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中文論文名稱 覓市餘音——馬來西亞吉隆坡舊城區都市改造計劃
英文論文名稱 Awakening the Unsung – Proposal of Urban Regeneration in Old Town of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系碩士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 107
學期 1
出版年 108
研究生中文姓名 黃美尹
研究生英文姓名 Mei Yin Wong
學號 605365039
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
口試日期 2019-01-14
論文頁數 128頁
口試委員 指導教授-賴怡成
委員-宋立文
委員-黃奕智
中文關鍵字 都市更新  場所精神  聲音地景  文化與創意產業  舊城區 
英文關鍵字 Urban regeneration  Sense of place  Soundscape  Cultural and creative industry  Old town 
學科別分類 學科別應用科學土木工程及建築
中文摘要 吉隆坡自百餘年前在甲必丹葉亞來和英國殖民政府的治理和管轄下日益發展迅速。然而在都市發展的趨勢下,吉隆坡市中心移向雙峰塔安邦路區域,舊城區逐漸被忽略遺忘。其歷史古蹟一一被拆遷興建高樓,而近年當地的移工文化也逐漸取代了舊有的生活空間與足跡。同時在常年觀察舊城區共享的文化與創意產業下,該論文提議通過文創產業與聲音地景的注入,與相關都市更新策略和設計方針,以活化舊城區。
為達成設計目的,文獻研究集中探討了幾個部分:從都市更新到都市再生、文化與創意產業到都市意像、和場所精神到聲音地景,從中尋找進行設計的方向。筆者通過基地分析尋找當地特質與針對性的都市策略。在深入探討了舊城區的有形與無形特質的過程中,發現當地的鄉音文化、華人社團與會館、和過往的影音產業仍有相當的文化價值卻不被珍視,其相關建築也沒被妥善保存;逐漸沒落成為都市裡的餘音。此外,街道與巷弄之間亦存有曖昧不明的緩衝空間,與當地社區的生活是不可分割的。
都市架構的藍圖設計集中在各個聲音節點的連接性,通過綠色景觀和開放空間,注入相關的活動機能和都市策略,以解決當地現有的議題。接下來重新改造當地的中央藝術坊,打造舊城區聲音與文創產業的中心節點。通過該基地重新連接舊城與河流的關係,喚醒各個聲音節點,讓餘音縈繞回蕩於舊城區……望此論文可提議出新的都市方針,從聲音地景和影音文化中,找出活化舊城區的設計策略。


英文摘要 Kuala Lumpur has always been a developed town under the administration of Chinese Capitan Yap Ah Loy and British colonization since hundred years ago. Nonetheless, along the urban development Kuala Lumpur city center gradually moved to area around Petronas Twin Towers at Jalan Ampang; and the Old Town was getting abandoned. The historical buildings were demolished for high rise project developments; in addition to that incoming immigrant workers phenomenon slowly replaces the past livelihood and spaces. Viewing that the sharing culture as well as local cultural and creative industries are widely potential among the old communities, thus the thesis is aimed to propose design solutions by inserting the local cultural and creative industry as well as highlighting soundscapes to rejuvenate the Old Town.

To achieve design objectives, literature review was carried out to find related directions, from the aspects of urban renewal to urban regeneration, cultural and creative industry to image of the city, and sense of place to soundscape. Site analysis was done to find its uniqueness and suitable design strategies. Throughout further research into these tangible and intangible elements within the site, it is found that the dialects, Chinese clans and associations, and past entertainment industries are valuable cultural assets yet underrated and their associated buildings are unappreciated. Other than that, the relationship of buffer zones between streets and alleys are discovered to be related with the livelihood of the locals.

Design strategies of the urban masterplan focuses on the connection of sound nodes via landscapes and open spaces with related sound programs in addition to resolve the current urban predicaments. The subsequent step is to derive the site of existing Central Market to create the central sound nodes of the Kuala Lumpur Old Town. By connecting the river and old town via the building, we revive the sound nodes and reverberate them through the old town…… This thesis suggests an alternative design proposal for urban regeneration and cultural preservation from the aspect of soundscape and sound elements.
