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系統識別號 U0002-2406201802105900
中文論文名稱 美中網路安全競爭與網路空間主權爭議之研究
英文論文名稱 Sino-US. Competition over Cybersecurity and Disputes on Sovereignty in Cyberspace
校院名稱 淡江大學
系所名稱(中) 管理科學學系博士班
系所名稱(英) Doctoral Program, Department of Management Sciences
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生中文姓名 朱志平
研究生英文姓名 Chih-Ping Chu
學號 896620407
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
口試日期 2018-06-11
論文頁數 105頁
口試委員 指導教授-梁德昭
委員-高長
委員-張顯超
委員-左正東
委員-郭秋田
委員-鄭啟斌
委員-魏世杰
委員-梁德昭
中文關鍵字 網路安全  攻勢現實主義  網路主權  船旗國  數位憑證 
英文關鍵字 cyber security  offensive realism  Internet sovereignty  flag state  digital certificate 
學科別分類
中文摘要 網路安全迄今一直為國際之間競爭的焦點,大國之間在政經領域的竊密、軍事領域的抗衡,甚至是國內立法的管制,無時無刻在進行網路安全的競逐。本研究從攻勢現實主義的視角,透過美國和中國的網路安全競逐的個案,分析大國間網路安全競逐所浮現的主權問題。研究發現,網路空間因不具地緣因素的限制,更為貼近攻勢現實主義的理論基礎,即國家極力爭取權力以成為全球霸權。大國之間在對網路空間治理及主權存在認知上的差異,以及網路空間中欠缺相關法律規範及難以確定網路實際行為者的情況下,網路安全領域發生摩擦之情境短期內仍將持續。而國際體系中,亦同時存在網際網路上的國家主權爭議,各國致力推行網路化後所帶來的國家安全及利益上的威脅,使網路空間成為各國政府極力維護的目標。雖然在網路空間中似乎並無國家主權立基的條件,但無論是基於攻擊上的防護,或是限制資訊的傳遞,都必需藉由彰顯國家主權的存在來執行。針對網路空間中所浮現的網路主權問題,本研究參考海洋法船旗國國籍管轄的精神,提出一網路數位憑證認證架構,並透過系統實作,在網際網路空間中提供使用者設備的國籍憑證的識別方法,從而落實邏輯邊疆的概念,是未來解決國際間網路衝突的可行解決方案。
英文摘要 Cyber security has long been the focus of international competition, may it be in political and economic theft, military confrontation or domestic legal regulations. This paper aimed to look at cyber security competition between the United States and China and to analyse the sovereignty issues emerged from these various cases from an offensive realism perspective.
The study found that due to the lack of geographical features in cyberspace, it could best epitomise the theoretical basis of offensive realism, that State strive to seek power in order to become a global hegemony. Wide cognitive differences among major powers regarding the governance of cyberspace and the existence of sovereignty, the lack of related legal norms and the inability to identify actual network actors led to constant frictions in the cyber security filed in the short-run. Threats towards national security and interests posed by internetisation had made cyberspace the target every government aimed to protect and secure, and thus resulted in conflicts over national sovereignty on the Internet in the international system. Despite doubts over the conditions for the establishment of sovereignty in the cyberspace, protections from cyber-attacks and limits imposed on information transfers could only be executed base on the existence of national sovereignty.
To deal with emerging issues of Internet sovereignty in the cyberspace, and base on the spirit of flag state jurisdiction under UNCLOS, this paper proposed to institute a digital network certification system, which provide Internet user to authenticate his/her nationality through systematic practices, and in which the concept of logical frontier could be implemented, as a viable solution to settle future international conflicts in the cyberspace.
論文目次 目 錄 i
圖表目錄 iii
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機及目的 1
第二節 攻勢現實主義 3
第三節 網路空間的國家主權 10
第四節 預期貢獻及研究限制 13
第貳章 研究方法 15
第一節 研究架構 15
第二節 個案研究法 15
第三節 系統實作法 17
第參章 攻勢現實主義與大國網路安全競逐-以美中網路安全競逐為例 18
第一節 攻勢現實主義與網路安全 20
第二節 美中網路安全競逐:政經領域竊密 23
第三節 美中網路安全競逐:軍事領域抗衡 30
第四節 美中網路安全競逐:強化國內網路管制 41
第五節 小結 48
第肆章 網路空間的國家主權 51
第一節 網路空間國家主權爭議之緣起 52
第二節 國家主權應否存在於網路空間之爭議 53
第三節 國家主權觀念用於網路空間對網際網路生態的影響 60
第四節 網路空間國家主權聲明與劃分原則之芻議 64
第五節 小結 65
第伍章 網路國籍認證機制 66
第一節 公海與船旗國 66
第二節 全球網路位址分配的問題 73
第三節 X.509數位憑證標準 74
第四節 網路國籍憑證機制之建構 78
第陸章 結論 86
參考文獻 89
英文部份 89
中文部份 99
圖表目錄
表1 網路安全問題在美中關係之演變 23
表2 中國網軍主要架構及其具體分工 31
表3 歐巴馬任內美國網軍發展大事記 38
表4 美中兩國在網路安全之軍事領域比較 40
表5 從美中兩國在網路安全領域互動驗證攻勢現實主義五大命題 49
表6 美中兩國在網路安全不同領域之行為模式比較 50
表7 美中對網路空間認知及安全利益之比較 51
表8 網路空間的國家主權爭議比較 60
表9 X.509各版本欄位 76
圖1 研究架構 15
圖2 解放軍總參第三部第二局 61398部隊組織架構圖 35
圖3 全球網域名稱伺服器 地理管轄分布圖 58
圖4 ICANN網路域名解析管理權移交計畫 59
圖5 全球的網路位址管理組織及其管轄的裡範疇 73
圖6 X.509數位憑證欄位的演進 75
圖7 X.509階層式認證架構 77
圖8 X.509憑證鏈 78
圖9 數位國籍憑證階層式認證架構 79
圖10 聯合國自我簽章及聯合國自我簽章憑證路徑。 80
圖11 在聯合國伺服器上發出的憑證 80
圖12 發給Taiwan R.O.C. CA主體的授權憑證及授權憑證的憑證路徑 81
圖13 在Taiwan R.O.C. CA伺服器上發出使用端憑證 81
圖14 官方設備所獲得的國籍憑證及官方設備國籍憑證的憑證鏈 82
圖15 私人設備所獲得的國籍憑證及私人設備國籍憑證的憑證鏈 83
圖16 邏輯邊疆 84
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