||Mobility Management for All-IP Wireless Network
||Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
Integration of heterogeneous wireless Network
Hierarchical mobility management
Mobile All-IP network
為了實現上述的目標，本論文以資訊社會技術(Information Society Technologies, IST)計畫裡的EVOLUTE架構為基礎，並應用Multicast-based Mobility (M&M)機制與Cellular IP (CIP)合作。因為EVOLUTE計畫在微行動(micro-mobility)管理方面只使用CIP為管理基礎，這樣的架構對未來越來越多的即時性要求來說，是不夠完善的，是以我們提出CIP和M&M合作的方法，能提供即時性要求無縫的換手，並減少封包的延遲，而且由於M&M本就為了配合其他方法而設計，所以它與各種協定可以很容易相容，大大地減少了未來整合時所需的花費。
本論文亦為整合系統設計了一套頻寬配置方法，稱之為頻寬管理和配置(Bandwidth Management and Disposition, BMD)，BMD將用戶的要求量化而算出報酬點數(Reword Point, RP)，並將頻寬升降級的順序量化而算出升級序列(Upgrade Rank, UR) 或降級序列 (Downgrade Rank, DR)。
||The multi-service supporting is the main requirement in multimedia wireless communication system. Internet has many services widely to use. Therefore, it is significant to integrate heterogeneous networks into a mobile All-IP network. Furthermore, bandwidth management is a very important theme for integrating a wireless communication system.
We refer the EVOLUTE (a project of Information Society Technologies, IST) that mingles Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) with Mobile IP (MIP) to support macro-mobility management and Cellular IP (CIP) to support micro-mobility. In this dissertation, we utilize Multicast-based Mobility (M&M) to assist CIP in micro-mobility management. Our aim is to provide a complete integration of heterogeneous networks, support a seamless handoff for micro-mobility management and decrease the handoff latency. The cooperation of M&M and CIP suits the macro-mobility management, proposed by EVOLUTE, to support real time and non-real time data flow in micro- mobility.
This dissertation also proposes a bandwidth management method, called Bandwidth Management and Disposition (BMD). The BMD computes the Reword Point (RP) to quantify the Mobile Host’s (MH) requests, and computes the Upgrade Rank (UR) or Downgrade Rank (DR) to quantify the upgraded or downgraded sequence of bandwidth, respectively.
Simulation results show that the proposed micro-mobility management schema achieves better performance. We also demonstrate that the method satisfies the demanding of multimedia services. The incremental rate of achieved request is 12.52% and rate of bandwidth usage is 2.4% when the system with BMD. We conclude that the proposed system facilitates further development of wireless communication networks.
List of Figures iii
List of Tables v
1 Introduction 1
2 Related Work 6
2.1 Mobility Management 6
2.1.1 SIP/MIP Combined for Macro-Mobility Management in EVOLUTE 6
2.1.2 Micro-Mobility Management 8
2.1.3 Comparison of Micro-Mobility Management Protocols 15
2.1.4 Multicast-based Mobility (M&M) 18
2.2 Bandwidth Management of Integrate Heterogeneous Networks 28
2.2.1 Auction Mechanism 28
2.2.2 Resource Management for QoS Support 30
2.2.3 Optimizing Resources Allocation by Filtering Operations and QoS Class 31
3 Micro-Mobility Management for 4G Wireless Network 33
3.1 Methods of the Hybrid of CIP and M&M 34
3.2 Procedure of Cooperated CIP/M&M 36
3.2.1 Cooperation between CIP and M&M 37
3.2.2 Stopping M&M Mechanism 39
3.2.3 Handoff in Cooperation of CIP/M&M 40
3.2.4 Paging or Passive Connectivity Support 43
4 Bandwidth Management for 4G Wireless Network 46
4.1 Reword Point 47
4.2 Upgrade and Downgrade Rank 47
4.3 Procedure of Bandwidth Management and Disposition 49
4.4 Analysis 51
5 Simulation 53
5.1 Simulation Parameters 53
5.2 Simulation Results 54
5.2.1 Mobility Management in Cooperative CIP/M&M 54
5.2.2 Bandwidth Management for Integrating Heterogeneous Networks 58
5.3 CIP/M&M System’s Great Future 63
6 Conclusion and Future Work 66
6.1 Conclusion 66
6.2 Future Work 67
Bigraphical Sketch 145
List of Figures
Figure 2-1: Combine SIP and MIP for macro-mobility management in EVOLUTE 7
Figure 2-2: Handoff of CIP 10
Figure 2-3: cooperation of CIP and MIP 10
Figure 2-4: Packet route in HMIPv6 12
Figure 2-5: Packet route when the CN and MH are in the same MAP in HMIPv6 12
Figure 2-6: The packet’s route to the MH 13
Figure 2-7: Forwarding scheme for handoff 14
Figure 2-8 : Non-forwarding scheme for handoff 14
