淡江大學覺生紀念圖書館 (TKU Library)
進階搜尋


系統識別號 U0002-2506201317471900
中文論文名稱 審計市場集中度與會計師事務所市占率對審計品質之影響:中國區域經濟觀點
英文論文名稱 The Effect of Audit Market Concertration and Audit Market Share on Audit Quality in China: A Local Perspective
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 會計學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Accounting
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 王佳雯
研究生英文姓名 Chia-Wen Wang
學號 600600380
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2013-06-13
論文頁數 93頁
口試委員 指導教授-孔繁華
共同指導教授-王貞靜
委員-丁誌魰
委員-賴丞坡
中文關鍵字 審計市場集中度  審計市場占有率  審計品質  盈餘管理 
英文關鍵字 Audit market concentration  Audit market share  Audit quality  Earnings management 
學科別分類
中文摘要 會計師事務所於審計市場上之表現除了受內部特性─事務所品牌聲譽、從業人員水準、審計產業專家等影響外,亦受外部審計市場結構或審計市場競爭因素所影響(林昭伶,2013)。近年來,中國審計市場事務所家數增加之速度甚於資本市場上市公司家數成長速度,審計市場競爭十分激烈。且中國審計市場結構與其他成熟審計市場亦不同,即便是國際四大會計師事務所,仍無法於中國取得如其他國家一般之高占有率。加上2002年後,監管政策正式規定投資人可以對上市公司及其會計師提出訴訟之情況及程序,會計師事務所面臨之訴訟風險提升。面對審計市場業務競爭激烈且執業環境越趨嚴峻之情況下,會計師究竟有無發揮其功能,有效提升企業盈餘品質,為值得資本市場上投資者及相關決策制定者關切之課題之一。因此,本研究針對2002 年至2011 年中國A 股上市公司及其簽證事務所之數據,以區域觀點探討中國審計市場集中度與審計市場占有率對於審計品質之影響。
實證結果顯示,國際四大之區域集中率與異常應計數間呈現正向關係,與審計品質呈現負向關聯性。此外,國際四大之區域集中率與審計品質之間確實存在關聯性,雖然無法有效抑制客戶盈餘管理之行為,也許受其他事務所特性或其他因素所影響,仍能與審計公費維持正向關聯性。在區域集中度方面,區域集中度與審計品質之間確實具關連性,且對於客戶抑制盈餘管理行為有顯著效果,與審計公費亦呈現正向關係。再者,事務所之區域占有率越高,越能有效抑制異常應計數,且與審計公費呈現正向關係。
研究結果能補充審計市場結構與審計品質等文獻之不足,並提供日後此類研究之參考與比較,亦能為中國監管機關制定決策時提供參考方向。
英文摘要 The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of audit market concentration and audit market share on audit quality from a local perspective. Prior studies have often measured audit market concentration from a national perspective. However, audit markets are local. Local office is the decision-making unit with respect to contracting with the client, administering the audit, and issuing the audit report. Thus, this study focuses on the relationships between regional market concentration, audit market share, and audit quality. For reasons of socioeconomic conditions and regional characteristics, audit market shares in China are associated with audit firms’ political connections. Therefore, the emerging market in China offer an ideal setting in which to study this topic. Based on the data for firms listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges from 2002 to 2011, the empirical results show that market concnetraion is associated with audit quality. The higher regional audit market concentration, which is measured by assets and audit fee of the audit firm, the greater the audit quality. Moreover, higher the regional concentration ratio of Big4 are negatively associated with audit quality. Furthermore, the results also show a positive relationships between regional audit market share and qudit quality.The finding from this study will contribute to the extant literature and provide a basis of reference for government institutes in future formulation of policy.
