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中文論文名稱 從美國印地安保留區看印地安原住民族的過去現在與未來
英文論文名稱 Past, Present and Future of American Indians on Indian Reservations in U.S.A.
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 美洲研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Master's Program, Graduate Institute of the Americas
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生中文姓名 劉興民
研究生英文姓名 Hsing-Min Liu
學號 697250115
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2014-06-16
論文頁數 91頁
口試委員 指導教授-紀舜傑
委員-李本京
委員-石忠山
中文關鍵字 印地安人  美洲原住民  印地安保留區  自治  自決  同化  部落政府  紅人的力量  印地安事務局 
英文關鍵字 Indian  American natives  Indian reservations  Self-government  Self-determination  Assimilation  Tribal government  Red Power  BIA 
學科別分類
中文摘要 回顧歷史,當十六世紀當歐洲人陸續來到新大陸,也就是南北美洲時,白人與印地安原住民之間的衝突從未停歇。白人為了奪取土地,不知有多少印地安原住民部落遭到奴役或殺害,他們被迫逃離家園,就連原本的生活方式、宗教信仰、文化制度也幾乎被摧殘殆盡,即便到了美國建國初期,雙方的衝突還是沒能有效的解決,於是保留區的設置遂成了解決白人與印地安原住民族間衝突的一帖藥方,不論從開國元勳華盛頓到歷任總統,美國政府對印地安原住民的安撫在政策上並沒有太大的差異,保留區的設置除了讓印地安原住民各民族保有一塊棲息地外,也期望保留區的自治(Self-government)能讓印地安原住民文化得以保留與傳承,然而時至今日原本立意良善的政策(對白人來說),卻產生了許多的問題,保留區的族人大多仍過著貧窮的生活,留不住年輕人,他們被迫離開保留區出外謀生,而在所謂的文化傳承上更令人存在著許多疑問,眼看著這些原本與大自然共生的溫善民族就快要漸漸被主流文化給吞噬了,保留區的政策難道真的走到一個末路了嗎?
本論文的首章為緒論。闡述本論文的研究動機、研究問題與目的、研究方法及整個研究架構。
第二章為「美國印地安原住民與印地安保留區設立的歷史沿革」。除了簡述印地安原住民自「新大陸時代」以降,所遭受到的欺凌、屠殺、驅趕、掠奪等不平等的待遇外,聯邦政府成立之後,對印地安原住民的安置或同化政策,到保留區設立的原委,到後續的發展與印地安原住民生活的概況,在本章做了詳實地闡述。
第三章為「美國印地安保留區自治與印地安原住民文化傳承」。二次大戰後,許多退役的印地安原住民青年回到保留區,社會地位的提升,公民意識的抬頭,讓保留區的領袖們更勇於追求保留區自治的決心,人權運動在各州如火如荼的開展,也間接促使了保留區各項自治制度的產生。除了政治上的意義之外,保留區母語教育與文化保存更是實質上保留印地安文化的具體行動。然而,保留區的經濟活動面臨的困難,與其所衍生出的社會問題,使得保留區的制度遭遇莫大的挑戰。
第四章為「美國印地安保留區之未來展望」。保留區外的印地安原住民散居在各州,為了討生活,他們離鄉背井來到大城市,在以白人為主流的社會裡,他們是弱勢中的弱勢,面對祖先與白人祖先對立的傷痛歷史,他們對自我的認同有者極大的矛盾,為了追求「美國夢」,他們強迫自己過著白人的生活,然而原本應該在大草原上奔馳的他們,又是何等的失落。在保留區內,青壯年人口嚴重的流失,文化傳承也出現了斷層,地方自治好像只是個空架子,酗酒自殺犯罪等等社會問題層出不窮,眼看保留區制度似乎已經快要分崩離析。印地安原住民的未來究竟該何去何從?值得我們好好研究與深入的探討。
第五章則是結論。天無絕人之路,只要努力,一定會有收穫。雖然保留區制度存在著許多困難的議題等待解決,但保留區的設立仍有其必要與正面的價值與意義。印地安文化的保存絕不是單靠博物館或賣手工藝品店就能維持下去,唯有印地安民族和非印地安人共同來努力,這珍貴的文化與民族才不會淹沒在時代的洪流裡。
英文摘要 Reviewing history, the conflicts between Whites and Indian have never stopped since Europeans came to Americas in 16th century. There were many Indian tribes being slaved or massacred by Whites in order to seize their lands. They were forced to leave their homelands, and their ways of lifestyle, religions, cultures almost were destroyed. The conflicts in between were not solved even at the beginning period of USA built. The reservation system became a solution of easing the conflicts between Whites and Indians. However, there were no big differences on the federal Indian policies for appeasement from founding father, President Washington to the following successors. The purpose of Indian reservation policy not only preserves Indian tribes a place to live but also hope to achieve tribal self-government so their culture could be passed down. Nowadays the policy considered “beneficial” to Indians (from Whites’ point of view) results a lot of problems. The Indians on reservations live in a poor situation, and a lot of youngers have to leave reservation to big cities. Many doubts remain in the preservation of Indian cultures. It seems the peaceful people who living in a harmony with nature are drowning in the mainstream. Is it an end for Indian reservations?
First chapter includes motivation, questions, purposes, method, and structure of my research. Second chapter reviews American history of Indians and Indian reservation. Indians were treated unfairly by European colonists such as massacre, banishment and robbery. The allotment and assimilation were later policies after US federal government settled. Third chapter introduces the evolution history of Indian self-government and Indian culture preservation. Indian social movement and Red Power accelerate the making of tribal self-government. Native language and culture preservation are also important actions on Indian reservations. Fourth chapter indicates several serious problems on Indian reservations, such as poverty, unemployment, etc. Half of Indian populations immigrated to big cities, losing their identity of being an Indian and wandering between traditional and modern society. The system of reservation is collapsing and the future of Indians is obscure. Fifth chapter brings the conclusion of my research. Although many problems waiting to be solved on reservations, the true value and meaning need to work on together by Indians and non-Indians in the future.
論文目次 目 錄
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與目的………………………………...………….1
第二節 文獻探討…………………………………………..………..5
第三節 研究方法與研究架構……………………………………..9