Figure 2-9: Data packet flows in M&M architecture 20
Figure 2-10: RCoA to MCoA mapping for IPv4 21
Figure 2-11: The standard IPv6 address 21
Figure 2-12: RCoA to MCoA mapping for IPv6 22
Figure 2-13: Three handoff triggers in M&M 23
Figure 2-14: Handoff uses join/prune mechanisms 24
Figure 2-15: The CAR-set model in M&M system 25
Figure 2-16: Auction System model 29
Figure 2-17: QoS Filtering Architecture 32
Figure 3-1: CIP/MIP replacement policy flow 35
Figure 3-2: The flow of cooperation of CIP/M&M policy 36
Figure 3-3: Overview of CIP/M&M cooperation policy 38
Figure 3-4: Handoff algorithm for cooperation of CIP/M&M 41
Figure 3-5: Data flows when handoff 42
Figure 3-6: Data flows after handoff 43
Figure 3-7: MH’s states in cooperation of CIP/M&M policy 44
Figure 4-1: Flow chart of BMD when an MH requests service 50
Figure 4-2: Flow chart of BMD when an MH releases its occupied 51
Figure 5-1: Rate of achieved request (a) Real-time: Non-real-time=1:9 (b) Real-time: Non-real-time=2:8 55
Figure 5-2: Rate of bandwidth usage (a) Real-time: Non-real-time=1:9 (b) Real-time: Non-real-time=2:8 56
Figure 5-3: Handoff latency of 15 MHs (a) Real-time: Non-real-time ratio is 1:9 (b) Real-time: Non-real-time ratio is 2:8 57
Figure 5-4: Rates of achieved request 61
Figure 5-5: Rate of bandwidth usage 62
Figure 5-6: Time of latency 63
Figure 5-7: Rate of achieved request when # of MH = 15 64
Figure 5-8: Rate of bandwidth usage when # of MH = 15 65
List of Tables
Table 2-1: Micro-Mobility Management Protocols 15
Table 2-2: Micro-Mobility Management Comparison 17
Table 3-1: The RIT in cooperative CIP/M&M (a) The table in BR or FA (b) The table in SAR and other ARs in the same CAR-set 38
Table 4-1: A contrast table 52
Table 5-1: Simulation Parameters 54
Table 5-2: The transmissible rates of the different requests 59
Table 5-3: RP for Table 5-2 59
Table 5-4: Rate of bandwidth usage 62
||[Cam2000] Andrew T. Campbell, Javier Gomez, Sanghyo Kim, András G. Valkó, Chieh-Yih Wan, and and Zoltán R. Turányi, “Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of Cellular IP,” IEEE Personal Communications, Volume 7, Issue 4, August 2000, Page(s): 42-49.
[Chi2002] Fabio M. Chiussi, Denis A. Khotimsky and Santosh Krishnan, “A Network Architecture for MPLS-Based Micro-Mobility,” Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2002. WCNC2002. 2002 IEEE, March 17-21 2002, Volume 2, Page(s):549 – 555.
[Cho2007] Young-June Choi, Kwang Bok Lee and Saewoong Bahk, “All-IP 4G Network Architecture for Efficient Mobility and Resource Management,” IEEE Wireless Communications, Vol. 14 Issue 2, April 2007 Page(s):42-46.
[Com] communication management, personal wireless communication, < http://www.cqinc.com.tw/grandsoft/cb/003/301_2.htm>.
[Dag2001] Tasos Dagiuklas, Dionisios Gatzounas, Dimitris Theofilatos, Dorgham Sisalem, Yacine Rebahi, Sara Grilli, Glauco Bigini, Ross Velentzas, Antonis Marinidis, George Thanos, Stefan Rupp, Matthias Duspiva, Christos Politis and Rahim Tafazolli, “EVOLUTE, IST-2001-32449 D2.1 EVOLUTE Architecture Specification,” .
[Dag2002] Tasos Dagiuklas, Dionisios Gatzounas, Dimitris Theofilatos, Dorgham Sisalem, Stefan Rupp, Ross Velentzas, Rahim Tafazolli, Christos Politis, Sara Grilli and Antonis Marinidis, “Seamless Multimedia Services Over All-IP Based Infrastructures: The EVOLUTE Approach,” IST Mobile and Wireless Telecommunications Summit, Thessaloniki, Greece, June 16-19th 2002, .
[Hau2002] Mariann Hauge and Øyvind Kure, “Multicast in 3G Networks: Employment of Existing IP Multicast Protocols in UMTS,” Proceedings of the 5th ACM international workshop on Wireless mobile multimedia WOWMOM '02, September 2002, Page(s): 96 – 103.
[Hel2002] Ahmed Helmy, Muhammad Jaseemuddin, Ganesha Bhaskara, “Efficient Micro-Mobility using Intra-domain Multicast-based Mechanisms (M&M),” ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, November 2002, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page(s):61-72.
[Hel2004] Ahmed Helmy, Muhammad Jaseemuddin and Ganesha Bhaskara, “Multicast-based Mobility: A Novel Architecture for Efficient Micro-Mobility,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication, May 2004, Volume 22, Issue 4, Page(s):677-690.