論文目次 Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Design Motivation 1
1.1.1 ‘The Sacrifice of Livelihood’: Intense High Rise Modern Developments 1
1.1.2 ‘Evanescence of the Past’: Over-commercialization and Foreign Culture 2
1.1.3 Lost Sense of Place, Lost of Soundscape 3
1.1.4 Culture of Sharing among Multicultural Diversity 4
1.2 Design Objectives 5
1.3 Design Methodology and Steps 6
2. LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2. 1 From Urban Renewal to Urban Regeneration 7
2.1.1 Beginning of the Urban Renewal: Industrial Revolution 7
2.1.2 Post-mortem on the Death of Modern Cities: Urban Regeneration 16
2. 2 From Cultural and Creative Industries to Image of the City 20
2.2.1 Establishment and Development of Cultural and Creative Industries 20
2.2.2 Cultural and Creative Industry Representing the Image of the City 29
2. 3 From Sense of Place to Soundscape 33
2.3.1 Sense of Place, Genius Loci and Phenomenology 33
2.3.2 The Sensation and Their Soundscape 39
2. 4 Conclusion 42
3. PRECEDENT STUDIES 49
3.1 The Boston Plan 49
3.2 22@Barcelona, the Innovation District 52
3.3 Project Future in Berlin, the Initiative for the Digital and Creative Industries 54
3.4 Conclusion 56
4. SITE BACKGROUND & ANALYSIS 57
4.1 Introducing Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 57
4.2 Recalling Kuala Lumpur Old Town 60
4.3 Revealing the Kuala Lumpur Old Town 68
4.4 Discovering Intangible Sound Elements from Old Town 73
4.5 Observing Tangible Architectural Elements in Old Town: Buffer 80
5. DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION 86
5.1 Design Statement 86
5.2 Design Strategies for Urban Masterplan Design 86
5.3 Selection of Site from Urban Masterplan 103
5.3.1 Central Market as ‘the Earliest Soundscape in Town’ 105
5.3.2 Design Implementation of Central Market 107
5.3.3 Soundscape Mapping and the Design 113
6. CONCLUSION 118
References 122
Appendix 126

List of Illustration
Figure 1 Collage of memories at Kuala Lumpur Old Town X
Figure 2 MRT construction at Sultan Street 1
Figure 3 Pirated goods sold around Petaling Street. 2
Figure 4 Foreign labors occupies the old town area. 2
Figure 5 Dragon-like blue roof were built at main Petaling Street. 3
Figure 6 Unmaintained traditional shophouses are underutilised. 3
Figure 7 Rex Cinema was the last cinema. 3
Figure 8 Yan Keng Drama Association was the spot for traditional drama lovers. 3
Figure 9 Food vendors sharing the spaces at kopitiam. 4
Figure 10 Event sharing memories at Lorong Panggung. 4
Figure 11 Design Methodology for this thesis. 6
Figure 12 The transition of urban planning throughout every phases of Industrial Revolution. 7
Figure 13 Railway station at Sultan Street that contributed to the town development. 8
Figure 14 Model T in 1924. 9
Figure 15 Model T that initiated the possibility of mass production. 9
Figure 16 Le Corbusier proposed 'zoning’ in The Radiant City. 10
Figure 17 The perspectives of the model of Plan Voisin. 10
Figure 18 Redevelopment was done by bulldozer and excavator. 12
Figure 19 The city was reconstructed in huge scale and intense. 12
Figure 20, Robert Moses carried out slum clearance and produced public housings. 13
Figure 21 Upon completion it was given high expectation as ‘the Manhattan of Missippi.’ 14
Figure 22 The demolishment of Pruit Igoe Housing. 15
Figure 23 Jane Jacobs stood up for the communities at West Village with documents. 16
Figure 24 During 100th birthday of Jane Jacobs, the artist James Gulliver Hancock produced an illustration with the collection of her key principles and beliefs in good cities. 17
Figure 25 Diagram shows the phenomena of gentrification. 18
Figure 26 At Petaling Street, street vendors sell items unrelated to the culture and history. 19
Figure 27 Many café, pub and bistro are opened with the image of old town. 19
Figure 28 The relationship between culture and creativity with its industry. 20
Figure 29 The scope derived by Malaysia's Cendana Report. 21
Figure 30 The lifestyle and consumption of the public changed with the evolution of time. 22
Figure 31 Grocery that sells varieties of products in mass amount. 22
Figure 32 People started to afford their spending and life necessities. 22
Figure 33 Garment District developed rapidly when its industry has ample supply of labour and distribution network. 23
Figure 34 The diagram shows the potential cultural economy and creative industry. 23
