責性和參與程度並防止腐敗.各個國家獨特的特色以及對各國代表提及的內容不同的理解方式對於如此年輕發展中的國家的繁榮有重要性.正在發展中的開放政府夥伴關係結構反映出這些國家的互動.作為開放政府夥伴關係第一聯合主席的其中之一,巴西在這個組織裡看到了發展在拉丁美洲領導地位的機會.這份論文簡要地描述巴西在發展中開放政府夥伴關係的表現以及和其他共同建造政府夥伴關係的七個國家之比較.
英文摘要 Launched in 2011, the Open Government Partnership is a growing association of countries aimed at enhancing transparency, accountability and participation levels while curbing corruption through making public government data available to the general public. Due to it’s participants’ unique features, understanding the lexical content of what every actor brings to the table can be vital for the prosperity of such a young and developing community. After all, the Open Government paradigmatic structure in the making was, is and will be a reflection of how these countries interact. As one of the first co-chairs of the Open Government Partnership, Brazil sees in the organization another opportunity to develop its leadership in Latin America. This work is a description, however brief, of what constitutes the Brazilian agency in the OGP scenario, as contrasted with outlines of the seven other founding nations’ characters.
論文目次 LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES...…………………...…………………...………..VII

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS……………………………………….................................X

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION………………………….…………………………….1
1.1 History of Open Government Data…………..…………………….....1
1.2 History of the Open Government Partnership…….…….………7
1.3 Research Details…………………………………….……………………..10
1.4 Literature Review……………………………….………………………...18

CHAPTER 2 – BRAZIL AND THE OPEN GOVERNMENT PARTHERSHIP………………………….…………………………………………………24
2.1 Pre-Open Government Partnership…………...………..………….24
2.2 Within the Open Government Partnership………….………….32
2.3 Commitment Analysis…………………………….……………………..34
2.4 The Second Action Plan……………………………..…………………..45
2.5 Evolution of the Policymaking Process……………….…….……48

CHAPTER 3 – THE REMAINING OGP FOUNDING MEMBERS……..……52
3.1 Overview of Action Plans 1 and 2………………....………………..53 Indonesia..…………………………………...……………………………53
Mexico……………………………...………………………………...........57
Norway.…………………………………...……………………………….60
Philippines…………………………...…………………………..............64
South Africa………………………………………....…….……………..67
United Kingdom…………………………………..…………………….69
United States…………………………………………..…………………72

CHAPTER 4 – SEMANTIC ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION……..……..…….76
4.1 Collective Results………………….………………………………………77
4.2 Country Results…………………………….………………………………80
Corruption Control and Government Accountability…...82
Private Sector Accountability……………..………………………84
Fostering Public Participation…………….........………………..85
Open Data Macro-Policy and Innovation…………….....……85
Transparency and Access to Information………….……......86

CONCLUSION………………….…………………………………………………………...88

REFERENCES……………………………………….……………………………………...92

ANNEXES…………………………………………………..………………………………102

List of Tables and Figures

International Treaties of which Brazil is signatory that regard the access to information as a human right 42

Dominance of each code in relation to all of the coded text 90

Dominance of each code in relation to all of the coded text in Action Plan 1 / Action Plan 2 by country 93

Requests for Information by theme – top ten (06/2012-02/2014) 48


Requests for Information by answer (06/2012-02/2014) 49

Federal administration public employees headcount, compared to the number of handbooks on access to information distributed and the number of attendees to the online course (thousands) 50


Denomination of challenges related to the commitments adopted by Brazil, according to its first OGP Action Plan 52

Denomination of challenges related to the commitments adopted by Brazil, according to its first OGP Independent Reporting Mechanism 53

Comparison of commitments between the first and second Action Plans from Brazil, by challenge 58

The two fronts of policy making for Open Data in Brazil 60
Radar Chart of the Brazil First and Second Action Plans according to the three-axis approach. 62

Radar Chart of the Indonesia First and Second Action Plans according to the three-axis approach 67

Radar Chart of the Mexico First and Second Action Plans according to the three-axis approach 71