論文目次 第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 5
第三節 研究流程 6
第四節 論文架構 7
第貳章 文獻探討 8
第一節 審計品質 8
第二節 中國審計市場 17
第三節 審計市場集中度與審計品質 19
第參章 研究方法 24
第一節 資料來源與樣本選取 24
第二節 變數衡量 25
第三節 實證模型 33
第肆章 實證結果 39
第一節 敘述性統計與相關係數分析 39
第二節 迴歸結果分析 49
第三節 額外測試 63
第伍章 結論 76
第一節 研究結論 76
第二節 研究貢獻與管理意涵 77
第三節 研究限制與建議 78
參考文獻 79
【中文文獻】 79
【英文文獻】 80

圖目錄
圖1- 1會計師事務所對上市公司數之比例 2
圖1- 2 研究流程圖 6
圖4- 1國際四大區域市場集中率與區域審計市場集中度曲線圖 40
圖4- 2中國審計市場區域占有率曲線圖 41

表目錄
表3- 1 樣本篩選過程 25
表4- 1國際四大區域市場集中率與區域審計市場集中度敘述性統計 40
表4- 2區域審計市場占有率敘述性統計 41
表4- 3應變數與控制變數之敘述性統計表 42
表4- 4 Pearson相關係數表:以異常應計數為審計品質代理變數 44
表4- 5 Pearson相關係數表:以審計公費為審計品質代理變數 45
表4- 6 Pearson相關係數表:低集中度樣本下,以異常應計數為審計品質 代理變數 46
表4- 7 Pearson相關係數表:低集中度樣本下,以審計公費為審計品質代 理變數 47
表4- 8 假說一迴歸結果:以應計項目為審計品質代理變數 50
表4- 9 假說一迴歸結果:以審計公費為審計品質代理變數 55
表4- 10假說二迴歸結果:以應計項目為審計品質代理變數 58
表4- 11假說二迴歸結果:以審計公費為審計品質代理變數 62
表4- 12穩定測試:以達成盈餘門檻為應變數 65
表4- 13穩定測試:以審計意見為應變數 66
表4- 14穩定測試:以查核家數衡量自變數 68
表4- 15穩定測試:以十大事務所衡量集中率 71
表4- 16穩定測試:以10%定義低集中度 72
參考文獻 【中文文獻】
王振林,2002,政府規範、審計服務的供求與審計收費─中國上市公司的證據,上海財經大學會計學系博士論文。
吳文峰、吳沖鋒與劉曉薇,2008,中國民營上市公司高管的政府背景與公司價值,經濟研究,第7 期:130- 141。
吳溪,2001,我國證券審計市場的集中度與註冊會計師獨立性,中國註冊會計師(9月):14- 16。
李建然、陳政芳與李啟華,2003,董監事持股集中度與會計師獨立性-對會計師出具繼續經營疑慮查核意見之影響,當代會計,第 4 卷第 2 期:191- 209。
官月缎與陳麗雯,2007,中國財務報導穩健性實證分析,會計與公司治理,第四卷,第二期:81-104。
林昭伶,2013,以區域觀點為基礎探討我國審計市場競爭對會計師產業績效之影響,會計評論,第56期:1- 38。
林嬋娟與林孝倫,2009,會計師事務所規模、品牌與競爭程度對審計公費之影響:中國之實證,會計評論,第49 期:35-72。
夏冬林與林震昃,我國審計市場的競爭狀況分析,會計研究,2003(3):40—46。
高妮瑋,2011,中國會計師行業特色,貨幣觀測與信用評等2011年3月。
高妮瑋,2012,兩岸審計市場比較,貨幣觀測與信用評等,2012年3月。
高淑琦,2005,會計師事務所品牌聲譽、產業專業化以及客戶重要性對財務報表品質之影響:中國審計市場之研究,國立政治大學碩士班論文。
張文瀞與吳幸螢,2005,品牌聲譽、產業專業化與審計人員市場佔有率之關連性:取消審計公費下限影響分析,會計評論,第40期:91- 118。
戚務君、吳佳瑋,2011,中國會計師輪換制度的介紹以及對審計品質的影響,貨幣觀測與信用評等2011年9月。
戚務君、吳佳瑋,2011,脫鈎改制對中國審計品質的影響,貨幣觀測與信用評等,2011年7月。

許漢友與楊政,2008,中國審計市場高集中度的理論解釋與現實分析,審計與經濟研究,第23卷第5期:25- 28。
陳豔萍與楊淑娥,2010,我國註冊會計師審計市場集中度與競爭態勢分析,審計與經濟研究,第25卷第3期:39- 45。
彭啟發與路露,2012, 審計市場集中度對審計定價的影響研究,財會月刊,第 5 期第609期:68-70。
葉向陽與盛軍鋒,2003,論我國會計師事務所組織形式選擇,北京工商大學學報(社會科學版),第18卷第4期:43- 45。
廖秀梅與戚務君,2010,首年會計師輪調的審計品質,2010會計理論與實務研討會論文集,2010年12月:1285- 1510。
劉明輝、李黎與張羽,2003,我國審計市場集中度與審計質量關係的實證分析,會計研究,2003年7月:37- 41。
劉嘉雯與王泰昌,2008,會計師任期與審計品質之關聯性研究,管理評論,27卷4期:1- 28
劉鋒與林斌,2000,會計師事務所脫鈎與政府選擇:一種解釋,會計研究,第2期:9- 15。
樊綱、王小魯與朱矬P,2011,中國市場化指數—各地區市場化相對進程2011年報告,北京:經濟科學出版社。
賴巧雰,2006,會計師產業專精度與盈餘品質關聯性之研究-以中國大陸為例,國立政治大學碩士班論文。
【英文文獻】
Aharony, J., J. C. Lee, W. Jevons, and T. J. Wong. 2000. Financial packaging of IPO firms in China. Journal of Accounting Research 38: 103- 126.
