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系統識別號 U0002-2501201020434700
中文論文名稱 菲律賓的海外勞工匯款與國家發展
英文論文名稱 Labour Remittances and National Development in the Philippines
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 東南亞研究所碩士班
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
學年度 98
學期 1
出版年 99
研究生中文姓名 陳躍升
研究生英文姓名 Yueh-sheng Chen
學號 696260057
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2010-01-13
論文頁數 98頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡青龍
委員-蔡攀龍
委員-任燿廷
中文關鍵字 移動勞工  海外匯款  國家發展  菲律賓 
英文關鍵字 migrant worker  remittances  national development  the Philippines 
學科別分類 學科別社會科學區域研究
中文摘要 由於殖民歷史與政經情勢所致,菲律賓一直都有許多勞工出國尋求較好的工作機會及較高的薪資。雖然在1960到70年代,菲律賓曾有過ㄧ段經濟榮景,但是1970年代後經濟成長就停滯不前。在經濟情況萎縮之時,勞動市場也遭受嚴重的失業與未充分就業問題的衝擊,導致菲律賓人逐漸將出國工作視為是生計策略,甚至形成一種文化。截至2007年12月底為止,全球估計大約有八百多萬菲律賓人在國外居住或就業(稱為Overseas Filipino Worker,OFW),其中有三成左右是屬於暫時性的移出或者是契約勞工(稱為Overseas Contract Worker,OCW)。

在2008年,菲律賓的海外匯款達到一百六十四億美元,僅次於墨西哥和中國,其中來自於美洲地區的匯款為多數。從1995到2004年間,平均每個海外勞工的匯款金額為1,384美元,同時男性的平均匯款高於女性。另外,一般勞工及非技術勞工的匯款總額最多,但以專業人員的平均匯款金額較高。在匯回管道方面,經由銀行系統匯回的比率都在五成以上,另外Door-to-Door及自行攜回現金也是海外勞工比較常用的方式。

本研究透過多項匯款數據與經濟指標,探討菲律賓海外匯款與國家發展間的關係。首先,海外匯款已經成為海外勞工原生家庭一個主要的所得,越來越多家庭倚賴海外匯款從事日常生活的消費、償付債務及提供孩童教育。在國家發展方面,海外匯款高於菲律賓的其他的外匯來源。大量的海外勞工匯款能夠減少貿易赤字、增加國內發展的財源,而消費增加後的乘數效果以及人力資本的提升,也是海外匯款對於國家發展的幫助。部分文獻還指出海外匯款能夠減少菲律賓的貧窮情況。本研究則由菲律賓各區域的貧窮情況與移出和匯回比率對照,發現移出及匯回比率高的區域,其貧窮情況似乎有所改善。只是其因果關係,仍待進一步確認。
英文摘要 Due to historical, political and economical reasons, Filipinos tend to look for better jobs and higher wages abroad. Although the Philippines had a speedy economic growth in the 1960s and 1970s, the economy stagnated after the 1970s. In the meanwhile, the Philippines labor market also had acute problems—unemployment and underemployment. As a result, people in the Philippines would make working abroad as subsistent strategy, and even develop a culture of migration. As of December 2007, an estimated 8 million Filipinos worked or resided overseas (called Overseas Filipino Worker, OFW), and about 30% are classified temporary status or contract workers (called Overseas Contract Worker, OCW).

The total amount of remittances is estimated at 16.4 billion dollars in 2008, next only to Mexico and China. In 1995-2004, the average remittance of overseas workers is 1,384 dollars, and men’s average remittance is higher than women’s. The average remittance of professional workers is the highest, but the total remittance of unskilled workers is the biggest. Most of remittances were made by bank transfer system, Door-to-Door service, or hand-carried format.

Utilizing several indicators of economic development and remittances, this paper examines the relationship between remittances and the development of the Philippines. First, remittances has become the major income source of workers’ family, and increasing number of families depend on remittances to consume, pay the debt and offer education to children. Second, at the national level, the amount of remittance is higher than other sources in the Philippines. Large remittances can improve the balance of payment and increase the funding for national development. Finally, this paper uses the poverty conditions, the emigrant percentage, and remittance-receiving percentage in regions of origin in the Philippines to figure out the relationship between remittances and poverty alleviation. The regions with higher emigrant percentage and remittance-receiving percentage tend to have a decreasing poverty headcounts. The causal relationship needs to be further assessed.
論文目次 目錄
第一章、緒論- 1 -
第一節、研究背景- 1 -
第二節、研究動機與目的- 5 -
第三節、文獻回顧- 7 -
第四節、研究架構與方法- 13 -
第二章、菲律賓勞工移出背景- 16 -
第一節、經濟情況- 16 -
第二節、勞動市場- 25 -
第三章、菲律賓勞工移出與匯款- 34 -
第一節、勞工移出情況- 34 -
第二節、政府角色與政策- 41 -
第三節、匯款決定因素- 46 -
第四節、匯款管道與情況- 50 -
第四章、海外勞工匯款與發展- 56 -
第一節、海外勞工及其家庭的影響- 57 -
第二節、國家發展- 62 -
第三節、匯款與外國直接投資的比較- 68 -
第四節、貧窮情況的改善- 74 -
第五章、結論- 83 -
參考文獻- 88 -