第二章 美國印地安原住民與印地安保留區設立的歷史沿革
第一節 美國印地安原住民與來自歐洲新移民的衝突………....11
第二節 聯邦政府對印地安原住民的政策與保留區的設置……17
第三節 二十世紀美國印地安原住民的生活概況………………23

第三章 美國印地安保留區自治與印地安原住民文化傳承
第一節 二次大戰後美國印地安保留區的自治發展……..……..29
第二節 印地安保留區的母語教育與文化保存……………...….35
第三節 保留區對印地安經濟的正面意義與負面影響…………41

第四章 美國印地安保留區之未來展望
第一節 保留區部落與州及聯邦政府之間的關係………………53
第二節 印地安原住民的族群認同與社會運動…………...…….61
第三節 二十世紀以來美國的印地安政策分析…………..……..67

第五章 結論……………………………………………………………..75
參考書目………………………………………………...……………….82
附錄………………………………………………………………..……..89
參考文獻 參考書目:

壹、中文書目:
內政部譯。《美國印地安民族政策概況及法案輯要》。臺北市 : 內政部,民國七十九年
李恭蔚編譯。《美國史 = Story of our land and people》。臺北市 : 臺灣商務印書館,民國七十五年。
李詮譯,布羅根(Hugh Brogan)著。《美國史 = The Pelican History of the United States》。臺北市 : 陽明管理發展中心,民國七十九年。
林立樹。《美國文化史:民主與平等》。臺北市 : 五南圖書出版公司,民國九十四年。
陳佩周。《變臉中的印地安人 : 美國原住民文化探索》。臺北市 : 麥田出版公司,民國八十八年
陳靜瑜。《美國史》。臺北市 : 三民書局,民國九十六年。
賈士蘅譯,約瑟斐(Alvin M. Josephy, Jr.)著。《美洲印地安人的文化》。臺北市:臺灣商務印書館,民國九十三年。
趙智。《簡明美國史》。臺北市 : 廣達文化事業有限公司, 民國一百零二年。
謝若蘭。《原住民/族與認同政治---美國原住民族群識別與身份認定之歷史沿革》。台北:輔仁大學若望保祿二世和平研究中心,民國九十一年,和平叢書22。