Radar Chart of the Norway First and Second Action Plans according to the three-axis approach 75

Radar Chart of the Philippines First and Second Action Plans according to the three-axis approach 78

Radar Chart of the South African First and Second Action Plans according to the three-axis approach 81

Radar Chart of the United Kingdom First and Second Action Plans according to the three-axis approach 84

Radar Chart of the United States First and Second Action Plans according to the three-axis approach 87

Share of each code as displayed in the countries’ First OGP Action Plan 94

Share of each code as displayed in the countries’ Second OGP Action Plan 95


參考文獻 Books

Beckett, Julia and Koenig, Heidi O., edit., Government Operations and Administrative Law (New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2005).

Borgman, Christine, From Gutemberg to the global information infrastructure: access to information in the networked world (Boston: MIT Press, 2000), 220-242.

Brazil. Constituicao (1988). Constituicao da Republica Federativa do Brasil [Constitution (1988). Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil] (Sao Paulo: Atlas, 2000), 16 ed.

Coggiola, Osvaldo. Governos militares na America Latina. / Military Governments in Latin America (Sao Paulo: Editora Contexto, 2001).

Henry, Christopher L., edit., Freedom of Information Act (New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2003).

Klein, Naomi, Shock Doctrine: the Rise of Disaster Capitalism. (New York: Picador, 2008), 135-170.

Kotscho, Ricardo. Explode Um Novo Brasil: Diario da Campanha das Diretas / A New Brazil Explodes: Journal of the “Diretas” Campaign (Sao Paulo: Editora Brasiliense, 1984), 70-81.

Lathrop, Daniel and Ruma, Laurel, eds., Open Government (California: O’Reilly Media Inc., 2010).

Mansell, Robin, Power, Media Culture and New Media (London: LSE Research Online – 2009).

Noveck, Beth Simone, Wiki Government: How Technology Can Make Government Better, Democracy Stronger, and Citizens More Powerful (Washington: Brookings Institution Press – 2009).

Palmer, Laurie, State of the World: e-Government Implementation (New Jersey: Faulkner Information Services – 2002).

Tauberer, Joshua, Open Government Data (Amazon Digital Services Inc.), 50-55. http://opengovdata.io/2012-02/page/4/brief-legal-history-open-government-data.

Whimmer, Maria A., ed., Electronic Government, 9th International Conference (Germany: International Federation for Information Processing, 2010).



Scholarly Articles


Bertot, John, Jeager, Paul and Grimes, Justin, “Using ICTs to create a culture of transparency: E-government and social media as openness and anti-corruption tools for societies”, Government Information Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 3 (Science Direct - 2010) 265-270.

Buse, Dietrich, “Semantic Strategies as a means of Politics: Linguistic Approaches to the analysis of ‘Semantic Struggles’”, In: Pertti Ahonen (ed.), Tracing the Semiotic Boundaries of Politics (Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1993) S. 121 - 128.

Clarke, Amanda and Francoli, Mary, “What’s in a Name? A Comparison of ‘Open Government’ Definitions Across Seven Open Government Partnership Members”, paper presented and the Canadian Political Science Association Annual Conference (Victoria, British Columbia – 2013).

Coronel, Sheila S., “Measuring Openness: A Survey of Transparency Ratings and the Prospects for a Global Index”, The Open Society Foundations, Right to Information Fund (2012), available online at: http://www.freedominfo.org/2012/10/measuring-openness-a-survey-of-transparency-ratings-and-the-prospects-for-a-global-index/, access: 10/05/2013.

Coutinho, Elvis. O voto secreto no congresso nacional brasileiro: O recall como instrumento de fiscalizacao popular / The secret voting in the the Brazilian national congress: the recall as an instrument of popular oversight (Salvador: UNYAHNA – IESUS, 2010).

Davies, Tim G. and Bawa, Zainab Ashraf, “The Promises and Perils of Open Government Data (OGD)”, The Journal of Community Informatics, vol. 8, no. 2 (2012), available online at: http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/929/955, access: 10/09/2013.
Feinberg, Lotte E., “FOIA, federal information policy, and information availability in a post-9/11 world”, Government Information Quarterly, vol. 21, no. 4 (Science Direct – 2004) 440-442.