[Hol2001] Harri Holma and Antti Tölli, “Simulated and Measured Performance of 4-Branch Uplink Reception in WCDMA,” Vehicular Technology Conference, 2001. VTC 2001-Spring. IEEE VTS 53rd, May 2001, Volume 4, Page(s): 2640 -2644.
[Hol2002] Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, “WCDMA for UMTS Radio Access For Third Generation Mobile Communications,” Second Edition, JOHN WILEY & SONS, LTD, 2002.
[Hol2003] Harri Holma, Juan Melero, Janne Vainio, Timo Halonen and Jari Mäkinen, “Performance of Adaptive Multirate (AMR) Voice in GSM and WCDMA,” Vehicular Technology Conference, 2003. VTC 2003-Spring. The 57th IEEE Semiannual, April 22-25 2003, Volume 4, Page(s): 2177 -2181.
[Jon2000] Phil Jones and Ray Owen, “Sensitivity of UMTS FDD System Capacity and Coverage to Model Parameters,” 3G Mobile Communication Technologies, 2000. First International Conference on (IEE Conf. Publ. No. 471), March 27-29 2000, Page(s):224-229.
[Kar2005] Stylianos Karapantazis and Fotini-Niovi Pavlidou, “The Role of High Altitude Platforms in Beyond 3G Networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications, Vol.12, Issue 6, December 2005, Page(s):33 – 41.
[Let2006] Asma Ben Letaifa, Zièd Choukair and Sami Tabbane, “Optimizing Resources Allocation by Filtering Operations and QoS Classes in 3G Wireless Networks,” Information and Communication Technologies, 2006. ICTTA '06. 2nd, Vol.2, 24-28 April 2006, Page(s):2645 – 2650.
[Mak2007] Christian Makaya and Samuel Pierre, “An Architecture for Seamless Mobility Support in IP-Based Next-Generation Wireless Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology: Accepted for future publication, Vol. PP Issue 99, 2007 Page(s):1 – 1
[Nin2005] Guoqin Ning, Guangxi Zhu, Liexin Peng and Xiaofeng Lu, “Load Balancing Based on Traffics Selection in Heterogeneous Overlapping Cellular Networks,” The First IEEE and IFIP International Conference in Central Asia on Internet, 2005, 26-29 September 2005, Page(s): 5 pp.
[Ram] R. Ramjee, T. La Porta, S. Thuel, K. Varadhan, L. Salgarelli, “IP micro-mobility support using HAWAII,” Internet Draft (work in progress), July 2000 (draft-ietf-mobileip-hawaii-01.txt).
[Ram2000] Ramachandran Ramjee, Thomas F. La Porta, Luca Salgarelli, Sandra Thuel, and Kannan Varadhan, ”IP based Access Network Infrastructure for Next-generation wireless Data Networks,” IEEE Personal Communications, Volume: 7 Issue: 4, Aug. 2000 Page(s): 34-41.
[Rei2003] Pierre Reinbold and Olivier Bonaventure (2003), “IP micro-mobility protocols,” .
[Sal2006] O. Sallent, J. Pérez-Romero, R. Agustí, L. Giupponi, C. Kloeck, I. Martoyo, S. Klett and J. Luo, “Resource Auctioning Mechanisms in Heterogeneous Wireless Access Networks,” IEEE 63rd Vehicular Technology Conference 2006, VTC 2006-Spring, Vol.1, 2006, Page(s):52 – 56.
[Sol2005] Hesham Soliman, Claude Castelluccia, Karim El Malki, Ludovic Bellier, “Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Mobility Management (HMIPv6),” IETF RFC 4140, August 2005.
[Son2005] Wei Song, Hai Jiang, Weihua Zhuang, and Xuemin Shen, “Resource Mangement for QoS Support in Cellular/WLAN Interworking,” IEEE Network, Vol.19 Issue 5, Sept.-Oct. 2005, Page(s):12 – 18.
[Son2007] Wei Song, Hai Jiang and Weihua Zhuang, “Performance Analysis of the WLAN-First Scheme in Cellular/WLAN Interworking,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 6 Issue 5, May 2007 Page(s):1932-1952.
[Vur2007] Mehmet C. Vuran and Ian F. Akyildiz, “A-MAC: Adaptive Medium Access Control for Next Generation Wireless Terminals,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 15 Issue 3, June 2007 Page(s):574 - 587.
[Wan2005] Shin Horng Wang, “7.68Mcps TDD option: RF transmission/reception, System performance reguirements and conformance testing,” TR 25.829 release 7, .
[Wu2002] Gang Wu, Mitsuhiko Mizuno and Paul J. M., “MIRAI Architecture for Heterogeneous Network,” IEEE Communication Management, February 2002, Volume 40, Issue 2, Page(s): 126-134.
[Yu2005] Xiao-Hu Yu, Guoan Chen, Ming Chen and Xiqi Gao, “Toward Beyond 3G: The FuTURE Project in China,” IEEE Communication Management, January 2005, Vol. 43, Issue 1, Page(s): 70-75