貳、專書論文:
吳培德。《麥諾雷多與那瓦荷保留區 : 美國南北戰爭前後印地安政策轉變之研究(1850-1884) 》。台北:淡江大學美洲研究所博士論文,民國九十九年。
周惠民。《析論美國原住民高等教育的現況與發展》。台北:台灣原住民研究論叢/創刊號,民國九十六年,第 125∼146 頁。
劉天賦。《原住民自治的理想與實現 : 美國七○年代至八○年代印地安原住民政策之評析》。台北:淡江大學美國研究所碩士論文,民國八十七年。

叁、英文書目:
Calloway, Colin G., New Directions in American Indian History, Norman:University of Oklahoma Press, 1988
Deloria, Philip J., Salisbury, Neal, A companion to American Indian History, Malden:Blackwell Publishing, 2004
Hurtado, Albert L., Iverson, Peter, Major Problems in American Indian History, Boston:Houghton Mifflin, 2001
Konstantin, Phil, This Day in North American Indian History, Cambridge:Da Capo Press, 2002
MacMillan, Webster’s New World College Dictionary, Third Edition, Cleveland:A Simon & Schuster MacMillan Company, 1986
Townsend, Camilla, American Indian History:A Documentary Reader, Malden:Wiley-Blackwell, 2009

肆、英文學術期刊:
Archibald, Charles W. Jr., “The Mainstream: Where Indians Drown”, HSMHA Health Reports, Vol. 86, No. 6 (Jun., 1971), pp. 489-494
Barrington, John M., “From Assimilation to Cultural Pluralism: A Comparative Analysis”, Comparative Education, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Mar., 1981), pp. 59-69
Bigart, Robert James, “Indian Culture and Industrialization”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 74, No. 5 (Oct., 1972), pp. 180-1188
Blackmar, Frank Wilson, “The Social Assimilation of the American Indian”, Journal of Educational Sociology, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Sep., 1929), pp. 7-19
Butterfield, Robin A., “The Development and Use of Culturally Appropriate Curriculum for American Indian Students”, Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 61, No. 1, The Transcultural Education of American Indian and Alaska Native Children: Teachers and Students in Transaction (Autumn, 1983), pp. 49-66
Cheadle, Allen, Pearson, David, Wagner, Edward, Psaty, Bruce M., Diehr, Paula, Koepsell, Thomas, “Relationship between Socioeconomic Status, Health Status, and Lifestyle Practices of American Indians: Evidence from a Plains Reservation Population”, Public Health Reports (1974-), Vol. 109, No. 3 (May - Jun., 1994), pp. 405-413
Cockerham, William C., Blevins, Audie L. Jr., “Open School vs. Traditional School: Self-Identification among Native American and White Adolescents”, Sociology of Education, Vol. 49, No. 2 (Apr., 1976), pp. 164-169

Deloria, Vine Jr., “Native Americans: The American Indian Today”, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 454, America as a Multicultural Society (Mar., 1981), pp. 139-149
Dozier, Edward P., Simpson, George E., Yinger, J. Milton, “The Integration of Americans of Indian Descent”, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 311, American Indians and American Life (May, 1957), pp. 158-165
Dyer, Dorothy T., “Human Problems in an Indian Culture”, The Family Coordinator, Vol. 18, No. 4 (Oct., 1969), pp. 322-325
Editors, “The Indian: The Forgotten American”, Harvard Law Review, Vol. 81, No. 8 (Jun., 1968), pp. 1818-1858
Fenton, W. N., “Cultural Stability and Change in American Indian Societies”, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 83, No. 2 (Jul. - Dec., 1953), pp. 169-174
Fishman, Joshua A., “On Reservation Residence and the Survival of Native American Languages”, Current Anthropology, Vol. 22, No. 5 (Oct., 1981), pp. 580-582
Gitter, Robert J., Reagan, Patricia B., “Reservation Wages: An Analysis of the Effects of Reservations on Employment of American Indian Men”, The American Economic Review, Vol. 92, No. 4 (Sep., 2002), pp. 1160-1168
Hadley, J. Nixon, “The Demography of the American Indians”, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 311, American Indians and American Life (May, 1957), pp. 23-30