Ahmed, A. S., S. Duellman, and A. M. Abdel-Meguid. 2006. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act,auditor independence and accounting accruals: An empirical analysis. Workingpaper, Texas A&M University, Binghamton University, SUNY, and Syracuse University.
Anderson, T. and D. Zeghal. 1994. The pricing of audit services: Further evidence from the Canadian market. Accounting and Business Research 24 (95): 195- 207.
Anthony, J. H. and K. Ramesh, 1992. Association between accounting performance measures and stock prices: A test of the life cycle hypothesis. Journal of Accounting and Economics 15(2-3): 203- 227.
Arrunada, B. and C. Paz-Ares. 1997. Mandatory Rotation of Company Auditors: A Critical Examination. International Review of Law and Economic 17: 31- 61.
Ashbaugh, H., R. LaFond, and B.W. Mayhew. 2003. Do non-audit services compromise auditor independence? Further evidence. The Accounting Review 78(3): 611- 639.
Bain, J. S. 1959. Industrial oganization. New York : Wiley
Bain, J.S. 1956. Barriers to new competition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Balsam, S., J. Krishnan, and J. Yang. 2003. Auditor industry specialization and earnings quality. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory 22(2): 71- 97.
Bandyopadhyay, S. P. and J. L. Kao. 2004. Market structure and audit fees: A local analysis. Contemporary Accounting Research 21 (Fall): 529- 561.
Barth, M. E., W. R. Landsman, and M. Lang. 2008. International Accounting Standards and Accounting Quality. Journal of Accounting Research 46(3): 467- 498.
Bartov, E., D. Givoly, and C. Hayn. 2002. The rewards to meeting or beating earnings expectations. Journal of Accounting and Economics 33 (2): 173- 204.
Bartov, E., F. A. Gul, and J. S. L. Tsui. 2000. Discretionary-accrual models and audit qualifications. Journal of Accounting and Ecomomics 30 (3): 421- 451.
Basu, S. 1997. The conservatism principle and the asymmetric timeliness of earnings. Journal of Accounting and Economics 24, 3- 37.
Beatty, R. 1989. Auditor reputation and the pricing of Initial Public Offerings. The Accounting Review 64(4): 693- 709.
Beck, P. J., T. J. Frecka, and I. Solomon. 1988a. A model of the market for MAS: Knowledge spillovers and auditor-auditee bonding. Journal of Accounting Literature 7: 50- 64.
Becker, C., M. DeFond, J. Jiambalvo, and K. Subramanyam. 1998. The effect of audit quality on earnings management. Contemporary Accounting Research 15(1): 1- 24.


Bedard, J. C., S. F. Biggs, and D. M. Frederick. 1991. The effect of domain-specific experience on evaluation of management representation in analytical procedures. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory 10: 77- 95.
Bedard, J. C., S. F. Biggs, and D. M. Frederick. 1991. The effect of domain-specific experience on evaluation of management representation in analytical procedures. Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory 10: 77- 95.
Behn, B. K., J. V. Carcello, D. R. Hermanson, and R. H. Hermanson.1999. Client satisfaction and big 6 audit fees. Contemporary Accounting Research 16(4): 587- 608.
Beneish, M. D. 1997. Detecting GAAP Violation: Implications for assessing earnings management among firms with extreme financial performance. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy 16(3): 271- 309.
Berkman, H., R. A. Cole, and L. J. Fu. 2009. Expropriation through loan guarantees to related parties: Evidence from China. Journal of Banking and Finance 33(1): 141- 156.
Bonner, S. E., B. L. Lewis, and G. Marchant. 1990. Determinants of auditor expertise. Journal of Accounting Research 28(3): 1- 28.
Boone, J., I. Khurana, and K. Raman. 2012. Audit market concentration and auditor tolerance for earnings management. Contemporary Accounting Research 29(4): 1171- 1203.
Bordy, R. G. and S. A. Moscove. 1998. Mandatory auditor roation. National Public Accounting : 32- 36.
Boubakri, N., J. C. Cosset, and W. Saffar. 2008. Political connections of newly privatized firms. Journal of Corporate Finance 14(5): 654- 673
Butler, M., A. J. Leone, and M. Willenborg. 2003. An empirical analysis of auditor reporting and its association with abnormal accruals. Working paper. University of Rochester.
Cahan, S. F., D. C. Jeter, and V. Naiker. 2011. Are all industry specialist auditors the same? Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory 30(4):191- 222.
Caramanisa, C. and C. Lennox. 2008. Audit effort and earnings management. Journal of Accounting and Economics 45: 116-138
Carcello, J. and A. Nagy. 2004. Audit firm tenure and fraudulent financial reporting. Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory 23(2): 55- 69.