Drew, Paul and Sorojnen, Marja-Leena, “Institutional Dialogue”, In: Teun A. Van Dijk (ed.), Discourse as Social Interaction (London: SAGE Publications), Vol. 2, 92-118.

Eyob, Ephrem. “E-government: breaking the frontiers of inefficiencies in the public sector”. In: Electronic government, an interactive journal (Interscience Publishers, May 2004), n. 1, vol 1, 107-121.

Flemes, Daniel, “Brasil in the BRIC initiative: soft balancing in the shifting world order?”, In: Revista Brasileira de Politica Internacional (Brasilia: IBRI, 2010), Volume 53, n. 1.

Fung, Archel and Weil, David. 2010. “Open Government and Open Society”, in Open Government, edited by Daniel Lathrop and Laurel Ruma (California: O’Reilly Media Inc., 2010), 105-126.

Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon and Pardo, Thereza A., “E-Government Success Factors: Mapping Practical Tools for Theoretical Foundations”, in Government Information Quarterly, no. 22 (2005), 187-190.

Gronlund, Acke, “Ten Years of E-Government: The ‘End of History’ and New Beginning”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Switzerland: Springer International Publishing - 2012).

Gurstein, Michael, “Open Data: Empowering the Empowered or Effective Data Use for Everyone?”, in First Monday, vol. 16, no. 2 (2011).

Harstuk, Martin and Chamberlin, Bill, “The Freedom of Information Act 1966–2006: A Retrospective on the Rise of Privacy Protection Over the Public Interest in Knowing What the Government's Up To”, Communication Law and Policy, vol. 11, no. 4 (Routledge, 2010), 515-520.

Huijboom, Noor and Broeck, Tijs Van Den, “Open Data: an International Comparison of Strategies”, European Journal of ePractice”, no. 12, March/April 2011, available online at: http://www.epractice.eu/files/European%20Journal%20epractice%20Volume%2012_1.pdf ,access: 10/13/2013.

Janssen, Katleen, “Open Government Data and Right to Information: Opportunities and Obstacles”, The Journal of Community Informatics 8, no. 2 (2012).

Jouleva, Gergana, “Measuring Transparency: Is a global Index Possible and Necessary?”, in Access to Information Programme, available online at http://www.aip-bg.org/en/news/Measuring_Transparency_Is_a_Global_Index_Possible_and_Necess/20121220001079/ (2012), access: 10/07/2013.

Manninen, Juha, “Anders Chydenius and the Origins of the World’s First Freedom of Information Act”, The World’s First Freedom of Information Act: Anders Chydenius’Legacy Today (Kokkola: Anders Chydenius Foundation – 2006) 18-22.

DaMatta, Roberto, “Pesquisa diagnostico sobre valores, conhecimento e cultura de acesso a informacao Publica no poder executive federal brasileiro” [Diagnostic survey on values, knowledge and culture of access to public information within the Brazilian federal government] (Brasilia: CGU, december, 2011).

McDermott, Patrice, “Building Open Government”. In: Government Information Quarterly (Washington DC: Elsevier, 2010), n. 27, 401-413.

McGinnes, Simon and Elandy, Kasturi, “Unintended Behavioral Consequences of Publishing Performance Data: Is More Always Better?”, in The Journal of Community Informatics, vol. 8, no. 2 (2012).

Ober, Josiah, “What the Ancient Greeks Can Tell Us About Democracy”, Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in the Classics (September 2007).

Piana, Ricardo, “Open gov. Que hay de Nuevo, Viejo?” [Open Gov. What’s new, oldie?], In: Democracia digital e governo eletronico, (2013), n. 8, 313-325.

Swilling, Mark & Russell, Bev. "The Size and Scope of the Non-profit Sector in South Africa." Graduate School of Public and Development Management, University of the Witwatersrand, Centre for Civil Society Studies (Johns Hopkins University Institute for Policy Studies, 2002).