Figure 35 The driving factors of cultural and creative industry. 24
Figure 36 Maslow’s Hierachy of Needs. 24
Figure 37 ARCH handicrafts are one of the example of commercialization. 25
Figure 38 With the emphasize on personal sense, people demand aesthetic or with value. 25
Figure 39 Cafes are established along trend of cafe hopping such as Plan B at Sekepeing KongHeng. 26
Figure 40 Pub and bistro are created with popular themes such as the theme of Wong Kar Wai’s movie style. 26
Figure 41 Melacca Jonker street is related with its history and preserved well. 26
Figure 42 Penang Old Town focuses on its local culture and heritage. 26
Figure 43 Many brands promote the attitude of lifestyle. 27
Figure 44 Sultan Street is one of the busiest street in the old town since then till now. 29
Figure 45 The LRT railway stands up as the edges of the old town. 29
Figure 46 Panggung Alley was once the district with happening entertainment activities. 29
Figure 47 Maybank Building stood strategically at recognizable junction. 29
Figure 48 The Chinese Arch and blue transparent roof of Petaling Street become the landmark of the old town. 29
Figure 49 The diagram above shows the original diagram of Lynch’s illustration in his work. It depicts the relation of Lynch’s City Design Theory with the elements found within the old town. 29
Figure 50 A visual diagram of Los Angeles from Kevin Lynch's Image of the City. 30
Figure 51 The factors that drive the industry into few possibility in future. 32
Figure 52 Old Market Square transformed from the oldest market to tourist spot. 33
Figure 53 For Heigegger, the farmhouse in Black Forest is considered as his home or dwelling than a weekend retreat, explaning sense of place in ‘Building Dwelling Thinking’. 34
Figure 54 Petaling Street was the main crowded market especially during festivals. 35
Figure 55 Prague is one of his case study in the aspect of ‘genius loci’. 37
Figure 56 Old Town Square of Prague reminds of the Old Market Square in respect of the thesis site. 37
Figure 57 Soundscapes can be formed with memories and events in cities, just like the Old Town. 41
Figure 58 Furukawa-cho of the past and present. 42
Figure 59 The river is cleaned by neighbourhood and historical buildings are preserved. 43
Figure 60 Approaches of URS Program in Taipei, Taiwan. 43
Figure 61 The streets are beautified with past historical elements. 44
Figure 62 The current district after the application of URS program. 44
Figure 63 Skyline of Bologna, Italy. 45
Figure 64 Mapping of Type A, B, C and D in Bologna, Italy. 46
Figure 65 The poster of the Urban Commons event. 47
Figure 66 Types of sharing in current society. 48
Figure 67 Listed masterplans in The Boston Plan. 49
Figure 68 Prudential Center masterplan resolved the problem of an isolated space. 50
Figure 69 The masterplan of Chinatown before and after design. 50
Figure 70 The perspectives, sections, and masterplan of before and after design. 51
Figure 71 From decayed cotton district to booming knowledge based neighbourhood. 52
Figure 72 State of Execution of 22@Barcelona in 2012. 53
Figure 73 The mapping of co-working spaces in Berlin. 55
Figure 74 The skyline of Kuala Lumpur. 57
Figure 75: The key map, location map, and sita map of Kuala Lumpur. 59
Figure 76 History timeline of Kuala Lumpur. 60
Figure 77 Panoramic View of Kuala Lumpur in 1881. 61
Figure 78 Portrait of Capitan Yap Ah Loy. 61
Figure 79 Petaling Street, where one of the busy street in Old Town during 1980. 62
Figure 80 Old image of early inhabitants at the market. 62
Figure 81 Old Town spreaded from the Market at initial stage. 63
Figure 82 In 1884, first four shophouses were built with brickworks by British government. 64
Figure 83 In 1911, KL Railway Station project was completed by architect A.B.Hubback. 64
Figure 84 It witnessed Japanese Occupation from 1942 to 1945. 65
Figure 85 After national independence, Kuala Lumpur became the Federal Territory. 65
Figure 86 The collective memories of the locals towards Old Town. 66
Figure 87 The skyline of the Old Town in 1970-1980s. 66
Figure 88 Dragon-inspired shaped roof was built at Petaling Street. 67
Figure 89 Malay traditional kite-shaped roof was set up at Kasturi Walk. 67
Figure 90 The figure ground of surrounding Old Town area 68
Figure 91 The surrounding zoning of the Old Town. 68
Figure 92 The zoning of site in coloured. 70
Figure 93 The detailed zonings within the site and their functions with colour. 70