Catanach, A. and P. Walker. 1999. The international debate over mandatory auditor rotation: A conceptual research framework. Journal of International Accounting, Auditing & Taxation 8: 43- 66.
Chan, K. H., K. Lin, and P. L. L. Mo. 2006. A political- economic analysis of auditor reporting and auditor switches. Review of Accounting Studies 11 (1): 21- 48.
Chaney, P. and K. Philipich. 2002. Shredded reputation: The cost of audit failure. Journal of Accounting Research 40(4): 1221- 1245.
Chaney, P., D. C. Jeter, and P. E. Shaw. 2003. The impact on the market for audit services of aggressive competition by auditors. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy 22(6): 487- 516.
Chen, K. C. W. and J. Wang. 2007. Accounting-based regulation in emerging markets: The case of China's seasoned-equity offerings. The International Journal of Accounting 42 (3): 221- 236.
Chen, C. J. P., X. Su, and W. Xi, 2007. Market competitiveness and Big 5 pricing: Evidence from China’s binary market. The International Journal of Auditing 42(1): 1- 24.
Chen, H., J. Z. Chen, G. J. Lobo, and Y. Wang. 2011. Effect of audit quality on earning management and cost of equity capital: evidence from China. Working Paper.
Chen, J. P., A. Shome, and X. Su. 2001. How is audit quality perceived by big 5 and local auditors in China? A preliminary investigation. International Journal of Auditing 5: 157- 175.
Chen, S., S. Y. J. Sun, and D. Wu. 2010. Client importance, institutional improvements, and audit quality in China: An office and individual auditor level analysis. The Accounting Review 85(1): 127- 158.
Chen, X., C. J. Lee, and J. Li. 2008. Government assisted earnings management in China. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy 27 (3): 262- 274.
Chi, W., H. Huang, Y. Liao, and H. Xie. 2009. Mandatory audit-partner rotation, audit quality and market perception: Evidence from Taiwan. Contemporary Accounting Research 26(2): 359- 391.
Chi, W., L. L. Lisic, X. Long, and K. Wang. 2013. Do regulations limiting management influence over auditors improve audit quality? Evidence from China. Journal of Accounting and Public Policyv32(2): 176- 187.
Choi, J. H., C. Kim, J. B. Kim, and Y. Zang. 2010. Audit office size, audit quality, and audit pricing. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory 29(1): 73- 97.
Choi, J. H., J. B. Kim, and Y. Zang. 2009. The asymmetric association between audit quality and abnormal audit fees. Working paper, Seoul National University, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, and Singapore Management University.
Chow, C. W. and S. J. Rice. 1982. Notes: qualified audit opinions and auditor switching. The Accounting Review (April): 326- 335.
Chung, H. and S. Kallapur. 2003. Client importance, non-audit services, and abnormal accruals. The Accounting Review 78(4): 931- 955
Citron, D. and R. Taffler. 1992. The audit report under going concern uncertainties: an empirical analysis. Accounting and Business Research 22: 337- 345.
Cohen, D. and P. Zarowin. 2010. Accrual-based and real earnings management activities around seasoned equity offerings. Journal of Accounting and Economics 50(1): 2- 19.
Craswell, A. 1988. The association between modifed opinions and auditor switches. Accounting and Business Research 19: 23- 31.
Craswell, A. T. and J. R. Francis. 1999. Pricing initial audit engagement: A test of competing theories. The Accounting Review 74(2): 201- 216.
Craswell, A. T., J. R. Francis, and S. L. Taylor. 1995. Auditor Brand Name Reputations and Industry Specializations. Journal of Accounting and Economics 20(3): 297- 322.
Danos, P. and J. W. Eichenseher. 1986. Long-term trends toward seller concentration in the U. S. audit market. The Accounting Review 61 (October): 633- 650.
Daugherty, B., D. Dickins, and J. L. Higgs. 2010. Mandatory Audit Partner Rotation :Partners’ Perceptions of Benefits and Costs and Implications for Future Research ,Working paper, University of Wisconsin.
Davidson, R. A. and D. Neu. 1993. A note on association between audit firm size and audit quality. Contemporary Accounting Research 9(2): 479- 488.
Davison, K., E. C. Robert A. M., Wilson, and E. Mitchael. 2005. The role of prey nutritional status in governing protozoan nitrogen regeneration efficiency. Protist 156: 45–62.
DeAngelo, L. E. 1981. Auditor size and audit quality. Journal of Accounting and Economics 3: 183-199.
Dechow, P., R. Sloan, and A. Sweeny. 1995. Detecting earnings management. Accounting Review 70: 193- 226.

Dechow, P. M. and I. D. Dichev. 2002. The quality of accounting and earnings: The role of accrual estimation errors. The Accounting Review 77: 35- 59.