Vaz, Jose, Ribeiro, Manuella & Matheus, Ricardo, “Dados governamentais abertos e seus impactos sobre os conceitos e praticas de transparencia no Brasil” [Open government data and its impacts on the concepts and practices of transparency in Brazil]. In: Democracia e Interfaces Digitais para a Participacao Publica (UFBA - 2010), Vol. 9.

Ubaldi, Barbara. “Open Government Data: Towards Empirical Analysis of Open Government Data Initiatives”, OECD Working Papers on Public Governance (OECD Publishing ,2013), No. 22.

Yu, Harlan, “Designing Software to Shape Open Government Policy” (PhD diss., Princeton University, 2012).

Yu, Harlan and Robinson, David, “The New Ambiguity of Open Government”, UCLA Law Review, no. 59 (2012).

Zanetti, Augusto, “O novo papel do pais no cenario das relacoes internacionais” / “The country’s new role in the international relations scenario”, In: Jornal Unesp (Sao Paulo, UNESP, 2010), XXII, n. 252.




Electronic Sources

Angwin, Julia and Valentino-Devries, Jennifer, “New Tracking Frontier: Your License Plates”, The Wall Street Journal (September 29, 2012), available at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10000872396390443995604578004723603576296.html, access: 04/03/2013.

Berners-Lee, Tim, “Putting government Data Online”, W3C Design Issues, available online at: http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/GovData.html, access: 10/10/2013.

Executive Office of the President - USA, “Memorandum for the heads of executive departments and agencies – open government directive” (Washington DC, December, 2009), available online at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/memoranda_2010/m10-06.pdf. Access: 04/20/2014.

Global Integrity, The Global Integrity Report. Available at: http://www.globalintegrity.org/report, access: 04/02/2013.

Gronlund, Acke, “Introducing eGov: History, Definitions and Issues”, Communications of the Association for Information Systems, vol 15 (2004) 713-720. http://www.cips.org.in/public-sector-systems-government-innovations/documents/Introducing_e_governance.pdf

InnovaGestao. “A gestao documental no Segundo plano de acao brasileiro da parceria para governo aberto” [document management policy within Brazil’s second action plan for the open government partnership] (May, 2013), available online at: http://www.innovagestao.com.br/2013/05/a-gestao-documental-no-2o-plano-de-acao-brasileiro-da-parceria-para-governo-aberto-ogp/, access: 03/10/2014.

Herzberg, Benjamin. “How an open private sector can contribute to the OGP – and how open data helps its bottom line” (March 25th, 2014), available online at: http://www.opengovpartnership.org/blog/benjamin-herzberg/2014/03/25/how-open-private-sector-can-contribute-ogp-and-how-open-data-helps, access: 04/20/2014.

HM Government, “Putting the Frontline First: Smater Government” (London: Crown – 2009), available online at: http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/cm77/7753/7753.pdf, access: 10/13/2013.

http://data.gov.uk, access: 02/20/2014.

http://www.openthegovernment.org/focus_issues, access: 03/06/2014.

https://opensupplychain.ecodesk.com/, access: 03/09/2014.

McKnight, Ryan, “The Digital Future is What We Make Of It”, in Globla Policy Journal, publication 7th of June, 2013, available online at: http://www.globalpolicyjournal.com/blog/07/06/2013/digital-future-what-we-make-it, access: 10/12/2013.

Michener, Greg. “Threats to broad consultation and participation in Brazil, co-chair of the Open Government Partnership” (02/14/2012), available online at: http://observingbrazil.com/tag/open-government-partnership/#sthash.oj5OsJb6.dpuf, access: 03/10/2014.

Nye, Joseph, “Picking a President”, Democracy Journal, no. 10 (Fall 2008) 19–28, available online at: http://www.democracyjournal.org/10/6640.php?page=all, access: 10/07/2013.

Office of the Comptroller General - Brazil. “Inter-ministerial Committee for Open Government”, available online at: http://www.cgu.gov.br/governoaberto/ciga.html, access: 03/15/2014.