Figure 94 The edges and boundary of the site in term of terrain information. 71
Figure 95 The edges and boundary of the site in term of diagram analysis. 71
Figure 96 The river intermission in the past. 72
Figure 97 The river intermission in 2018 72
Figure 98 LRT bridge blocks the view of opposite shophouses and creates visual boundary. 72
Figure 99 Lost space beneath LRT bridge forms boundary to isolate surrounding areas. 72
Figure 100 The collage images regarding the information of Chinese dialects. 73
Figure 101 Fusion of diverse Chinese ethnics in terms of cultural events. 74
Figure 102 Multiple dialects run across the site and it forms diversity in classic accents. 74
Figure 103 Chinese Clans buildings developed into big commercial buildings such as Fui Chiu Association in 1961. 75
Figure 104 Mapping of existing Chinese Clans and Association Building within site. 76
Figure 105 One of the oldest cinema, Chung Hua Cinema Hall in the site. 77
Figure 106 It then evolved into Madras Cinema at site. 77
Figure 107 The mapping of related entertainment industry from time to time. 78
Figure 108 Traditional music shops those still remained within the Old Town. 78
Figure 109 Traditional music shops those still remained within the Old Town. 78
Figure 110 Sound Nodes within the site. 79
Figure 111 Marking of happening main streets within site. 80
Figure 112 The diagram of the study of the streets. 81
Figure 113 Five foot way is one of the element at the streets. 82
Figure 114 The diagram of the study of the alleys. 83
Figure 115 The study diagram of the alleys. 84
Figure 116 Alleys with various elements like public toilet, connecting bridge, display for attraction and culture tradition. 84
Figure 117 The alleys with activities are usually covered with roof or canvas. 85
Figure 118 The 'Before' and 'After' diagram of design strategy in terms of 'Zoning'. 87
Figure 119 The 'Before' and 'After' diagram of design strategy in terms of 'Edges'. 88
Figure 120 The 'Before' and 'After' diagram of design strategy in terms of 'Open Space'. 89
Figure 121 The 'Before' and 'After' diagram of design strategy in terms of 'Landscape'. 90
Figure 122 The 'Before' and 'After' diagram of design strategy in terms of 'Entrance'. 91
Figure 123 The 'Before' and 'After' diagram of design strategy in terms of 'Driving Access'. 92
Figure 124 The 'Before' and 'After' diagram of design strategy in terms of 'Pedestrian Route'. 93
Figure 125 The 'Before' and 'After' diagram of design strategy in terms of 'Connectivity'. 94
Figure 126 Figure ground of 'Before' and 'After' the design. 95
Figure 127 The isometric perspective of the derived masterplan. 96
Figure 128 The 'Befores' and 'Afters' of Section A-A and Section B-B. 97
Figure 129 The 'Befores' and 'Afters' of Section C-C and Section D-D. 98
Figure 130 The 'Befores' and 'Afters' of Section E-E and Section F-F. 99
Figure 131 The 'Befores' and 'Afters' of Section G-G and Section H-H. 100
Figure 132 The 'Befores' and 'Afters' of Section I-I. 101
Figure 133 Collage of urban model's images. 102
Figure 134 Key Plan and Location Plan of the site. 103
Figure 135 The timeline of Central Market building. 104
Figure 136 The casual vendors sold things outside the market. 105
Figure 137 The vendors sold things in basket on ground. 105
Figure 138 The existing condition of the Central Market. 105
Figure 139 Chosen site and its relationship with surrounding. 106
Figure 140 The exterior perspectives of the design. 107
Figure 141 It illustrates the earliest condition of the market. 108
Figure 142 The current condition and the intention of resembling the past open space. 108
Figure 143 It shows the insertion of modular cubes at the middle open spaces. 109
Figure 144 The exploded view of the modular cubes. 109
Figure 145 The linkage between river and old town through this building. 110
Figure 146 It illustrates the insertion of passage. 110
Figure 147 The tower is allocated as landmark of the old town. 111
Figure 148 The strategies of inserting greeneries 112
Figure 149 Zoning of design in a soundscape mean. 113
Figure 150 Basement plan 113
Figure 151 Ground Floor Plan 113
Figure 152 First floor plan and second floor plan 114
Figure 153 Sections P-P to U-U. 115
Figure 154 Collage of interior perspectives. 116
Figure 155 Collage of model photos. 117
Figure 156 Image taken during presentation day on 14 January 2019. 121

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