Dee, C. C., A. Lulseged, and T. Nowlin. 2001. Earnings quality and auditor independence: An examination using non-audit fee data. Working paper. Virginia Commonwealth University.
DeFond, M. L. 1992. The association between changes in client firm agency costs and auditor switching. Auditing: A Journal of Practice and theory 11(1): 16- 31.
DeFond, M. L. and K. R. Subramanyam. 1998. Auditor changes and discretionary accruals. Journal of Accounting and Economics 25(1): 35- 67.
DeFond, M. L. and C. S. Lennox. 2011. The effect of SOX on small auditor exits and audit quality. Journal of Accounting and Economics 52 (June): 21- 40.
Defond, M. L., T. J. Wong, and S. Li. 2000. The impact of improved auditor independence on audit market concentration in China. Journal of Accounting and Economics 28(3): 269- 305.
DeFond, M. and J. Jiambalvo. 1994. Debt covenant violation and manipulation of accruals. Journal of Accounting and Economics 17 (May): 145-176.
DeFond, M., K. Raghunandan, and K. Subramanyam. 2002. Do non-audit service fees impair auditor independence? Evidence from going concern audit opinions. Journal of Accounting Research 40(4): 1247- 1274.
Dopuch, N. and D. Simunic. 1982. Competition in Auditing:An Assessment. Fourth Symposium on Auditing Research, University of Illinois:401-450
Dopuch, N., R. Holthausen, and R. Leftwich. 1987. Predicting audit qualifications with financial and market variables. The Accounting Review 62: 431- 454.
Dopuch, N., R. R. King, and R. Schwartz. 2003. Independence in appearance and in fact: An empirical investigation. Contemporary Accounting Research 20(1): 79-114.
Faccio, M. 2006. Politically connected firms. American Economic Review 96(1): 369- 386.
Fan, G. and X. L. Wang. 2003. NERI index of marketization of China’s Provinces. Economic Science Press.
Fan, J., T. J. Wong, and T. Zhang. 2007. Politically connected CEOs, corporate governance, and post-IPO performance of China’s newly partially privatized firms. Journal of Financial Economics 84(2): 265- 590.
Ferguson, A., J. Francis, and D. Stokes. 2003. The effects of firm-wide and office-level industry expertise on audit pricing. The Accounting Review 78(2): 429- 448.
Ferguson, M. J., G. S. Seow, and D. Young. 2004. Nonaudit Services and Earnings Management: UK Evidence. Contemporary Accounting Research 21(4):813-841.
Firth, M. 1997. The provision of non-audit services by accounting firms to their audit clients. Contemporary Accounting Research 14(2): 1-21.
Firth, M., P. L. L. Mo, and R. M. K. Wong. 2011. Auditors’ organizational form, legal liability and reporting conservatism: Evidence from China. Contemporary Accounting Research, Forthcoming.
Firth, M., O. M. Rui, and X. Wu. 2011 How do various forms of rotation affect audit quality? Evidence from China. Working paper, Lingnan University Chinese University of Hong Kong, Central University of Finance and Economics.
Francis, J. R, E. L. Maydew, and H. C. Sparks. 1999. The role of Big 6 auditors in the credible reporting of accruals. Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory 18(2): 17- 34.
Francis, J. R. 1984. The Effect of Audit Firm Size on Audit Prices: A Study on the Australian Market. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 6, No.2, pp.133-151.
Francis, J. R. 2004. What do we know about audit quality? The British Accounting Review 36 (4): 345-368.
Francis, J. R. and B. Ke. 2006. Disclosure of fees paid to auditors and the market valuation of earnings surprises. Review of Accounting Studies 11(4): 495- 523.
Francis, J. R. and E. R. Wilson. 1988. Auditor changes: A joint test of theory relating to agency costs and auditor differentiation. Accounting Review 63 (4): 663-683.
Francis, J. R. and J. Krishnan. 1999. Accounting accruals and auditor reporting conservatism. Contemporary Accounting Research 16(1): 135- 65.
Francis, J. R. and Simon, D. T. 1987. A test of audit pricing in the small-client segment of the U.S. audit market. The Accounting Review 62(1): 145-157.
Francis, J. R., D. J. Stokes, and D. Anderson. 1999. City markets as a unit of analysis in audit research and the re-examination of big 6 market shares. Abacus 35(June): 185- 206.
Francis, J. R., K. Reichelt and D. Wang. 2005. The pricing of national and city-specific reputations for industry expertise in the U.S. audit market. The Accounting Review 80(1): 113- 136.
Francis, J. R., P. N. Michas, and S. E. Seavey. 2012. Does Audit Market Concentration Harm the Quality of Audited Earnings? Evidence from Audit Markets in 42 Countries. Contemporary Accounting Research, Forthcoming.