Hallowell, A. Irving, “The Impact of the American Indian on American Culture”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 59, No. 2 (Apr., 1957), pp. 201-217
Havighurst, Robert J., “Education among American Indians: Individual and Cultural Aspects”, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 311, American Indians and American Life (May, 1957), pp. 105-115
Havighurst, Robert J., “Indian Education Since 1960”, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 436, American Indians Today (Mar., 1978), pp. 13-26
Hoxie, Frederick E., “Thinking like an Indian: Exploring American Indian Views of American History”, Reviews in American History, Vol. 29, No. 1 (Mar., 2001), pp. 1-14
Leap, William L., “American Indian Language Maintenance”, Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 10 (1981), pp. 209-236
Miller, Virginia P., “The Changing Role of the Chief on a California Indian Reservation”, American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 4, Special Issue: The California Indians (Autumn, 1989), pp. 447-455
Owl, Frell M., “Who and What Is an American Indian?”, Ethnohistory, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Summer, 1962), pp. 265-284
Patterson, Palmer, “The Colonial Parallel: A View of Indian History”, Ethnohistory, Vol. 18, No. 1 (Winter, 1971), pp. 1-17
Prucha, Francis Paul, “American Indian Policy in the Twentieth Century”, The Western Historical Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 4-18
Rietz, Robert W., “Leadership, Initiative, and Economic Progress on an American Indian Reservation”, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 2, No. 1 (1953), pp. 60-70
Roos, Philip D., Smith, Dowell H., Langley, Stephen, McDonald, James, “The Impact of the American Indian Movement on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation”, Phylon (1960-), Vol. 41, No. 1 (1st Qtr., 1980), pp. 89-99
Seymour, Flora Warren, “Our Indian Land Policy”, The Journal of Land & Public Utility Economics, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan., 1926), pp. 93-108
Sorkin, Alan L., “The Economic Basis of Indian Life”, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 436, American Indians Today (Mar., 1978), pp. 1-12
Spindler, George D., Spindler, Louise S., “American Indian Personality Types and Their Sociocultural Roots”, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 311, American Indians and American Life (May, 1957), pp. 147-157
Stensland, Anna Lee, “American Indian Culture: Promises, Problems, and Possibilities”, The English Journal, Vol. 60, No. 9 (Dec., 1971), pp. 1195-1200
Stull, Donald D., “Reservation Economic Development in the Era of Self-Determination”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 92, No. 1 (Mar., 1990), pp. 206-210
Sutton, Imre, “Sovereign States and the Changing Definition of the Indian Reservation”, Geographical Review, Vol. 66, No. 3 (Jul., 1976), pp. 281-295
Swisher, Karen Gayton, “Why Indian People Should Be the Ones to Write about Indian Education”, American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1, Special Issue: Writing about (Writing about) American Indians (Winter, 1996), pp. 83-90
Vinje, David L., “Native American Economic Development on Selected Reservations: A Comparative Analysis”, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 55, No. 4 (Oct., 1996), pp. 427-442
Vogt, Evon Z., “The Acculturation of American Indians”, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 311, American Indians and American Life (May, 1957), pp. 137-146
Walch, Michael C., “Terminating the Indian Termination Policy”, Stanford Law Review, Vol. 35, No. 6 (Jul., 1983), pp. 1181-1215
Wax, Murray L., Wax, Rosalie H., “Religion among American Indians”, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 436, American Indians Today (Mar., 1978), pp. 27-39
Wiger, Flo, “American Indian Education: One Indian Teacher's View or New Directions in Indian Education”, Wicazo Sa Review, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Autumn, 1987), pp. 32-35
Wilmer, Franke, “Indian Gaming: Players and Stakes”, Wicazo Sa Review, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Spring, 1997), pp. 89-114
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