–, Handbook on Access to Information, available online at:
http://www.cgu.gov.br/Publicacoes/CartilhaAcessoaInformacao/CartilhaAcessoaInformacao.pdf, access: 02/26/2014.

–, “Feedback for the Brazilian Second Action Plan” (2013).

Open Government Partnership, Open Government Partnership Declaration (September 2011), available online at: http://www.opengovpartnership.org/sites/www.opengovpartnership.org/files/page_files/OGP_Declaration.pdf, access: 04/01/2013.

–, One Year On: From Commitment To Action, available online at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QvOXMrys6BY, published in 09/26/2012, access:10/10/2013.

–, “Requirements”, available online at: http://www.opengovpartnership.org/how-it-works/requirements, access: 03/15/2013.

–, “Independent Reporting Mechanism Progress Report: Brazil 2011-2013” (Washington, 2014).

–, “Independent Reporting Mechanism Progress Report: Indonesia 2011-2013” (Washington, 2014).

–, “Implementation Report of Open Government Indonesia (2012).

–, “Indonesia Second Action Plan”, available online at: http://www.opengovpartnership.org/country/indonesia/action-plan, access: 03/12/2013.

–, “Independent Reporting Mechanism Progress Report: Mexico 2011-2013” (Washington, 2014).

–, “Mexico Expanded Action Plan” (New York, 2011), available online at: http://www.opengovpartnership.org/sites/default/files/Mexico_Action_Plan.pdf, access: 03/13/2014.

–, “Norway OGP Self Assessment Report” (April, 2013), available online at: http://www.opengovpartnership.org/sites/default/files/Self%20Assessment%20Report%202013_1.pdf, access: 03/15/2014.

–, “Independent Reporting Mechanism Progress Report: Norway 2011-2013” (Washington, 2014).

–, “Norway First OGP Action Plan” (2011).

–, “Independent Reporting Mechanism Progress Report: Philippines 2011-2013” (Washington, 2014).

–, “Philippines First OGP Action Plan” (2011).

–, “South Africa government self-assessment report”, (April, 2013), available online at: http://www.opengovpartnership.org/sites/default/files/OGP%20Final%20Self-Assessment%20Report_April%202013.pdf, access: 02/20/2014.

–, “Independent Reporting Mechanism Progress Report: South Africa 2011-2013” (Washington, 2014).

–, “South Africa second OGP Action Plan” (2013).

–, “Independent Reporting Mechanism Progress Report: United Kingdom 2011-2013” (Washington, 2014).

–, “Independent Reporting Mechanism Progress Report: USA 2011-2013” (Washington, 2014).

Open Government Partnership. “Government self-assessment report for the United States of America” (March, 2013), available online at: http://www.opengovpartnership.org/sites/default/files/ogp_selfassessment_march2013_0.pdf, access: 04/10/2014.

Orzag, Peter R., “Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies” (The White House – 2009), available online at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/open/documents/open-government-directive, access: 10/13/2013.

Right to Info Organization, “Good Law and Governance Report” (January 2012), available at: http://right2info.org/access-to-information-laws/access-to-information-laws-overview-and-statutory#_ftnref7, access: 04/03/2013.

–, “Access to Information Laws”, available online at: http://www.right2info.org/access-to-information-laws, access: 10/11/2013.

Transparency International, The Corruption Perceptions Index 2012, available online at: http://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/pub/corruption_perceptions_index_2012, access: 04/01/2013.

Transparency Portal, Brazil. “Annual report of information requests and solicitors”, available online at: http://www.acessoainformacao.gov.br/sistema/Relatorios/Anual/RelatorioAnualPedidos.aspx, access: 03/15/2014.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations e-Government Survey 2012: e-Government for the People, available online at: http://unpan3.un.org/egovkb/, access: 05:10/2013.

Van der Vaart, Nout, “Progress reports out on Philippines, UK and Norway” (October, 2013), available online at: http://www.ogphub.org/blog/progress-reports-out-on-philippines-uk-and-norway/, access: 03/15/2014.

World Wide Web Foundation, “Open government data: readiness assessment Indonesia” (June, 2013).
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2014-07-01公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2014-07-01起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信