Frankel, R. M., M. F. Johnson, and K. K. Nelson. 2002. Auditor independence and earnings quality. The Accounting Review 77 (Supplement): 71- 105.
Ghosh, A. and D. Moon. 2005. Auditor tenure and perceptions of audit quality. The Accounting Review 80: 585-612.
Gilling, D. M., and P. J. Stanton. 1978. Changes in the structure of the auditing profession in Australia. Abacus 14 (June): 66-80.
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Public Accounting Firms: Mandated Study on Consolidation and Competition.
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Audits of Public Companies: Continued Concentration in Audit Market for Large Public Companies Not Call for Immediate Action.
Graham, J., C. Harvey, and S. Rajgopal. 2005. The economic implications of corporate financial reporting. Journal of Accounting and Economics 40 (1-3): 3- 73.
Guay, W. P., S. P. Kothari, and R. L. Watts. 1996. A market-based evaluation of discretionary accruals models. Journal of Accounting Research 34 (Supplement) : 83- 105.
Gul, F. A., and J. Tsui. 1998. A test of the free cash flow and debt monitoring hypotheses: Evidence from audit pricing. Journal of Accounting and Economics 24 (2): 219-237.
Gunny, K. A. 2010. The Relation between Earnings Management Using Real Activities Manipulation and Future Performance: Evidence from Meeting Earnings Benchmarks. Contemporary Accounting Research 27(3): 855- 888.
Healy, P. and T. Lys. 1986. Auditor changes following big eight mergers with non-big eight audit. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy 5: 251-265.
Hirst, D. E. 1994. Auditor sensitivity to earnings management. Contemporary Accounting Research 11 (1-2): 405- 422.
Hogan, C. E. and D.C. Jeter, 1999. Industry Specialization by Auditors.Journal of Practice & Theory (Spring): 1-17.


Jensen, M. C. and W. H. Meckling. 1976. Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure. Harvard University Press. Journal of Financial Economics 3 (4): 305-360.
Jian M., and T. J. Wong. 2010. Propping through related party transactions. Review of Accounting Studies 15(1): 70- 105.
Johnson, P., K. Jamal, and R. Berryman. 1991. Effect of framing on auditor decisions. Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50: 75-105.
Johnson, V. E., I. K. Khurana, and J. K. Reynolds. 2002. Audit-firm tenure and the quality of financial reports. Contemporary Accounting Research 19 (4): 637-660.
Johnson, W. B. and T. Lys, 1990. The Market for Audit Services:Evidence from Voluntary Auditor Changes. Journal of Accounting and Economics 12: 281- 308.
Johnstone, K. M. and J. C. Bedard. 2001. Engagement planning, bid pricing, and client response in the market for initial attest engagements. The Accounting Review 76(2): 199- 220.
Jones, J., 1991. Earnings management during import relief investigations. Journal of Accounting Research 29: 193- 228.
Kallapur, S., S. Sankaraguruswamy, and Y. Zang. 2010 Audit Market Concentration and Audit Quality. Working Paper.
Kim, J. B., R. Chung, and M. Firth. 2003. Auditor conservatism, asymmetric monitoring, and discretionary accrual choices. Contemporary Accounting Research 20: 323- 359.
Kinney, W. 2005a. Twenty-five years of audit deregulation and re-regulation: What does it mean for 2005 and beyond? Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory 24 (Supplement): 89- 109.
Kinney, W. 2005b. The auditor as gatekeeper: A perilous expectation gap. In J. Lorsch,L. Berlowitz, and A. Zelleke, eds., Restoring trust in American business, 99–108. Cambridge,MA: MIT Press.
Kinney, W. R., Z. V. Palmrose, and S. Scholz. 2004. Auditor Independence, Non-Audit Services, and Restatements: Was the U.S. Government Right?. Journal of Accounting Research, 42: 561–588.
Kinney, W. R. and R. D. Martin. 1994. Does Auditing Reduce Bias in Financial Reporting? A Review of Audit-Related Adjustment Studies. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory 13: 149-156.
Knechel, R. 2007. The business risk audit: Origins, obstacles and opportunities. Accounting, Organizations and Society 32 (4-5): 383- 408.
Kothari, S. P., A. Leone, and C. E. Wasley. 2005. Performance matched discretionary accrual measures. Journal of Accounting and Economics 39: 163- 197.
Krishnan, G. 2003. Does big 6 auditor industry expertise constrain earnings management? Accounting Horizons (Supplement): 1-16.
Krishnan, J., J. Krishnan, and R. Stephens. 1996. The simultaneous relation between auditor switching and auditor opinion: an empirical analysis. Accounting and Business Research 26: 224- 236.
Larcker, D. F. and S. A. Richardson. 2004. Fees Paid to Audit Firms, Accrual Choices, and Corporate Governance. Journal of Accounting Research 42(3): 625- 658.