圖表目錄

表目錄
表1- 1:海外菲律賓人存量估計 (2007 年12 月止)- 3 -
表1- 2:勞工移動與發展研究、論點與政策的主要階段- 8 -
表2- 1:1950 至2005 年菲律賓與東南亞其他四國每十年及五年的
年平均GDP 成長率- 16 -
表2- 2:1981 至2005 年菲律賓的GDP 及GNP- 19 -
表2- 3:1970、1980、1990 年代,菲律賓三產業部門的產值成長
率- 23 -
表2- 4:1970 至2000 年菲律賓每五年三產業部門產值占GDP 比率- 24 -
表2- 5:1970 至2000 年菲律賓每五年三產業部門占就業人數比率- 24 -
表2- 6:1987 至2007 年菲律賓國內男女就業人數與比率- 28 -
表2- 7:1980-2008 年菲律賓失業率- 29 -
表2- 8:1987 至2007 年菲律賓的失業率、未充份就業率與勞動力
未充分利用率- 33 -
表3- 1:2007 年全球各地區的菲律賓海外勞工(新雇用與再雇用)- 35 -
表3- 2:2007 年前十大菲律賓海外勞工移入國家 (新雇用與再雇用)- 36 -
表3- 3:2007 年新雇用海外勞工的行業類別- 38 -
表3- 4:1995 至2008 年菲律賓海外勞工原生區域的比率- 39 -
表3- 5:1990 至2008 年菲律賓的海外匯款及其成長率- 51 -
表3- 6:1990 至2008 年海外菲律賓人從各地區的匯回比率- 53 -
表3- 7:1995 至2004 年各種匯款形式所占比率- 54 -
表3- 8:2004 年以現金形式匯回的各種職業類別人數與匯款- 55 -
表4- 1:1983 年菲律賓海外勞工原生家庭使用匯款的項目排名- 59 -
表4- 2:2001 年菲律賓與其他中低所得國家的海外匯款比例- 63 -
表4- 3:1975 至1998 年菲律賓匯款與貨品出口金額和成長率- 64 -
表4- 4:1990 至2006 年菲律賓海外匯款與總出口- 65 -
表4- 5:1995 至2009 年菲律賓的發展(綜合)指數及各面向之指標- 67 -
表4- 6:1990 至2007 年菲律賓與東南亞區域和其三國之外國直接
投資流量- 71 -
表4- 7:1990 至2007 年菲律賓與東南亞區域和其三國之外國直接
投資存量- 72 -
表4- 8:1990 至2008 年菲律賓外國直接投資流入與海外勞工匯款
及其成長- 73 -
表4- 9:1985 至2000 年菲律賓貧窮家庭比率- 75 -
表4- 10:1985 至2000 年菲律賓的貧窮人口與成長- 76 -
表4- 11:1985 至2000 年菲律賓都市與鄉村的貧窮家庭比率- 76 -
表4- 12:1985 至2000 年菲律賓家庭比率與數量的增減- 77 -
表4- 13:1991 至2000 年菲律賓各行政區域貧窮人口比率- 80 -
表5- 1:海外匯款對發展的正面效益與可能之負面效益- 86 -

圖目錄
圖1- 1:海外菲律賓人之類別人數與比率 (2007 年12 月止)- 4 -
圖1- 2:研究架構- 15 -
圖2- 1:1982 至2005 年菲律賓GDP 及GNP 成長率- 21 -
圖2- 2:1981 至2007 年菲律賓15 歲以上人口與勞動力成長率比較- 26 -
圖2- 3:1980 至2007 年菲律賓勞動參與率比較- 27 -
圖2- 4:1980 至2008 年菲律賓的失業率比較- 30 -
圖2- 5:1987 至2007 年菲律賓年齡群組的失業率比較- 30 -
圖2- 6:1987 至2007 年菲律賓就業中各產業所占比率- 32 -
圖3- 1:菲律賓行政區域分布圖- 40 -
圖4- 1:投資--移民--發展過程 (Investment--Migration-
Development Path,IMDP)- 69 -
圖4- 2:1995 年勞工移出區域比率與1991 至2000 年貧窮人口比率- 81 -
圖4- 3:1995、2000 年菲律賓各區域之匯回比率與1991
至2000 年貧窮人口比率 - 82 -
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網站資料:
ADB, Asian Development Bank.
http://www.adb.org/

BSP, The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas.
http://www.bsp.gov.ph/index.asp

ILO, International Labor Organization.
http://www.ilo.org/global/lang--en/index.htm

NSO, National Statistics Office.
http://www.census.gov.ph/index.html

POEA, Philippine Overseas Employment Administration.
http://www.poea.gov.ph/

The Migration Information Source.
http://www.migrationinformation.org/

UNCTAD, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
http://www.unctad.org/Templates/StartPage.asp?intItemID=2068

UNDP, United Nations Development Programme.
http://www.undp.org/

World Bank,
http://www.worldbank.org/

World Gazetteer,
http://www.world-gazetteer.com/
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