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系統識別號 U0002-2506201316344200
中文論文名稱 應用於混合式無線感測網路中區域防線覆蓋之目標物移動追蹤機制
英文論文名稱 Target Tracking Mechanism using Local Barrier Coverage in Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 資訊工程學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生中文姓名 洪振哲
研究生英文姓名 Chen-Che Hung
學號 601410144
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
第二語文別 英文
口試日期 2013-06-18
論文頁數 72頁
口試委員 指導教授-王英宏
委員-陳瑞發
委員-陳振炎
委員-梅興
中文關鍵字 目標物追蹤  防線覆蓋  區域防線覆蓋  無線感測網路 
英文關鍵字 Target Tracking  Barrier Coverage  Local Barrier Coverage  Wireless Sensor Networks 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學資訊工程
中文摘要 在無線感測網路(Wireless Sensor Networks, WSNs)中,一般是由資料收集中心(Sink)及許多的感測器節點(Sensor Nodes)所組成的網路,此網路具有大範圍的環境監視以及無線通訊的特性,其中使用的感測器節點體積小且具備移動、感測事物、資料處理及無線通訊的能力。感測器的佈建及使用上是極其容易,而這些優點相對也帶來了一些限制,感測網路的整體效能以及網路的生命週期都會受到感測器節點的佈建和電量上的限制而有所影響。在無線感測網路的應用中,對於目標物移動追蹤議題中,要如何節省感測器的電量消耗是一個重要的問題,透過醒睡機制可以減少感測器的電量消耗,但若過多節點進入休眠狀態,目標物很容易會移動到休眠狀態的節點,造成目標物遺失,此時重新尋找目標物會造成大成本的電量消耗,所以在省電之餘亦要顧慮到目標物追蹤的準度,是一項極為重要的課題。
本篇論文提出一個應用於混合式無線感測網路中區域防線覆蓋之目標物移動追蹤機制(Target Tracking Mechanism using local barrier coverage in Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks),利用混合式感測網路的架構,採用靜態節點以及移動節點的感測器,透過移動節點去填補網路環境的空洞(Coverage Hole)藉此來建構區域防線覆蓋來提高追蹤的可能性,減少追蹤的遺失率,同時感測器節點透過預測及休眠機制選擇合適位置的節點去做偵測及修補工作,來降低追蹤目標物感測器所消耗的電量,以達到持續追蹤目標物。
英文摘要 Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is composed of sinks and sensor nodes, which can monitor large-scale environment and do wireless communication. The sensor nodes have several advantages, such as low cost, small size, and capability of mobility, and they can do data sensing, date processing and wireless communication. However, the greatest challenge is the constraints of energy. The most critical issue is how to minimize the energy consumption and keep tracking the mobile target in WSNs.
In this paper, we propose a tracking approach for tracking mobile target in hybrid wireless sensor network which consisting of static and mobile node. While static nodes are random distributed in the Field of Interested (FoI) and mobile nodes are moved to fill the coverage hole. We predict the area where the target may cross and construction the local barrier coverage to detect the target. In order to reduce the energy consumption, we wake up the portion of constructed local barrier coverage to tracking the target. The simulation shows the proposed scheme can reduce the energy consumption and missing rate.
論文目次 目錄
目錄 V
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究背景 4
1-2 研究動機與目的 6
1-3 論文架構 8
第二章 相關背景與研究 9
2-1 喚醒機制 9
2-1-1 同步喚醒 9
2-1-2 非同步喚醒 11
2-2 防線覆蓋 13
2-2-1 覆蓋議題 13
2-2-2 防線覆蓋 15
2-3 目標物追蹤 18
2-3-1 網格化架構 18
2-3-2 空洞偵測 19
2-3-3 監測與修補空洞 21
第三章 應用於無線感測網路中區域防線覆蓋之目標物移動追蹤機制 22
3-1 網路環境設定與假設(Network Model and Assumption) 25
3-2 網路網格化架構階段(Griding Phase) 27
3-3 邊界防線覆蓋建構階段(Boundary Barrier Coverage Construct) 30
3-4 目標物追蹤階段 36
3-4-1 初始偵測階段(Initialize Detection) 37
3-4-2 預測階段(Prediction) 39
3-4-3 區域防線建構階段(Local Barrier Coverage Construction) 41
3-4-4 目標物離開與遺失 44
第四章 模擬與分析 46
4-1 模擬環境 47
4-2 模擬結果分析與比較 48
第五章 結論與未來研究方向 53
5-1 結論 53
5-2 未來研究方向 54
參考文獻 55
附錄–中文論文 59
附錄–英文論文 66

圖目錄
圖 1:無線感測網路架構示意圖 2
圖 2:週期式喚醒與隨機式喚醒示意圖 10
圖 3:非同步喚醒示意圖 11
圖 4:全域覆蓋示意圖 13
圖 5:目標覆蓋示意圖 14
圖 6:防線覆蓋示意圖 14
圖 7:2-BARRIER COVERAGE示意圖 15
圖 8:L-LOCAL BARRIER COVERAGE示意圖 16
圖 9:L-LOCAL 2-BARRIER COVERAGE示意圖 17
圖 10:網格化示意圖 19
圖 11:圓形覆蓋示意圖 20
圖 12:空洞偵測示意圖 20
圖 13:監測區域與搜尋範圍示意圖 21
圖 14:目標物移動追蹤機制流程圖 23
圖 15:無線感測網路佈建示意圖 25
圖 16:網路網格化示意圖 27
圖 17:網格劃分與網格編號示意圖 28
圖 18:空洞網格示意圖 31
圖 19:感測網格完全覆蓋示意圖 31
圖 20:邊界網格示意圖 32
圖 21:修復點位置示意圖 33
圖 22:目標物追蹤階段流程圖 36
圖 23:初始偵測示意圖 38
圖 24:預測區域示意圖 40
圖 25:延伸區域防線覆蓋區域示意圖 41
圖 26:兩倍厚度區域防線覆蓋示意圖 42
圖 27:目標物狀態示意圖 44
圖 28:遺失補救喚醒示意圖 45
圖 29:目標物追蹤遺失率比較 48
圖 30:移動感測器總移動距離比較 49
圖 31:喚醒感測器節點數量比較 50
圖 32:總消耗電量比較 51

表目錄
表 1:邊界修復表 34
表 2:DET_MES格式表 37
表 3:目標物資訊表 39
表 4:空洞修復表 43
表 5:網路環境參數設定 47
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[10] P. Gajbhiye and A. Mahajan, '"A survey of architecture and node deployment in Wireless Sensor Network," First International Conference on the Applications of Digital Information and Web Technologies (ICADIWT), pp. 426-430, 2008
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[12] Hnin Yu Shwe, H. Gacanin and F. Adachi, '"Multi-layer WSN with power efficient buffer management policy," IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS), pp. 36-40, 2010.
[13] Dan Li, K.D. Wong, Yu Hen Hu and A.M. Sayeed, '"Detection, classification, and tracking of targets," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 17-29, 2002.
[14] Guiling Wang, Guohong Cao, P. Berman and T.F. La Porta, '"Bidding Protocols for Deploying Mobile Sensors," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 563-576, 2007.
[15] Y.F. Wong, L.H. Ngoh, W.C. Wong and W.K.-. Seah, '"A Combinatorics-Based Wakeup Scheme for Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2007 (WCNC), pp. 3569-3574, 2007.
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