Lee, D. S. 1994. Further Evidence on auditor concentration. International Journal of Accounting 29(3): 234- 250.
Lemon, M., K. Tatum, and S. Turley. 2000. Developments in the audit methodologies of large accounting firms. London: Auditing Practices Board.
Li, R. and H. He. 2000. An analysis of the development and current situation of the civil legal liabilities of CPAs in China. China Accounting and Finance Review 2 (1): 104- 20.
Lin, J. W. and M. I. Hwang. 2010. Audit quality, corporate governance, and earnings management: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Auditing 14 (1): 57- 77.
Lin, Z. J. 2004. Auditor’s responsibility and independence: Evidence from China. Research in Accounting Regulation 17: 167- 190.
Liu, Q. and Z. J. Lu. 2007. Corporate governance and earnings management in the Chinese listed companies: A tunneling perspective, Journal of Corporate Finance 13(5): 881- 906.
Low, L. C., P. H. N. Tan, and H.C. Koh. 1990. The Determination of Audit Fees: An Analysis in the Singapore Context. Journal of Business Finance and Accounting 17(2): 285- 295.
Lys, T. and R. L Watts. 1994. Lawsuit against auditor. Journal of Accounting Research 32: 65-93.
Maijoor, S., W. Buijink, A. V. Witteloostuijn, and M. Zinken. 1995. Long-term concentration in the Dutch audit market: The use of auditor association membership lists in historical research. Abacus 31 (September): 152-177.

Mason, E. 1949. The current state of the monopoly problem in the U.S.. Harvard Law Review 62: 1265- 1285.
McNichols, M. F. 2000. Research design issues in earnings management studies. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy 19: 313- 345.
Minyard, D. H. and R. H. Tabor. 1991. The effect of big eight mergers on auditor concentration. Accounting Horizons 5 (December): 79- 90.
Moizer, P. and S. Turley. 1989. Changes in the U. K. market for audit services. Journal of Business Finance and Accounting 16 (Spring): 41- 53.
Myers, J. N., L. A. Myers, and T. C. Omer. 2003. Exploring the term of the auditor-client relationship and the quality of earnings: A case for mandatory auditor rotation. The Accounting Review 78(3): 779- 799.
Numan W. and M. Willekens. 2012. An empirical test of spatial competition in the audit market. Journal of Accounting & Economics 53(February ): 450 - 465.
Palmrose, Z. V. 1988. An analysis of auditor litigation and audit service quality. The Accounting Review 63 (1): 55-73.
Patatoukas, P. N. 2012. Customer-base concentration: Implications for firm performance and capital markets. The Accounting Review 87 (March): 363-392.
Penno, M. and B. Walther. 1996. The concentration of local markets: A study of accounting, advertising and law. Accounting Horizons 10 (2): 88- 99.
Penrose, E. 1959. The Theory of the Growth of the Firm. New York, NY: Wiley.
Qiu, A. 2004. Audit quality and earnings management: Empirical evidence from China’s stock market. ProQuest Dissertations and These
Quick, R. and M. Sattler. 2011. Das Erfordernis der Umsatzunabhaengigkeit und die Konzentration auf dem deutschen Markt fuer Abschlussprueferleistungen. Zeitschrift fuer Betriebswirtschaft 81(1): 61- 98.
Raghunandan, K. and D. Rama, 1995. Audit Opinion for Companies in Financial Distress: Before and After SAS No. 59. Auditing: A Journal of Practice Theory 14(1): 50-63.
Raynolds, J. K. and J. R. Francis. 2001. Does size matter? The influence of large clients on office-level auditor reporting decisions. Journal of Accounting and Economics 30(4): 375- 400.
Reed, B. J., M. L. Costigan, and L. M. Lovata. 2009. The market's valuation of an auditor's ability to reduce agency costs. Academy of Accounting and Financial Studies Journal 3(1)
Reichelt, K. J. and D. Wang. 2009. National and office-specific measures of auditor industry expertise and effects on audit quality. Journal of Accounting Research 48(3): 647- 86.
Reynolds, J. and J. Francis. 2001. Does size matter? The influence of large clients on office-level auditor reporting decisions. Journal of Accounting and Economics 30(3): 375- 400.
Romanus, R. N., J. J. Maher, and D. M. Fleming. 2008. Auditor industry specialization, auditor changes, and accounting restatements. Accounting Horizons 22(4): 389- 413.
Ruddock, C., S. J. Taylor, and S. L. Taylor. 2006. Nonaudit Services and Earnings Conservatism: Is Auditor Independence Impaired? Contemporary Accounting Research 23(3): 701-746.
Shepherd, G. W. 1997. The Economics of Industrial Organization: Analysis, Markets, Policies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Simon, D. T., S. Teo, and G. Trompeter. 1992. A Comparative Study of the Market for Audit Services in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. International Journal of Accounting 27(2): 234-240
Simunic, D. 1984. Auditing, consulting, and auditor independence. Journal of Accounting Research 22 (2): 679-702.
Simunic, D. A. 1980. The pricing of audit services: Theory and evidence. Journal of Accounting Research 18(1): 161-190.
Simunic, D. A. and M. T. Stein. 1996. The impact of litigation risk on audit pricing: A review of the economics and the evidence. Auditing: A Journal of Prcatice & Theory 15: 119-134.
Sloan, R. G. 1996. Do stock prices fully reflect information in accruals and cash flows about future earnings? The Accounting Review 71: 289- 315.
Solomon, I., M. D. Shields, and O. R. Whittington. 1999. What do industry-specialist auditors know? Journal of Accounting Research 37(1): 191-208.
Srinidhi, B. and F. A. Gul. 2007. The Differential Effects of Auditors' Non-Audit and Audit Fees on Accrual Quality. Contemporary Accounting Research 24: 595- 629.
St. Pierre, K. S. and J. A. Anderson. 1984. An analysis of factors associated with lawsuit against public accountants. The Accounting Review 59(2): 242- 263

Stevens, J. B. 1993. The Economics of Collective Choice. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Sutton, J. 1991. Sunk costs and market structure: price competition, advertising, and the evolution of concentration. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Teoh, S. H. and T. J. Wang. 1993. Perceived auditor quality and the earnings response coefficient. The Accounting Review 68(2): 346- 366.
Thavapalan, S., R. Moroney, and R. Simnett. 2002. The effect of the PricewaterhouseCoopers merger on auditor concentration in Australia: A note. Accounting and Finance 42(June): 153- 167.
Titman, S. and B. Trueman. 1986. Information quality and the valuation of new issues. Journal of Accounting and Economics 8 (2): 159-172.
United States Treasury. 2008. Advisory committee on the auditing profession: Final report, October 6, 2008. Available online at docs/final-report.pdf (accessed February 2010). http://www.treas.gov/offices/domestic-finance/acap/
Velte, P. and M. Stiglbauer. 2012. Audit market concentration and its influence on audit quality. International Business Research 5(11):146-161.
Velury Uma, J. T. Reisch, and D. M. O’Reilly. 2003. Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting 21: 35–48
Vera-Munoz, S. C., L. H. Joanna, and C. W. Chow. 2006. Enhancing knowledge sharing in public accounting firms. Accounting Horizons 20 (June): 133- 155.
Wallace, W. A. 1984. Enhancing Your Relationship with Internal Auditors. The CPA Journal 54(12): 46-51.
Wallman, S. 1996. The future of accounting, part III: Reliability and auditor independence. Accounting Horizons 10 (4): 76- 97.
Wang, Q., T. J. Wong, and L. J. Xia. 2008. State ownership, the institutional environment, and auditor choice: Evidence from China. Journal of Accounting and Economics 46(1): 112- 134.
Watts, R. L. and J. L. Zimmerman. 1983. Agency problems, auditing and the theory of the firm: Some evidence, Journal of Law and Economics 26: 613- 633.
Wen, G. W. 2002. The legal responsibilities of CPAs. Beijing: Enterprise Management Publishing House (in Chinese).
Whisenant, S., S. Srinivasan., and K. Raghunandan. 2003. Evidence on the Joint Determination of Audit and Non-Audit Fees. Journal of Accounting Research, 41(4): 721- 744.
Willingham, J. J. and P. D. Jacobson. 1985. A Research Response to the Dingell Hearings. The Auditor’s Report:1-4
Wootton, C. W., S. D. Tonge, and C. M. Wolk. 1994. Pre and post big 8 mergers: Comparison of auditor concentration. Accounting Horizons 8 (September): 58- 74.
Wrigh, S. and A. Wright. 1997. The effect of industry specialization on hypothesis generation and audit planning decisions. Behavior Research in Accounting (9): 273-294
Xie, H. 2001. The mispricing of abnormal accruals. The Accounting Review 76: 357-373.
Yan, D. W., J. X. Geng, and W. P. Liu. 2001. An empirical study of right issue in chinese listed firms. Accounting Research (in Chinese)
Zerni, M. 2011. Audit partner specialization and audit fees: Some evidence from Sweden. Contemporary Accounting Research 29(1): 312- 340.
Zhang, H. B. 2002. Compensation for losses in China securities market. Guangzhou: Guangdong Economic Publisher (in Chinese).
論文使用權限
  • 同意紙本無償授權給館內讀者為學術之目的重製使用,於2018-06-27公開。
  • 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2018-06-27起公開。


  • 若您有任何疑問,請與我們聯絡!
    圖書館: 請來電 (02)2621-5656 轉 2281 或 來信